Christopher Columbus - 1492
Magellan - 1521
Opened up trade routes to create the Columbian Exchange
Influx of gold and silver in 1500s led to inflation spreading from Spain
Roots in invention of banking by Medici (Florence) and Fuggers (Antwerp, Amsterdam)
Creation of first joint-stock companies as Dutch and British East India Companies
Counter reformation started 1545
Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) - Advocated inductive or experimental method
Descartes (1596 - 1650) - Everything that is not validated by observation should be doubted, God exists, Cartesian dualism - division of everything into spiritual and material
Copernicus (1473 - 1543) - heliocentric universe
Paracelsus (1493 - 1541) Toxicology, medical research
Harvey (1578 - 1657) - circulatory stystem
Galileo (1584 - 1642) - Heliocentric universe is a fact!
Start of the Scientific Revolution
Responded to challenge of Protestantism by defining Catholic dogma.
Salvation by good works and grace
Seven sacraments valid, transubstantiation reaffirmed
Religious authorities are the Bible, Church traditions, writings of Church Fathers
Latin translation of Bible
Monasticism, existence of purgatory reaffirmed
Attempts to reform abuses: principle of indulgences upheld but reformed abuses, priest training
Ended religious wars in Holy Roman Empire and the surrounding area, including Hapsburg-Valois Wars. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V lost power of choosing religion of Germanic people, instead each German prince would choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism for their people.
Last of the Wars of Religion in France.
Between moderate Henry III, ultra Catholic Henry of Guise, Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre
When Henry of Navarre married the king's sister, Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day initiated the war
Henry of Navarre wins but converts to Catholicism, saying "Paris is well worth a mass"
Edict of Nantes
Marked the beginning of decline of Spanish power
Was an attempt to invade England, ally of Netherlands
(Low countries were Calvinist dominant but King Philip II was ultra Catholic)
Allowed Huguenots (French Calvinists) religious freedom in strongholds
First continent wide war in modern history, mostly in Germany
Culmination of religious wars of 16th Century between Catholics and Protestants
Politically, German princes sought autonomy from HRE, France wanted to limit power of Habsburg who wanted to extend power in Germany. Sweden and Denmark wanted to strengthen hold in Baltic region
Effects: Germanic states devastated, prevented creation of united nation
Age of religious war ends, Balance of Power prevails
Hapsburgs weakened, Austria lost influence of Germany, Spain left second rate
Anabaptists persecuted to extinction
Catholic leaders could take back institutions taken by Protestants, decreased popularity and property of Protestants
See England LOL
Ended Thirty Years' War, between France, HRE, German states, Sweden , Holland. France emerged as powerful force keeping Germany from being united.
Extension of Peace of Augsburg, allowing Calvinism.
Edict of Restitution revoked, guaranteed possession of former Church states to Protestant holders
German princes made sovereign rulers
HRE WEAKENED TO THE POINT OF BASICALLY BEING USELESS RIP
End of Period 1
Inspirations of the Enlightenment:
John Locke (1632 - 1704) - Governments rest upon consent of goverend, social contract is the agreement between fair government and responsible individuals, if gov does not give life, liberty, property, we can screw it over
Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) - Mechanical universe
Voltaire (1694 - 1778) - personified Age of Reason, huge on religious toleration
Rousseau (1712 - 1778) - founder of the Romantic movement; after excess of French Revolution rule of reason gave way to glorification of emotions
State of nature was purer, civilization corrupted mankind
"The Social Contract" - "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
General will should rule
Adam Smith (1727 - 1790) Laissez-faire free trade, capitalism
Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) separate powers
Beccaria (1738 - 1794) "On Crimes and Punishments" argued against torture
Diderot (1713 - 1784) Encyclopedia or political and social critques
Salons were an important site for meetings and allowed discourse of ideas with no censorship. Women were able to influence and attain education being hostesses
Religious analysis --> more religious toleration, philosophies of deism, skepticism, atheism
Controversy after Spanish king Charles II died without an heir, and French king Louis XIV's grandson was named the heir to the throne.
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Between France and Britain, Austria, German states, Sweden, Holland
Spanish and French thrones never to be united
Final loss for Louis XIV
Grand Duchy of Brandenburg became PRUSSIA
Beginning of Austro/Prussian rivalry
Maria Theresa succeeds her father HREmperor Charles XI
Ended War of Austrian Succession.
