AP European History Timeline

AP EURO TIMELINE

Invention of the Printing Press

1440

the Invention of the printing press allowed more people to read the bible. thus allowing people to be more of an individual

Renaissance

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1600

Renaissance meaning rebirth was the transition from the dark ages into a new era of art and beliefs and although they still were dependent on religion humanist grew away from it because of there interest in rationality

Commercial Revolution

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1600

commercial revolution is the growing interest in mercantilism and colonialism which was because of the growing power of centralized governments

Rule of Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry the VIII ruled England and when he tried to get a divorce from his wife but the pope did not let him so he made the Anglican Church because he had enough power to do this because of his strong centralized government

95 theses

1517

95 theses was written by Martin Luther and became the beginning of the Protestant Reformation leading to religious and tensions and wars

Diet of Worms

1521

Diet of Worms was an imperial council that was made to decided the fate of Martin Luther because of his 95 theses

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

the German peasant revolts were against the nobles of Germany inspired by Luther but he condemned it and this shows the violence that happened because of the religious tension

John Calvin and the Calvinists

1530

religion created by John Calvin because although he did believe in somethings that Luther preached he didn't believe in other things also his creation of religion lead to more religious tension and wars

The Prince is published

1532

the Prince is an analysis on how to acquire and maintain power written by Machiavelli . it was a product of humanism and one of there key things was individualism.

Scientific Revolution

Approx. 1543 - Approx. 1789

the Scientific Revolution was a time of new discoveries and beliefs and that effected the dependence of religion

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was a meeting with people from the Catholic Church to decided on how to stop the Protestant Reformation. this religious tension lead to wars in the coming years

Peace of Augsburg

1555

temporary settlement from conflict caused by religious tension arising from the reformation. they decided that each noble could determine what religion in their area.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

caused Catherine de Médicis showing tolerance to the Huguenots which angered the Roman Catholics causing an uprising in the end it lead to the Edict of Nantes

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

shakespeare was a influential play writer during the Elizabethan years

Dutch Revolt

1566 - 1648

Dutch revolt was a revolt lead by Dutch Protestants against the Spanish in order to have religious freedom from Spain who were overwhelmingly Catholic it also allowed them to become independent

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

target group of assassinations and a wave of catholic mob violence directed at the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion

Baroque Art Movement

Approx. 1580 - Approx. 1800

Baroque art movement was encouraged by the catholic church in response to the protestant reformation. Baroque art was religiously themed and had emotional involvement

Edict of Nantes

1598

Edict of Nantes was the treaty after the French Religious Wars it granted Calvinist protestants in France rights which used to only be for catholics

Dutch Golden age

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700

a time of prosperity for the Dutch where they explored, traded and had economic prosperity which was shown through art and among other things

Defenestration of Prague

1618

Defenestration of Prague was an incident during the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War where multiple were Defenestrated

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

Thirty Years' war was a series of war caused by the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II tried to stop protestant religious activities sparking rebellion among protestant. This was the last of the Religious wars

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an English Philosopher who is said to be the Father of Liberalism. He believed that Humans are born with a "blank state" but society corrupts them.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

The English Civil war was fought over who should have power between Parliamentarians and Royalist in the end the Parliamentarians won and it lead to the Glorious revolution where the parliament basically had full power over government.

Rule of Louis XIV

1657 - 1715

King Louis believed in the Divine Right of King. it allowed for a strong centralized government under one ruler. King Louis showed off his power by making the Palace of Versailles

Enlightenment

Approx. 1685 - Approx. 1815

the Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement. The enlightenments main idea was rationalism which lead to the decline in dependence of religion

Principia Mathematica

1687

Written by Isaac Newton a book about Physics and Newtons discoveries on Physics. he was a key person during the Scientific Revolution

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Philosophes during the enlightenment era, voltaire was arguably the most influential philosophers during the Enlightenment. He criticized the church and was a deist

Agricultural Revolution

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

the agricultural revolution was a time of technological improvement and an increase int crop productivity

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War of Spanish succession was fought to prevent the expansion of France by having Habsburgs control two countries

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

philosophes during the enlightenment and greatly influenced the French revolutions with his criticism of the Enlightenment era. he did not agree with rationality but believed in emotion.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Peace Treaty for the War of Spanish Succession it stated that the Habsburgs can no longer control 2 countries and established balance of powers

