At the end of the Spanish-American War The U.S took control of Cuba from Spain. Then the U.S. government obtained a perpetual lease from the Cuban government that began on February 23, 1903. The U.S. held the base even after the Cuban Revolution.
The Gallipoli Campaign took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire (now Gelibolu in modern day Turkey) between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916, during World War I. A joint British and French operation was mounted to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) and secure a sea route to Russia.
The lethal threat of the German U-boat submarine raises its head again. Now Germany has returned to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. Even though it was previously suspended in response to pressure from the United States and other neutral countries.
This started as an uprising against shortages and mounting deaths in the war in 1917 in Russia. Nicholas facing mutinies abdicated the throne and a provisional government was established which brought a struggle for power and instability in the government. This was important because it allowed Lenin to step in and head the radical Bolshevik Party that would exit the War and completely turn Russian society around.
The Russian civil war was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a separate peace treaty that the Soviet government was forced to sign on March 3, 1918 after almost six-month-long negotiations at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia’s exit from World War I. Signing of the treaty defaulted Russia’s commitments on the Triple Entente alliance.
The Paris peace conference was a meeting of Allied victors following the end of World War I to set peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany.
The League held its first council meeting in Paris on 16 January 1920, six days after the Versailles Treaty came into force. In November, the headquarters of the League was moved to Geneva, where the first General Assembly was held on 15 November 1920.
Though it was found in 1919 Mussolini launched it in 1921. Mussolini was the driving force behind the Italian fascist movement however; its success was limited due to strong traditional networks prevalent in Italy at that time. He also had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents.
An economic policy proposed by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, who called it state capitalism. It was a new, more capitalism- oriented economic policy necessary after the Civil War to raise the economy of the country, which was almost ruined.
This plan was a list of economic goals, created by Joseph Stalin and based off his policy of Socialism in One Country, that was designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1928 and 1932. The main concerns of the First Five-Year Plan focused on making the nation militarily, industrially, and financially self-sufficient.
It began in late October 1929 and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941.
The Civil Disobedience Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, in the year 1930 was an important milestone in the history of Indian Nationalism. The Indian people were tired of being treated poorly. So this was a non-violent revolt.
On September 18, 1931 Japan launched an attack on Manchuria. Within a few days Japanese armed forces had occupied several strategic points in South Manchuria. Manchuria was invaded by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan immediately following the Mukden Incident. The Japanese established a puppet state, called Manchukuo, and their occupation lasted until the end of World War II.
He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the center of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust. He was the main leader and impacted Europe and the rest of the world.
The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China. Which was the forerunner of the People’s Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October, of 1934.
He was referred to as a “bandit” by the United States government; his exploits made him a hero throughout much of Latin America, where he became a symbol of resistance to United States’ domination. Drawing units of the United States Marine Corps into an undeclared guerrilla war, his insurgents suffered many defeats, but Sandino evaded capture. United States troops withdrew from the country in 1933 after overseeing the election and inauguration of President Juan Bautista Sacasa, who had returned from exile.
This was a time of horrible terror. This is where Stalin and his men not only executed the usual targets being communists, but anyone and everyone was a target. Whoever came into mind was on the list and this led to an unsermounable amount of bloodshed and death.
A military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941. Japan was invaded due to resources and imperialist ways at that time.
This was the expropriation of all oil reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico on March 18, 1938. It took place when President and General Lázaro Cárdenas declared that all mineral and oil reserves found within Mexico belong to the nation.
This was when President of Mexico Lazaro Cardenas nationalizes the oil industry, largely owned by foreign investors from the US and Great Britain, thus testing the limits of the United State's reach. This was important because despite calls from the US and British for a strong response Roosevelt called for a cool and calm response. The negotiations resulted in foreign oil companies getting $24 million in compensation which was much better than the $260 million originally asked for.
This is the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938.
An invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September 1939 following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Nomonhan incident on 16 September 1939.
Under the codename Operation “Barbarossa,” Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. This was the largest German military operation of World War II. This is where everything started.
The Battle of Stalingrad was a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union. The battle took place between August 23, 1942 and February 2, 1943 and was marked by constant close-quarters combat and lack of regard for military and civilian casualties. It is among the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare, with the higher estimates of combined casualties amounting to nearly two million.
The Normandy landings, codenamed Operation Neptune, were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy, in Operation Overlord, during World War II. The landings commenced on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (D-Day), beginning at 6:30 am British Double Summer Time (GMT+2). In planning, as for most Allied operations, the term D-Day was used for the day of the actual landing, which was dependent on final approval.
