AP Euro Timeline

The Italian and Northern Renaissance (1300s to 1600s)

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Christine de Pizan

1364 - 1430

First Feminist

Cosimo Medici

1389 - 1464

The Dome of Florence Cathedral


Filippo Burnelleschi

Donation of Constantine Forgery


Lorenzo Valla

Gutenberg Printing Press



1466 - 1536

Isabella d'Este

1474 - 1539

Renaissance Woman

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Habsburg-Valois Wars

1494 - 1559

Cause: Invasion by France and contest by Spain
Fighters: Involved much of Italy and Europe
Result: Habsburg Victory

Oration on the Dignity of Man


Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Celebrated potential for human greatness




The Praise of Folly



Sistine Chapel Ceiling


Classical form with Christian subjects

The Prince


Rulers should be ruthless because humans nature is selfish and corrupt.




The Courtier


Baldassare Castiglione
"Universal Man"

New Monarches (1400s to 1550s)

Charles VII (France)

1422 - 1461

Concluded the Hundred Years' War

Louis XI (France)

1461 - 1483

Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile (Spain)

1469 - 1504

Christian State, Inquisition was established

Henry VII (England)

1485 - 1509

Star Chamber created to lessen power of nobles
Expanded English merchant marine



Henry VIII (England)

1509 - 1547

Created new Church of England

Francis I (France)

1515 - 1547

Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

95 Theses


German Peasants' War

1524 - 1525

Anglicanism/Act of Supremacy by Henry VIII


Also seized monastery lands

Geneva Transformed into Calvinism


Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

Cause: Schmalkaldic League (German Princes) against Charles V
Result: War ended in Peace of Augsburg- rulers of German region can choose Catholicism or Lutheranism for their country
People: Charles was winning at first, but Henry II of France supported the princes.

Peace of Augsburg


Each region can choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism

The Elizabethan Settlement


Catholic Reformation and Wars of Religion

Catherine de' Medici

1519 - 1589

Manipulated sons

The Jesuits


Led by Ignatius Loyola

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Phillip II

1554 - 1598

Battle of Lepanto


Spanish-Venetian fleet defeated Turkish

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre:


War of Three Henry's

1588 - 1589

Henry Navarre comes out alive

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nantes


Toleration of Calvinism

Baroque Art

1600 - 1750

Bohemian Phase

1618 - 1625

Ferdinand II vs. Protestant Union led by Frederick V
Ferdinand II wins

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Cause: Protestant Union vs. Catholic League, fear of a strong power in Germany

Danish Phase

1625 - 1629

Christian IV, Denmark, supported Protestants
Crushed by Wallenstein
Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution (restoring all Catholic properties since 1552)

Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

Gustavus Adolphus, Sweden, defeated Wallenstein
Prevented Habsburgs from uniting German states

The Franco-Swedish Phase

1635 - 1648

France intervenes when Adolphus dies
Burned German farms and destroyed commerce

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa


Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Treaty of Westphalia


Each region could decide religion
Independence of Dutch Republic was recognized
French gained Alsace and Lorraine
Sweden received territory around Baltic Sea

Age of Exploration/Commercial Revolution

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Bartholemew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope


Christopher Columbus discovers the New World


Vasco De Gama's 1st trip to India

1497 - 1499

Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztec empire


Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Inca empire


Constitutionalism: The Dutch republic and England 1600-1689

James I

1603 - 1625

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Petition of Right


English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
Cromwell, Roundhead, defeat the Cavaliers
Establish New Model Army
In Jan 1649, King Charles I is executed
Cromwell basically starts another dictatorship
The Commonwealth (1649-1653) abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
Anglo-Dutch Wars
Opposed Levellers (egalitarian) and Quakers (rejected religious hierarchies)

Leviathan (Hobbes)


Anglo-Dutch Wars

1652 - 1784

4 wars, last war fought after England and Dutch Republic had been allied for a century

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Restored the monarchy, the Church, and Parliament

James II

1685 - 1688

Openly Catholic
Attempted to return England to Catholicism

Glorious Revolution


Bill of Rights


Second Treatise of Government (Locke)


Absolutism in Western Europe: France and Spain 1589-1715

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Was a politique
Lessened political power of nobles by utilizing intendants (ruled districts)
Continued to lessen Habsburg power

Cardinal Mazarin

1642 - 1661

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

1644 - 1683

Jean-Baptiste Colbert worked to strengthen France’s economy with mercantilist policies
Imposed high tarriffs on foreign goods
Encouraged people to emigrate to colonies
Failed to resolve tax issues


1648 - 1653

Jacques Bousset - Divine Right


Palace of Versailles


Edict of Fontainebleau


The War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Spanish King Charles II left throne to Louis’ grandson, but that would disrupt the balance of power
Grand Alliance (England, Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, ducy of Savoy) fought France
Left France battered and weakened

Treaty of Utrecht


Created new balance of power for 30 years
Philip V was allowed to rule as long as Spain and France did not unite
France kept Alsace
England, Austria, and Savoy gained territories
Elector of Brandenburg was recognized as the king of Prussia

Absolutism in Eastern Europe 1600-1725

Suleiman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Time of Troubles

1598 - 1613

Romanov Dynasty

1613 - 1917

Frederick William The Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Began to create a powerful army
In return for junkers’ loyalty, Frederick granted full power over serfs