Between France, Austria, Prussia
Recognized Frederick the Great's annexation of Silesia
Demonstrated weakness of France under Louis XV
Ended Seven Years' War involving Britain, Spain, France (First global war)
Resulted in British domination of international trade, most important naval power in the world
May, 1789: Estates-General meet in Versailles
June 17, 1789: National Assembly
June 20, 1789: "Tennis Court Oath"
July 1789: Storming of the Bastille
August 1789: Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: Freedom of religion, speech, thought, taxes only with consent
August 1789-1790: "Great Fear" --> led to end of feudalism
October 1789: March on Versailles
1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy
1791: Legislative Assembly
June 1791: Flight to Varennes of the royal family
April, 1792: Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria
September, 1792: France proclaimed a republic
1793: First Coalition of Austria, GB, Netherlands, Prussia, Spain created
National Convention, Jacobins (Paris mobs) vs Girondists (peasants)
Robespierre pushed for execution of king
January, 1793: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette guillotined
Summer 1793: Reign of Terror
Late 1793: Republic of Virtue to de-Christianize largely Catholic France
1794: Danton and Robespierre executed by National Convention
1795-1799: Thermidorian Reaction returned moderate bourgeois to power
1795-1799: Creation of Directory
Many sans-culottes were unhappy with the Revolution
Napoleon overthrows the Directory and creates the Consulate
Concordat of 1801: papacy renounced claims on Church lands
Code Napoleon, 1804: Uniform legal system
Merit system, state supported educational system, nepotism (putting family members in positions of power)
Lowered farmers' taxes
Defeat in Russia after many conquests lead to the collapse of his empire.
Ended Napoleonic Wars, penalized France.
First Peace: Lenient, allowed France to keep 1792 borders
Second: After Battle of Nations (Elba exile, Napoleon)
Third: More harsh to France
French boundaries restricted to 1790 boundaries
Occupation by Allied troops, at most 5 years
700,000,000 franc reparations
Before Unification: Two Sicilies (Kingdom of Naples), Papal States, Lombardy-Venetia, Sardinia
Cavour became prime minister of parliament instituted during Revolutions of 1848.
France helped Cavour halfway through a war with Austria, and Sardinia annexed Lombardy while Austrians kept Venice.
Garibaldi invaded Sicily and Naples, and being more nationalist than democratic, and the Two Sicilies joined Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed.
By 1870, Italy was mostly unified as Lombardy-Venetia and Papal States were incorporated, under a constitutional monarchy w/ Victor Emmanuel II.
Split between more industrialized Northern Italy and agrarian Southern Italy.
Markets and Raw Materials: Needed more as income level of Western workers rose and profitability of investing surplus capital into domestic stuff rose
Missionaries: Religious revivalism in mid nineteenth century
Military/Naval Bases: Naval bases to protect overseas interests, national rivalries for competition, international prestige
Ideology: Social Darwinism, White Man's Burden
Industrial/Technological Developments (IR II) Machine gun, rifles, radio, telephone, advances in medicine
Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco --> France
Libya --> Italy
India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, North Borneo -->GB
Indochina --> French
China carved up after Opium Wars of 1840s-50s
Japan only major Asian power not taken by imperialism, Westernized and won Korea from China, won Russo-Japanese War of 1905
Philippines --> US
Ideas collapsed after WWII, shaken after WWI. ie because of liberty, democracy, economic problems
Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815 - 1898)
War against Denmark (1864) allied Prussia, Austria, other German states in all German war to annex Schleswig; Austria and Prussia fell out over disagreement
Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War) Austrian and Prussian disagreement over Denmark spoils of war; although Austria had help from other German states Prussian army was superior; lenient conditions to Austria because of inevitable war with the French in the future
Franco-Prussian War (1870) Over dynastic dispute over Spanish throne
Napoleon III (Ok president btw, solved economic problems, laid foundations for democratic reforms) declared war but failed lol
Ended Franco-Russian War.
German nationalism grown, as predicted by Bismarck
Kaiser Wilhelm I crowned emperor in Hall of Mirrors at Versailles
Held by Bismarck to avoid problems in Balkan Peninsula after Russo-Turkish War (1878) Intended to establish peace between all powers regarding that region, divided by Austria, Ottoman Empire, and Balkan states: Greece, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro
Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, ends 1918
Mutual defense pact against Ottomans in Balkans and France in west
Russia refused to renew in 1887.
Ended 1915 as Italy withdrew when the other two went on offensive
Bismarck tried to tilt balance of power in his favor at Congress of Berlin.