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

It was Issued by Charles VI to ensure the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited to his daughter and not passed to another family

Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

reorganized the Prussian armies, and won the Seven Years' war. he gained a lot more land for Prussia and became leading military power

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

war stared because of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 gave rule to Maria Theresa in the end Maria Theresa got to stay in power but lost land

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

reversal of long standing alliance. Austria went for being an ally with Britain to France and Prussia who was once with France became an ally with Britain

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

also known as the French and Indian War it involved France, Austria and Russia against Prussia and Britain for a fight for territory

Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1760 - Approx. 1840

a period where rural societies became industrial and urban. lead to many new inventions such as the steam engine and increase in textiles

Rule of King Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

King during the French Revolution. His corruption within the monarch was one reason for the starting of the French Revolution

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution was fought against the American Colonies and Britain. the colonies fought to become an independent nation from Britain. The revolution was greatly influenced by the Enlightenment

Wealth of Nations

1776

written by Adam Smith about how Economy works and what influences it. Adam Smith was was an economist and moral philosopher during the Enlightenment era

Tennis Court Oath

1789

the oath made the National Assembly and the oath vowed to not separate and to reassemble until there was a constitution of the kingdom established

Declaration of the Rights of Man

1789

passed by the National Assembly that was a declaration that stated the right of civil right for men and that they should be held universally

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

greatly influenced by Rousseau the french influence broke out because of a corrupt government, high bread prices, and famine. Common people took over the government made it a republic and executed the king and all supporters

Formation of National Assembly

1789

The National assembly formed by the 3rd estates of the Estates General. the 3rd estates had no power so the made there own thus being the National Assembly

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

started the French Revolution when Peasants stormed Bastille looking for weapons and to let our prisoners

Declaration of Rights of Women

1791

written by Olympe de Gouges who was a French activist and feminist in response to the Declaration of Rights of Men

National Convention

1792

The 3rd government of the French Revolution. it abandoned the monarch and was completely republic. they also drew up a new constitution and the republic was elected

Reign of Terror

September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794

purpose was to purge France of enemies to protect the country from foreign invaders. during this time France was governed by Committee of Public Safety

The Directory

1795 - 1799

the Directory was a group of 5 men who held executive power. they were chosen by the legislature and each one director was replaced

Constitution of year III

1795

the constitution of the year III founded by the directory made the new calendar and preambled the Declaration of Rights of Men

Napoleonic Code

1804

the Napoleonic code was civil code that stressed clearly written accessible laws. it was a major step in replacing the previous feudal laws

Napoleon becomes Emperor

May 18, 1804

Napoleon coming to power ended the French Revolution. He believed in a republic but declared himself emperor. He fought many wars and won new land. he was liked by the french people

Congress of Vienna

1814

Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors of European state. they met to provide a long term peace plan for Europe by setting issues aside from the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars. they didn't just wanted to restore old boundaries they wanted to resize the main powers so there would be balance of powers

Battle of Waterloo

1815

the Battle of Waterloo was fought after Napoleon returned from exile he fought one more time but was defeated by the Prussian Army

Peterloo Massacre

1819

the Peterloo Massacre happened because a crowd of people in England gathered to demand parliamentary representation.

Decembrist Revolt

1825

the Decembrist revolt happened in Imperial Russia when Tsar Nicholas came into power after his brother removed himself from the line of succession. it was lead by 3,00 Russian army officers

Great Reform Bill (England)

1832

Great Reform Bill was passed by the British Parliament that permitted universal suffrage to men

Great Famine of Ireland

1845 - 1852

The Great Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland, people were not happy about the emigration. it was caused by crop failures of there main food supply potatoes

Public Health Act

1848

The Public Health Act was made after the serve outbreak of cholera to improve public health. It improved drainage and provision of sewers and clean drinking water

Communist Manifesto

1848

written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels it was a pamphlet theorizing there views about the nature of society and politics which they believed was class conflict. they believed that a capitalist society would eventually be replaced by socialism. also

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

The Crimean war was fought by France, Britain and the Ottoman empire against the Russian empire. It was fought to Prevent the Russian Empire from getting the Crimean Peninsula this would prevent Russia getting more power

