AP European History Timeline

Events

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.

The Plague

1346 - 1400

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of about 1/3 to 1/2 of Europe

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome

Mood of the Renaissance
significant contributions were made to Western civilization, with particular gains in literature, art, philosophy and political and historical thought, sought personal credit for achievements rather than glory to God

city-states
center of Europe's economic, political, and cultural life. Under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, but were free to rule themselves. Economically vibrant with merchants carrying Italian wool and silk and bankers providing loans to money-hungry monarchs.

social hierarchy of Italian city-states
old rich (popolo grandi), new rich merchants (popolo grosso), middle class, the lower class (popolo minuto), and the paupers

Ciompi Revolt 1378
popolo minuto expressed dissatisfaction with political and economic order by staging a violent struggle against the government, established tenuous control over government, peace does not return until Medici

signor
tyrant that rose to power in Milan, the Sforzas are a family of mercenary (condottiero) and came to dominate thereafter

papal states
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.

patron
The Church leaders, wealthy families, and merchants who spent a huge amount of money on art.

classics
The writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans, key part of humanist study

humanism
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.

Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin. Wrote letters to deceased Greco-Roman thinkers admiring them, especially Cicero.

Dark Ages
the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance

Cicero
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)

Civic humanism
a variant of humanism indicating active, participatory, patriotic citizenship as well as the ethos and educational ideal that goes with it

Plato
ancient Greek philosopher who believed that ideals such as beauty or truth exist beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them, and that we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reason and thus get beyond the limits imposed by our senses. Also believed in positive view of HUMAN POTENTIAL.

Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.

Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence on the idea of the "Renaissance Man". It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism. In another work, he found errors in the Vulgate Bible.

Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated

Leonardo Bruni
wrote "New Cicero" which has the idea that humanists believe that their studies of humanism should be put to the service of the state. Also created an educational program for Renaissance women, but left out curriculum of rhetoric and public speech.

Christine de Pisan
"The City of Ladies;" Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society- they could make moral choices and women were equal to men. Europe's first feminist, and well educated in France

Renaissance Art
3D, responded to light/shading, religious and everyday situations, active and looked real

fresco
method of Middle Ages; a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster; oil painting was later developed during Renaissance

chiaroscuro
the use of shading to enhance naturalness and depth in Renaissance painting

single-point perspective
a style in which all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance, allowing Renaissance artists to create more realistic settings for their works

Filippo Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446); built first dome over Cathedral of Florence

High Renaissance
artistic period; Rome replaced Florence as the great center of artistic patronage. Florence had experienced a backlash against the new style of art, while in Rome, a series of popes were very interested in the arts and sought to beautify their city and palaces

Mannerism
(also known as the Late Renaissance) an art that showed distorted figures and confusing themes and may have reflected the growing sense of crisis in the Italian world due to both religious and political problems. Michelangelo pioneered this movement.

Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time, such as flight mechanisms. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).

Raphael
Utilized single-point perspective; Devoted to the Madonna and painted the School of Athens, where he brought together classic and Renaissance scholars, making him a truly christian humanist

Michelangelo
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time. Commissioned most notably by Pope Julius II, who covered his revealing statues with fig leaves. Style of Late Renaissance was exemplified in his disturbing, yet brilliant Final Judgment.

Individualism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence, born during the Renaissance

Cosmo de Medici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government

Giovanni Boccacio
Italian writer, wrote a book: Decameron, which took place during the Black Plague- collection of bawdy tales told by men and women seeking sanctuary from Plague

Northern Renaissance

1470 - 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War

Commercial Revolution

1488 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

Scientific Revolution
The switch in mindset from science being theology and philosophy to science being mathematical and quantifiable.

Aristotle
384-322 B.C. A Greek philosopher who's thoughts were blindly accepted as truth for thousands of years.

Ptolemy
85-165 A Greek astronomer who proposed a geocentric model of the universe

Archimedes of Syracuse
287-212 B.C. Challenged the view of Aristotle that the natural state for all objects was at rest and that an "active mover" was required.

Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) First to publish a major work that condemned the Aristotelian view of the universe and to propose a heliocentric model and propose that the earth was spinning. Published "Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres."

"Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres"
1543, Written by Copernicus, condemns the Aristotelian view of the universe and proposes a heliocentric model.

Nicholas of Cusa
1401-1464 A German theologian who was one of the first to believe that the earth may be in motion.

Galen
129-210 A Greek who was the first to develop medical theories based on scientific experiments.

