End of Ancien Regime - 1789

Estates -General

King's Council allows doubling of 3rd Estate deputies

December 1788
  • Paris Parlement declared that voting should be by order
  • Given 1st and 2nd Estates wanted to orchestrate a power grab, 3rd Estate deputies call for doubling their deputies and voting by head
  • Former allowed, latter not mentioned = confusion at the meeting

Meeting of Estates-General

5 May 1789
  • Representatives:

1st - parish priests and bishops - want to preserve Church dominance, but can make financial concessions

2nd - conservative, poorer aristocracy and liberal nobles - ready to give up privileges, attacked gov't for injustice

3rd - lawyers, merchants and wealthy landowners - want limited King powers and a Constitution.

  • What happened:

Estates meet in separate groups - 3rd estate demand a common session - seen as a precedent for future collective decisions - rejected by the nobility and clergy

3rd Estate refused to do anything - weeks of inaction with no gov't leadership

The Declaration of the National Assembly

10 June 1789 - 19 June 1789

10 June
- 3rd Estate pass motion on verifying credentials
- It would start verifying credentials, even if other Estates will not join them

15-17 June
- Some priests and nobles join 3rd Estate
- Deabte it on 15 June, voted 490:90 to join the 3rd Estate on 17th

17 June
- The Declaration of the National Assembly
- 3rd Estate and the joined priests&nobles claim to represent most if the nation - thus have the right to manage affair and decide tax

19 June
- Clergy voted to join 3rd Estate

Tennis Court Oath

20 June 1789
  • Seen as a challenge to King's authority - calls séance-royale on 23 June
  • 3rd Estate's hall closed down for preparations
  • Angry deputies stormed onto tennis courts - vowed not to leave until a Constitution is created
  • Only one vote against - radicalisation

Séance Royale

23 June 1789
  • King declares decisions of 3rd Estate void
  • Accepted restrictions to power: no new taxes without representatives, freedom of press introduced, gabelle, corvée, lettres de cachet abolished.
  • If happened earlier, might have passed - resistance - Assembly dispersed

More nobles and clergy join the Assembly

24 June 1789 - 25 June 1789

151 Clergy and 47 Nobility - popular demonstrations in favour of Assembly

King reverses decision, but calls troops

27 June 1789
  • Estates ordered to come together and vote by head
  • 20,000 troops ordered - forceful dissolution?

Revolt in Paris

Wallpaper factory Révellion set on fire

23 April 1789
  • Hardship due to bread price inflation - March 1789 over 14 sous a loaf
  • Set on fire due to wage reduction rumours - 50 people killed/wounded

Emergence of the popular movement

11 July 1789 - 12 July 1789
  • Louis XVI feels strong - dismisses Necker - people scared he will use arms to take back power - massive demonstrations
  • People encouraged to self-arm by revolutionary speakers at Palais Royal - gunscmiths robbed and clashes at Tuilleries
  • Elite Gardes-françaises join in - barricades put up

The Capture of the Bastille

14 July 1789
  • Demonstrators got over 28,000 muskets and 20 cannons from Les Invalides - but needed gunpowder
  • Want to get them in Bastille - Governor De Launay refuses - group enters the courtyard
  • De Launay orders fire and kills 98 - *Gardes-françaises open cannon fire
  • De Launay surrenders and is decapitates - 250,000 at arms (many sans-culottes)
  • DE

Establishment of *Commune de Paris* and National Guard

15 July 1789

Necker reappointed, Commune&National Guard reckognised

16 July 1789 - 17 July 1789

Provincial Revolution

Bad harvest

1788

Grain convoys and hoarders attacked

January 1789

The Great Fear

July 1789 - August 1789

Municipal Revolution

July 1789

Dismantling of the ancien régime

August Decrees

3 August 1789 - 4 August 1789

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26, 1789

Financial Crisis due to lack of tax revenue

September 1789

October Days

5 October 1789 - 6 October 1789

Nationalization of Church Land

2 November 1789