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

it was a political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula. it was lead by Italian nationalist with main leader Cavour

Austro-Prussian War

1866

it was fought between the German Confederation under Austrian government against Prussia. it resulted in Prussia having dominance over the German states and Italy becoming unified

German Unification

1870 - 1871

Lead by Otto Van Bismarck pushed German unification through war and skillful understanding of realpolitik

Treaty of Frankfurt

1871

the treaty of Frankfurt was signed to end the Franco-Prussian War

Congress of Berlin

1878

a meeting between the 6 great powers aiming to determine the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula

English Married Women's Property Act

1882

The Act significantly altered English law regarding property rights of married women. Women could buy and sell property, they were allowed to sue, any damage a women might own will be her own and she is in charge of her own money

Impressionism

1885

a artistic movement that captured images without detail but with bold colors. impressionism was based on pictures make you feel when you remember them.

Dreyfus Affair

1894

a scandal involving a Jewish artillery captain French army who was falsely convicted of passing military secrets to the Germans. this showed the Antisemitism at the time

Balkan Wars

1912 - 1913

The war made the Ottoman Empire loose the bulk of its territory and Austria-Hungary become weaker as a much larger Serbia pushed for the union of south Slavic people. this set the stage for the first WW

World War 1

1914 - 1918

The war drew in all world powers in 2 opposing alliances. Russia, France,and Britain against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. it was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. but it was also over territory and economic problems

Russian Revolution

1917

the revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia that dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union

Treaty of Versailles

1919

The Treaty that ended WWI. the most important part of the treaty was that Germany had to take full responsibility for her allies for causing all the loss and damage and had to pay all fees of damage from other countries

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

the great depression was a main factor in the starting of WWII because America was giving loans to Germany to back their war debt to other countries and when the banks failed they could no longer pay debts and went into the great depression

Munich Conference

September 29, 1938

the Munich conference came as a result of Hitler demanding Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. stating that after he got this land he would be done expanding Germany

World War 2

1939 - 1945

caused by fascism, Japanese militarism and them invading china, the political takeover of Hitler, and the Great depression. In the end Germany and its allies lost. WW2 effects included the cold war, occupation of territories and widespread destruction

Britan and France declare war on Germany

September 3, 1939

The beginning of WW2. they declared war on Germany after Germany invade Poland after agreeing that they would not want anymore land

Final Solution

1942

the final solution was the annihilate of the Jews of Europe when Jews were rounded up and killed in the thousands

UN founded

1945

Created after WWII it was a replacement for the ineffective League of Nations. it was organized in order to prevent another such conflict such as WWII

Atomic Bomb

1945

Dropped by America on Japan twice, it ended WW2 and was the first and last time an atomic bomb had ever been used

Yalta Conference

February 1945

Meeting between after WW2 to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization. they wanted to give collective security order but a self determination to liberate people of post war Nazi Europe

Truman Doctrine

1947

The Truman doctrine stated that it would provide Political, military and economic assistance to democratic nations that were being threatened by Communist Soviet Union

Marshall Plan

1947

The Marshall plan was initiative to aid Western Europe to help with the post war damage and to rebuild economies

Berlin Blockade

June 1948 - May 1949

the Berlin blockade was an attempt by the Soviet union to block Britain and France and America from getting to their sector. it did not work because America Airlifted and dropped food down to the people on their side

NATO

1949

NATO is a military alliance between Western European Nation and America to strengthen international ties

Warsaw Pact

1955

The Soviet Union's version of NATO but the countries in Warsaw had no choice whether or not be in it or not

Suez Crisis

1956

invasion into Egypt by Israel in order to control the Suez Crisis. France and Britain got involved but in the end it was policed to keep from fighting to happen

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

first satellite launched into space by Soviet Union thus beginning the space race

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Cuba had ad soviet had an alliance and the Soviet missiles in Cuba until an American spy plan found them and soviet agreed o move them

Fall of Berlin Wall

1989

the fall of the Berlin wall separating communist Berlin from western Berlin was the symbolic ending the Soviet Union and their communist rule

Solidarity in Poland

1989

the movement was the first peaceful movement to become independent from the Soviet union. it gave rise to a broad, non-violent, anti-communist movement

EU is formed

1993

The EU was created to unite European countries politically and economically to secure lasting peace