Andreas Vesalius
1514-1564 The founder of modern biological science, the first to assemble a human skeleton, and one of the first to reject old explanations for blood circulation. Published "On the Fabric of the Human Body."

"On the Fabric of the Human Body"
Published in 1543 by Adreas Vesalius. A book that discussed the human body based on science and no philosophy.

William Harvey
1578-1657 solved the mystery of how blood circulates scientifically and not philosophically.

Tycho Brahe
1546-1601 Rejected Copernicus's views and was an observational scientist. Spent most of his life making tons of measurements and gathering a ridiculous amount of data. Owned a moose, had a gold silver alloy nose, and had a dwarf doorbell.

Johannes Kepler
1571-1630 Apprentice of Brahe, Applied mathematics to the heliocentric model of the universe and was the first to propose elliptical movements instead of perfect circles.

William Gilbert
1544-1603 An English Scientist who was the first to publish a book informed by laboratory experimentation.

Sir Francis Bacon
1561-1626 English Said that inductive reasoning, deciding things based on observation, is the way to go about gaining scientific knowledge. Said experiments needed to be quantifiable and repeatable.

Galileo Galile
1564-1642 First to do rigorous observations with a telescope and provided more observational evidence of the fact that the universe was heliocentric. Published "Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems-Ptolemaic and Copernican," "Property of Objects in Water," and "Sidereus Nuncius."

Rene Descartes
1596-1650 A french Mathematician and Philosopher that believed in deductive reasoning. Published "Discourse on Method."

Discourse on Method
1637 Said that you shouldn't blindly accept statements and that everyone should start with a blank slate. Descartes.

Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems-Ptolemaic and Copernican
1616 (I think) Published by Galileo and it argues for a heliocentric model. Galileo was Italian

Sir Isaac Newton
1642-1727 Combined Inductive and deductive reasoning to form the best way to go about doing science. Published "Principia"

Principia
1687 a book published by Newton laying down his three laws of motion and universal gravitation.

Baruch Spinoza
1632-1677 Dutch philosopher and mathematician who believed that thought and matter formed the two categories of reality. Called for toleration of all religions.

Gottfried Leibniz
1646-1716 A northern german philosopher and mathematician who argued that the universe was set in motion and god didn't need to intervene.

Comenius (Jan Komensky)
1592-1670 From Moravia, said that one day scientific knowledge should be brought together in a collaborative form.

Marin Merseen
1588-1637 In Paris, a monk, who translated Galileo's writings into French.

Blaise Pascal
1623-1662 A mathematician who originated the science of probability. French.

Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge
Formed in 1662 under Charles II, weekly meetings to discuss science.

Edmund Halley
1656-1742 An astronomer who catalogued and discovered the actual movement of the stars.

John Locke
1632-1704 Founder of British empiricism, who held that laws of society could be discovered.

Christopher Wren
1632-1723 a versatile architect who rebuilt some of London's churches because of the fire of 1666.

Margaret Cavendish
1623-1673 Hosted the "Newcastle circle," a informal gathering of distinguished scientists.

Laura Bassi Veratti
1711-1778 studied philosophy at the University of Bologna, and was elected to the Academy of Sciences.

French Royal Academy of Science
1666 French version of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledges, supported by the monarchy, spent a lot of time eating and drinking.

Robert Hooke
1635-1703 Improved the barometer, lived in england, improved the power of the microscope by adding multiple lenses.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

sale of indulgences
the issue that initiated the Protestant Reformation--paying a fee to the Church so that a person could escape purgatory and go to heaven (began in the Crusades) used to raise money for the Church

clerical ignorance
clergy was ignorant; many preached in Latin that they couldn't read or understand

Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.

95 Thesis
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.

Priesthood of all believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.

Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

Philip Melanchthon
friend of Martin Luther, he wrote the Confessions of Augsburg, an attempt to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes that failed. The statements made did become the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church.

Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563); supporter of Catholicism

Peasant's War
Rebellion broke out against all authority in 1524-1525 in Germany over class struggles and relgious revolts (such as controversy over what sin was defined as). Luther did not approve of this, despite being blamed for it.

Anabaptists
A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.

Tragedy at Munster
Anabaptist extremists took power over Münster; Anabaptists in the city forced the Catholics and Lutherans to either convert or emigrate; Münster was blockaded by besieging armies and under pressure transformed into an Old Testament theocracy

Mennonites
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.

Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Unitarians
a member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in an individual; deny the idea of the Holy Trinity

John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

Predestination
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power

Presbyterianism
a branch of the Protestant reformation that grew in Scotland, many of their ideas are rooted in Calvinism. They believed in a method of church governance where there were no bishops

Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.

Dutch Reformed Church
United Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain

Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

English Reformation
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom

Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.

Pilgrimage of Grace
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.

Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.

Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics, "bloody Mary"

Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England

Politique
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).

Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately

Thirty-Nine Articles
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.

Mary Stuart
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed

Katerina von Bora
German Catholic nun who became the wife of Martin Luther

Angela Merici
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to improve education and religious training

Teresa de Avila
Spanish leader of the reform movement for monasteries and convents. Believed an individual could have a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation

Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline (Counter-Reformation)

Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.

Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the

Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

Baroque Art
art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit (ex Bernini)

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Open Field System
system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting

Cornelius Vermuyden
One of the most famous Dutch engineers. He had large drainage projects in Yorkshire and Cambridgeshire—turned swampy wilderness into some of the best farmland in England.

Charles Turnip Townsend
(1674-1738), one of the pioneers of English agricultural improvement. This lord from the upper reaches of the English aristocracy leaned about turnips and clover while serving as English ambassador to Holland. In the 1710's, he was using these crops in the sandy soil of his large estates in Norfolk in eastern England, already one of the most innovative agricultural areas in the country. He spoke of turnips, turnips and nothing but turnips. Draining extensively, manuring heavily, and sowing crops in regular rotation without fallowing, the farmers who based Townsend's lands produced larger crops. They and he earned higher incomes.

Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

Jethro Tull
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.

Seed Drill
machine that sowed seeds in rows and covered up the seeds in rows

Robert Bakewell
This person was a pioneer in the field of selective animal breeding. He bred animals for certain characteristics.

Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

Enclosure Movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially

Population Explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

Proto-Industrialization
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial revolution

Cottage Industry
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment

Flying Shuttle
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand

Spinning Jenny
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles

Water Frame
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms

Spinning Mule
In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to create a machine which produced a thread which was stronger, finer and more consistent

Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Atlantic economy
English merchants believed in upholding private interests of the people and the central state. Led to Navigation Acts.

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Defenestration of Prague
Protestant rebels threw two Catholic members of the Bohemian royal council out the window-fell into pile of manure, suffered only minor injuries, starts Thirty Years War

Frederick V
Taking control of Prague, the rebels declared Ferdinand deposed and elected a new King Frederick V

Bohemian Phase
First phase of Thirty Years War, ended in Catholic Austrian Hapsburg victory, Ferdinand II regained Bohemian throne, King Maximillian of Bavaria acquired Palatinate

Danish Period
Second phase of Thirty Years War, Lutheran ruler intervened 1625 to support Protestant cause, Catholic general Wallenstein's forces defeated Protestants, Catholic victory

Gustavus Adolphus
new Protestant champion, King of Sweden, won several battles for the Protestants due to light, mobile cannons and loyalty of his men, killed in battle 1632

Wallenstein
Catholic general, mercenary, secretly negotiated with Sweden to continue war on Protestant side, HRE has him murdered

Swedish Period
Third phase of Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus leads Protestant side, Wallenstein secretly negotiated to continue the war with Protestant side

Cardinal Richelieu
fears Hapsburg power, enters war on the side of the Protestants

Swedish-French Period
Fourth phase of Thirty Years War, France joins Sweden to balance power

Treaty of Westfalia
(1648) France annexed part of Alsace, independence of Holland and Switzerland recognized, Brandenburg obtains East Prussia, ends Thirty Years War

Post Thirty Years War HRE
Destroyed, towns sacked by mercenary soldiers, commanders looted entire cities, lost 50% of population

Post Thirty Years War France
Emerges as most powerful country in Europe, dominate European affairs for next 165 years

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

MaryWollstonecraft
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."

Montesquieu
Philosophe who wrote "Spirit of Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.

Voltaire
Philosophe who wrote the "Candide", satirizing prejudice, oppressive government, and bigotry. Championed freedom of religion and thought.

Philosophes
Body of Enlightenment thinkers. Most famous for writing "Encyclopedia", a handbook for Enlightenment ideas, etided be Denis Diderot. French term for philosophers.

Age of Enlightenment
Eighteenth-century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rationalism, the notion that truth comes only through rational, logical thinking. This period formed the basis of modern science.