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Westernized Russia
Great Northern War against Sweden
Russia won, gained warm-water outlets
Led to Swedish decline of power
Construction of St. Petersburg
Controlled the Boyars
Exploited the serfs
Serfs were tied to land
Economy relied on serfdom

Pragmatic Sanction


Promised territory and throne to Maria Theresa

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Continued building army
Military values dominated all aspects

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies


challenged geocentric view with heliocentric view

Sir Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Inductive Method
Information to theory
Controlled experimentation would lead to formulation of universal principles

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Used telescope for observations
Earth had to circle the sun
Planets were not perfect

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Used the works of Tycho Brahe
Three laws of Planetary motion

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Deductive Method
Theory to Conclusion
Cartesian Dualism

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Humans are born blank
Knowledge is derived from experience
Valued education

Isaac Newton

1643 - 1727

Principia 1687
Combined the ideas of previous scientists
Universe was a vast machine created by god



Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Argued for “natural education” or “discovery learning” in Emile
The General Will in The Social Contract
Individuals entered social contract with others to create civil society
Distrusted reason science



Social Contract


Peace, War, and Enlightened Despots

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Weak leader, nobles gained back power

War of the Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick the Great violated the Pragmatic Sanction and seized Selisia
English and French rivalry over colonies
French+Prussia vs. English+Austria

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786

Enlightened reforms: supported science, prepared for national code of law, religious toleration
strengthened junker privileges

Treaty of Aix la Chapelle


Prussia kept Silesia

7 Years' War

1756 - 1763

Colonial conflict between France and British
Austria tries to take back Silesia
Britian+Prussia vs. other great powers

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Enlightened reforms: religious toleration, formal woman education
Pugachev's Rebellion led to end of enlightened reforms
Catherine took territory from Ottoman Empire and poland

Joseph II

1780 - 1790

Enlightened reforms: abolished serfdom and forced labor, religious toleration, reduced influence of church, transformed judicial system
Leopold II after repealed many of Joseph's reforms

Life and Culture in Eighteenth Century Europe


1700 - 1750

Often depicted nobles
Featured light-colored pastels
Architecture featured highly decorated ceilings

Neoclassical Art

1700 - 1800

Depicted classical heroes
Emphasized Greek restraint, simplicity, and symmetry

The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815

Tennis Court Oath

June 1789

Third Estate declared to be National Assembly of France

Storming of the Bastille

July 1789

In protest of bread, mobs seized gunpowder and weapons from the Bastille

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

August 1789

Women's March to Versailles

October 1789

Legislative Assembly

1791 - 1792

Left: Jacobins and Girondists

Olympe de Gouge's Declaration of the Rights of Women


Declaration of Pillnitz

August 1791

Leopold II of Austria and Frederick William II of Prussia
restoration of absolutism

The National Convention

1792 - 1795

Louis XVI executed

Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Women


argued women are not naturally inferior

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Committee of Public Safety led by Robespierre executed anyone suspected
Mass conscription by Robespierre led to the defeat of the First Coalition

Thermidorian Reaction

1794 - 1795

Revolt and execution of Robespierre

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Dominated by corrupt rich bourgeoisie
Fell b/c of failure to deal with problems

Napoleon and the Consulate

1799 - 1804

Napoleonic Code
Even though censored the press and political opposition, France enjoyed security, stability, and prosperity

The Concordat of 1801


Napoleon made Catholic Church main religion
Church recognized French government and accepted the loss of properties

Napoleon's Empire

1804 - 1815

Between 1805-1807, Napoleon defeated most of major powers
Dissolved the HRE
Downfall from desire of power

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1813

French domination and unification of German states

The Continental System


Close of trade with Britian

The Industrial Revolution

Communist Manifesto


Marx and Engels
Denounced capitalism for exploiting the working class
Thesis (bourgeoisie) vs. antithesis (Proleteriats) = synthesis
Proletariat would become the dictators

The Great Exhibition


Show of British technological power
Control over nature

Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848

Prince Klemens Von Metternich

1773 - 1859


1800 - 1850

Emphases of emotion, medieval subjects, and new view of beauty of nature

Congress Of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Establishment of balance of power
The Principle of Legitimacy

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1848

Periodic meetings to prevent crises
Repressed rebellions

Carlsbad Decrees


Greek Revolt against Ottoman Empire


Gained support of Concert of Europe to protect Greece from Ottomans

Decembrist Revolt


Army officer rebellion after Tsar Alexander I death

England Reform Bill of 1832


Increased number of districts and doubled voters

People's Charter


Nationalism, Realpolitik, and Realism

Napoleon III

1848 - 1870

Industrialized France
Legalized trade unions and improved housing
Rebuilt Paris

Cavour (Italy)


Exercised Realpolitik
Strengthened Piedmont with economic program
Formed alliance with France to defeat Austria

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Tsar Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Freed the serfs in 1861
Creation of zemstvos or local self-government
Reforms were only partially successful
Assasinated by "The People's Will" --> reactionary government

War with Austria


French and Piedmont armies win
All of northern italy except venetia are annexxed

Garibaldi and the Red Shirts


Believed in freeing Italy, supported by Cavour to fight in the Soutch

Otto Von Bismarck

1862 - 1890

Master of Realpolitik, set out to strengthen Prussia
Enlarged army
Went into multiple wars

War with Denmark


Prussia wins Schleswig and Holstein

War with Austria


Austria defeated

Austria-Hungary Monarchy


Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Bismarck imposed harsh settlement on France
Unification ruined balance of power

Italian Unification


Many economic problems