Defensive alliance between Italy, Austria-Hungary, Germany
Sponsored by Bismarck to prevent disputes among imperialists, set up rules that diminished squabbles and encouraged partition of African continent among major European powers
Settled outstanding disputes between Britain and France
Alliance between Russia, Britain, and France in 1914
Hostility towards Germany after Algeciras Conference (1906) but Wilhem II was stupid and ignored the growing animosity
Triple Entente and US would become the Allied Powers in WWI
M - Militarism - Buildup of arms and weapons, warship race between Germany and GB
A - Alliances - see Alliances
Russia support --> Serbia vs Bulgaria, wanted Macedonia. Bulgaria <--A-H <--Germany support
I - Imperialism - Increased international tensions
N - Nationalism - tearing A-H apart (Balkan Wars)
Third Balkan War turned into First WW
Paris Peace Conference for lasting peace
David Lloyd George (Britain), Clemenceau (France), Wilson (US), Orlando (Italy)
Wilson gives up 14 points and League of Nations, US refused to ratify
Mandated former colonies and territories of Central Powers to go to Allied
Article 231 (Guilt Clause)
-Pushed all blame on Germany
-German army and navy severely reduced
-Germany lost all colonies
All anti-Axis powers established
International organization to promote peace and global well being
US, UK, France, China, USSR made permanent members of UN security council with veto powers
Created by former Allies that were capitalist to deter threats from Soviet Union and satellite states.
Part of the Cold War, drew line between communist and democratic nations
Some former communist nations joined after fall of Berlin Wall, 1989
Soviet alliance created to counter NATO, included all Soviet satellite states.
Continued Cold War, further ideological split between Eastern and Western Europe.
Created EEC, international organization dedicated to create common market and integration of European economies,
Founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, West Germany. Later, Spain, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, UK.
Admission of UK opposed by French president Charles de Gaulle, so delayed to 1973.
Created EU and established rules for single currency (euro).
Euro seen as step toward political unity.
Individualism, humanism, secularism
Individual portraits, commissions
Free standing human sculptures, nude
Centralization of power in nation states
Focus on common people in art
More religious than Italian Renaissance
Transition between end of Renaissance and beginning of Baroque Era
Art of Reformation and Counter Reformation focuses on new ideas and how to express them
Over ornamentation + curved lines
Emotional grandeur, larger than life
An instrument of the Counter Reformation, as people were illiterate attempted to bring back Catholics through art
Scientific Revolution and Divine Right Absolutism
Emergence of classical ballet and theatre
English Civil War
Similar to baroque; more ornamental and less formal
Revival of styles and spirit of classic antiquity reflected Age of Enlightenment
Reaction against excesses of the Rococo
Reaction to neoclassicism and Industrial Revolution
Expression of emotional nationalism and heroism, glorifies nature, past, peasants, nationalist movements
Reaction to sentimentalism of Romanticism, showing grittier side of life with focus on common man
Focus on knowledge that can be known (positivism)
Rejection of industrial progress
Ugliness of peasant life
Sub movements of Post Impressionism and Pointillism
New subject matter and perception of the world
Everyday life of middle class
Painting outdoors --> Study of light
Strongly influenced by Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein, World Wars, Atomic Age, modern media, concept of identity
Expressionism - introspective into world of emotional and psychological states
Cubism - Angular Impressions
Futurism - Fascists
Surrealism - Dream fantasies, memory images, paradoxes
Dadaism - revolt against previous classical artistic movements and response to horrors of WWI
Cuz it's Special
Start of English Reformation
Made Henry VIII and successors head of Anglican Church and clergy.
Started with end of Elizabethan era
James I was cool but he dissolved Parliament until the Thirty Years War when he needed funds and then when Parliament had the Great Protestation, he dissolved them again
Charles I was bad and screwed the economy over, so he called Parliament to vote funds for him, BUT they had the condition of the Petition of Right stating:
Only Parliament can levy taxes
Soldiers can not be quartered in private homes
No imprisonment without charge
He was dumb and tried to screw them over which caused the English Civil War
In which after the Bishops' War Charles needed money and wanted Parliament to help him pay war debts, and demands were made to:
Allow Parliament to meet every three years without summons
No dissolving of Parliament without consent
Started when Charles attempted to arrest opposition members, and Parliament seizes control of the army
1644, Oliver Cromwell (Puritan leader of Parliament) led New Model Army against Cavaliers and beat them
1645 Charles surrenders but then the Scots switch sides to his favor
1649 Still, Charles lost and was beheaded. England became a Republic, the Commonwealth
Tories: nobles, gentry, Anglicans, conservatives
Whigs: middle class and Puritan, Parliament and religious toleration
James II, devout Catholic, too imposing
William of Orange and Mary invited to take over their throne and James fled to France
Accepted Declaration of Rights (Bill of Rights)
Habeas Corpus Act (Speedy trials, just cause for imprisonment, no double jeopardy), Petition of Right, Bill of Rights become part of English Constitution
The only time it's really mentioned