Laissez-faire
Economic philosophy of a "hands off" approach. Advocates that governments should not in any way interfere with business, as the marketplace provides an "inisible hand" to steer the economy. An early proponent was Adam Smith.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Philosphe who published the "Social Contract." he posited that people are born good but are corrupted e education, laws, and society. He advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes' suffocating conformity to "reason."

atheist
A person who does not believe in the existence of God. This belief became prominent in the West during the Enlightenment of the 18th century, as scientists and philosophers discovered natural explanations for how the universe operated that did not rely on divine intervention.

Enlightened Despots
European rulers who sought to apply some of the reforms of the 18th century Enlightenment to their governments without giving up their own absolutist authority. These rulers were characterized by legal, administrative, and educational improvements when it suited the state and as a means to enhance its power. Examples of these rulers include Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786), Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796), and Joseph II of Austria (r. 1780-1790).

Freemasons
Members of Masonic lodges, social clubs organized around the elaborate secret rituals of stonemasons' guilds. Membership provided a place outside the traditional channels of socializing where nobles and middle-class professionals and even some artisans mingled and shared their common interest in the Enlightenment and reform. The movement began in Great Britain in the early 18th century and spread eastward across Europe. Although not explicitly political, members encouraged equality among its members

utilitarianism
A liberal ideology promoted by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Based on the writings of John Locke (1632-1704), it argues that the best social and political policies are those that produce - in Bentham's words - "the greatest good for the greatest number" and are therefore the most useful, which, to him, meant liberalism. Liberals supported the Enlightenment ideas of increased personal liberty and free trade in economics.

social contract
The doctrine that all political authority derives not from divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens and their rulers. The idea emerged from the writings of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704) in the second half of the 17th century, although each came to different conclusions. Hobbes argued that his version of the doctrine gave the ruler absolute power, while Locke claimed it implied a constitutional agreement between a ruler and representatives of their subjects. Rousseau expanded on the theory in 1762, arguing that the doctrine existed not between a ruler and his or her subjects, but among all members of society, making it every individual's duty to subject their interests to what Rousseau called the "general will."

salons
Informal gatherings, usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women, that provided a forum for new ideas and an opportunity to establish new intellectual contacts among supporters of the Enlightenment in the 18th century. These informal gatherings gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-dominated universities and afforded an opportunity to test ideas or present unpublished works.

Deism
The belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life, exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation.

Adam Smith
a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. He is a major contributor to the modern perception of free market economics.

Kant
German philosopher whose synthesis of rationalism and empiricism, in which he argued that reason is the means by which the phenomena of experience are translated into understanding, marks the beginning of idealism. His classic works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788), in which he put forward a system of ethics based on the categorical imperative.

Aristotelian World view
Motionless earh was fixed at the center of the universe, God was beyond.

Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. "Novum Organum". Inductive reasoning.

Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.

Robert Boyle
(1627-1691) Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.

Andrew Celsius
Invented measurement of temperature - Celsius.

Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) Plish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres." Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.

Heliocentric Theory
Sun is the center of the universe. Copernican.

Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.

Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.

Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.

Inductive Resoning
Baconian empiricism. Based on speculations on other situations.

Discourse on Methods
Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.

Empiricism
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.

Gabriel Fahrenheit
Developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.

Galileo Galilei
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World".

Gresham College
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.

William Harvey
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.

Carl Linnaeus
System Nature - developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.

Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.

Isaac Newton
English scientist. 3 Laws of Motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural PHilosophy (1687).

Ptolemy's system
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to expalin minor irregulatiries in the movement of the planets.

The
Royal Society of London Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.

Discourses
on the Origins of Inequalities Rousseau, discussed the innocence of man and his corruption by society.

Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote "Candide". Believed enlightened despot best form of government.

Deism
God built the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.

Enlightened despot
Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Breat, Frederick the Great.

Humanitarianism
Promoting human welfare and social reform.

SecondTreatise of Governments
Written by Locke, government created to protect life, liberty, and property.

EssayConcerning Human Understanding
Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.

Rococo
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portaits.

The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.

The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.

Candide
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.