Two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from April 20th until the morning of may 2nd.
The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were conducted by the United States during the final stages of World War II in 1945. The two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, political freedoms, democracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
The Partition of India was the process of dividing the subcontinent along sectarian lines, which took place in 1947 as India gained its independence from the British Raj. The northern, predominantly Muslim sections of India became the nation of Pakistan, while the southern and majority Hindu section became the Republic of India.
The State of Israel declared independence and after almost two millennia of Jewish dispersal and persecution around the Mediterranean. From the late 19th century the Zionist movement worked towards the goal of creating a homeland for the Jewish people. Israeli independence has been marked by massive immigration of Jews, by conflict with the Palestinians and by wars with neighbouring Arab states. Since about 1970 the United States has been the principal ally of Israel; 42% of the Jews live here.
The Declaration was Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948. In fact, it has been translated into 500 different languages.
The Arab-Israeli war was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states and Palestinian Arab forces. This war was the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war, and as a result of the war, the State of Israel kept nearly all the area that had been recommended by the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 and took control of almost 60% of the area allocated to the proposed Arab state
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was formally established, with its national capital at Beijing.For the first time in decades a Chinese government was met with peace, instead of massive military opposition, within its territory. The new leadership was highly disciplined and, having a decade of wartime administrative experience to draw on, was able to embark on a program of national integration and reform.
A war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. It was primarily the result of the political division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (French: Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries. The battle occurred between March and May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that influenced negotiations over the future of Indochina at Geneva.
This war was one of many wars in the 1950s and 1960s. The Algerian people's movement of independence started when they felt like they were being treated as second-class people by the French. At first the movement seemed promising but then the Algerian people lost control. Initially the movement was run mainly by the privileged people who benefited from the french more than the ordinary citizens. But, when they were satisfied with what the french had to offer them, the movement quickly slowed down. Soon the Algerian people re-gained control and this led to the eventual collapse of the French Colonial government.
The Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the regional economic organization for the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was in part a Soviet military reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.
This was an economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China also called the CPC, This served to plan and make decesions from 1958 to 1961.The purpose was to use China’s vast population to quickly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society. They did this through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Mao Zedong led the campaign based on the Theory of Productive Forces and intensified it.
A spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People’s Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. It was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSR’s forces drove out the Nazis at the end of World War II and occupied Eastern Europe. Despite the failure of the uprising, it was highly influential, and came to play a role in the downfall of the Soviet Union decades later.
In 1956, the Suez Canal became the focus of a major world conflict. The canal represents the only direct means of travel from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, making it vital to the flow of trade between Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the U.S. Normally, free passage was granted to all who used the canal, but Britain and France desired control of it, not only for commercial shipping, but also for colonial interests. The Egyptian government had just been taken over by Gamal Abdel Nasser, who felt the canal should be under Egyptian control.
Fidel Castro established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. He ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades, until handing off power to his younger brother Raúl in 2008.
The worsening of political and ideological relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War. Their relationship led to many conflicts and disputes during and also later on.
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, and other defenses.
In response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident of August 2 and 4, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson, by the authority given to him by Congress in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, decided to escalate the Vietnam Conflict by sending U.S. ground troops to Vietnam. On March 8, 1965, 3,500 U.S. Marines landed near Da Nang in South Vietnam; they are the first U.S. troops arrive in Vietnam. Conflict quickly escalated as a result.
These were the events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and United Kingdom. it was replaced with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who was the leader of the revolution.
A military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns since Sept. 4.
Mikhail Gorbachev saw the invasion as a negative in relation to what Russia would benefit from it. He saw it as a way to drain the economy rather than help bolster it. In addition, many Russians were tired of war and sick of the conflict. Later in 1992, Muslim forces took over Afghanistan.
A war waged by a U.N.-authorized Coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait. This war lasted a year but had an impact that lasted way more.
The USSR's trade gap progressively emptied the coffers of the union, leading to eventual bankruptcy. The Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin seized power in the aftermath of a failed coup that had attempted to topple reform-minded Gorbachev
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as “the Handover” internationally and “the Return” or “The Reunification” by Mainland Chinese, took place on 1 July 1997, and marked the end of British rule in Hong Kong.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus. SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
On July 7th 12 years ago, four suicide bombers with rucksacks full of explosives attacked central London, killing 52 people and injuring hundreds more. It was the worst single terrorist atrocity on British soil.