Montesquieu
French philosopher. Wrote "The Spirit of Laws". Said "Power checks power". Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.

proto-industrialization
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.

cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product

flying shuttle
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand

spinning jenny
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)

water frame
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms

spinning mule
In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to create a machine which produced a thread which was stronger, finer and more consistent

Agricultural Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)

Bank of England
created in 1694 to ensure a stable money supply and to lay the foundation for a network of lending institutions

Bubble Act
act of parliament forbidding joint stock companies

Lowes Act
Allowed for limited liability for business owners

Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Corn Laws
Revised in 1815 these laws didn't allow for importing of cheap grain, this gave way to great anger towards the landed aristocracy who imposed them for their own good. Their repeal signified the end of dominance by the landed nobility

James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

steam engine
1760's; James Watt; engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3X as quickly as previous engines

power loom
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles

heavy industry
industry that requires a large capital investment and that produces items used in other industries

Henry Cort
In the 1780s, Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug). Cort also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.

puddling furnace
This invention allowed impurities to be removed from iron ore and production to speed up 15x.

Transportation Revolution
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s

Duke of Bridgewater
1st Industrial Canal

John McAdam
a scottish engineer that equipped road beds with a layer of large stones for drainage and on top placed a layer of smoother rocks, prevented heavy wagons from sinking into the mud; first hard roads

Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

George Stephenson
English railway pioneer who built the first passenger railway in 1825 (1781-1848) it was called the Rocket

Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.

Credit Mobilier
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

Zollverein
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity

petite bourgeoisie
lower middle class (shopkeepers and clerical staff etc.)

proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages

Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)

poorhouses
emerged to provide work to those who were unemployed, conditions were often oppressive

Luddites
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines

Combination Acts
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union

Robert Owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)

Chartists
seeking political democracy, universal male suffrage, est. controls over economic system to prevent exploitation ( think of German Peasant Revolt, Bread Roits, French Revolution) ; , Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. This group supported a document called the People's Charter.

Saddler Commission
investigated working conditions helped initiate legislation to improve conditions in factories.

Factory Act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers

Mines Act of 1842
prohibited underground work for women, considered a scandal for women to work in the pits, prevented the fraternizing of sexes

Manchester
The city where the first major rail line ended.

Irish Potato Famine
Devastating famine that began in the 1840s. Led to decimation of the Irish population, the Irish diaspora, violent resistance to British control of Ireland, and the beginnings of Irish nationalism. also the beginning of the irish immigration to the US

French Revolution pt1

1789 - 1799

The bourgeoisie
The comfortable members of the third estate, or upper middle class. Rose up to lead the entire third estate in the revolution.

Louis XV
The Sun King was succeeded by this five year old great grandson. Under his rule and the young monarchs regent the duke of Orleans the system of absolutist rule was challenged.

The Duke of Orleans
The regent under Louis XV who gave the Parliament their ancient right to evaluate royal decrees publicly in writing before they were registered and given the force of law. This was a fateful step when citizens protested authority after France went into financial crisis after the wars of The Austrian Succession, the Seven Year's War, and the American Revolution.

Rene de Maupeou
In 1768, Louis appointed this tough career official as chancellor and ordered him to crush any judicial opposition. He abolished the existing parlements and exiled the vociferous members of the Parlement of Paris to the provinces. He created new and docile parlements of royal officials, and began once again to tax the privileged groups.

Louis XVI
The successor of Louis XV this king of France from 1774 to 1792 failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen (Marie Antoinette) were guillotined (1754-1793).

The Estates General
A legislative body in prerevolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes or estates; it was called into session in 1789 for the first time since 1614.

National Assembly
The first French revolutionary legislature, made up primilarily of representatives of the third estate and a few from the nobility and clergy, in session from 1789 to 1791.

The Great Fear
The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.

second revolution
From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy, introduced a rapid radicalization of politics.

the Mountain
Led by Robespierre, the French National Convention's radical fraction, which seized legislative power in 1793.

sans-culottes
The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breaches of the aristocracy and middle class; the word came to refer to the militant radicals of the city.

Reign of Terror
The period from 1793 to 1794 during which Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of treason and new revolutionary culture was imposed.

dechristianization
Campaign to eliminate Christian faith and practice in France undertaken by the revolutionary government.

thermidorian reaction
A reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1794, resulting in Robespierre and the loosening of economic controls.

French Revolution pt 2

1790 - 1799

Napoleonic Code
(The Civil Code of 1804) This French civil code promulgated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property as well as restricting rights accorded to women by previous revolutionary laws.

Grand Empire
The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.

Continental System
A blockade imposed by Napoleon to halt all trade between continental Europe and Britain, thereby weakening the British economy and military .

The Tennis Court Oath
On June 20, 1788 the delegates of the third estate, excluded from their hall because of "repairs," moved to a a large tennis court were they swore this famous deceleration.

the Bastille
On July 13, 1789, the people began to seize arms for the defense of the city, and on July 14 several hundred french people marched to this location to search for weapons and gunpowder.

Commune de Paris
Formally recognized by Louis XVI after the storming of the Bastille, this new municipal government would come to play a pivotal role in the later stages of the Revolution. (Pearl)

Marquis de Lafyette
After the storming of the Bastille, Louis XVI agreed to the formation of the National Guard under the leadership of this man who was already known as a champion of liberty because of his involvement with the American Revolution. Also, the author of the Deceleration of the Rights of Man.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Marquis de Lafayette, with the aid of Thomas Jefferson, wrote this document that used the language of the Enlightenment to declare the political sovereignty did not rest in the hands of a monarch but rather in the nation at large. It also stated that all men were to enjoy all rights and responsibilities and were entitled to freedom of religion, press, and to engage in any economic activity of their choosing.

Vindication of the Rights of Women
Olympe de Gouges book would be inspiration for this book by Mary Wollstonecraft's that also pushed for women's reforms similar to the Deceleration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Church)
In July 1970, the King Louis XVI was forced, to his horror, accept the passage of this legislation that basically made the Church a department of the state. Bishops were to be chosen by assemblies of parish priests, who themselves were to be elected by their parishioners.

the Plain
It was the group that sat in the middle of the National Convention and were not directly tied to either the Mountain or the Girondists and were the key to the Revolution since whichever side they aligned with would ultimately win.

Vendee
The counter-revolutionary revolt that began in March in this western region of France. This area's revolt was mainly inspired by anger toward the restrictions placed on the Church.

Committee of Public Safety
In the Spring of 1973, in response of the revolts in Vendee and demands from the sans-culottes the National Convention formed this committee that later assumed virtually dictatorial power over France throughout the following year.

Danton
A young lawyer that was the leader of the Mountain and the Committee of Public Safety with Robespierre. Was later guillotined by Robespierre during his extension of the Reign of Terror.

Robespierre
A lawyer whose anti-monarchical sentiments may have started at the age of eleven, when a coach carrying the royal family splashed him with mud just as he was about to read some Latin verses he had written in their honor. A Jacobin, and the dictatorial leader of the Committee of Public Safety, he was eventually killed on his very own national razer on July 28, 1794 .

Marat
A radical journalist that was a hero of the sans-culottes but was killed by a Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday.

Charlotte Corday.
To enhance the Mountain's control over the National Convention, this Girondin sympathizer stabbed to death Jean-Paul Marat.

Republic of Virtue
The Jacobin's worked to create this type of a republic. To achieve it they would obliterate all traces of the old regime by creating a new calender.

Cult of the Supreme Being
To move people away from what he thought was corrupting the influence of the Church, Robespierre established this to turn the Cathedral of Notre Dome into a Temple of Reason.

the guillotine
the national razer

the Directory
The final stage of the french revolution or the name of the government produced by the Thermidorians, the label for those who were opposed to Robespierre. It was led by an executive council of five men who possessed the title of director.

Napoleon Bonaparte
This young general, saved the Directory by putting down the rebellion in Paris. He later overthrew French Directory in 1799 and crowned himself emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain, and his failure to invade Russia lead to his abdication in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

First Consul
After Napoleon overthrew the Directory with Abbe Sieyes he set up a new Constitution with himself as this title.

Plebiscite
A new constitution consolidating his position was overwhelmingly approved in this form of voting otherwise known as a vote by the people. (McKay)

Concordat of 1801
This agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII gave the pope the right for French Catholics to practice their religion freely, but Napoleon gained political power: his government now nominated bishops, paid the clergy, and exerted great influence over the church in France. (McKay)

Treaty of Amiens
This treaty between the British and the French in 1802 which allowed France to remain in control of Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, the west bank of the Rhine, and most of the Italian peninsula. A clear diplomatic triumph for Napoleon, and a sign of peace with honor and profit.

Battle of Trafalgar
On October 21 of 1805, Admiral Nelson of England died in this struggle between France that ultimately destroyed the French fleet and with it any hope of the French landing in England.

Battle of Austerlitz
After Austria, Russia, and Sweden joined Great Britain to form the Third Coalition against France, Napoleon scored a brilliant victory at this battle against the Austrians and the Russians in December of 1805. This battle caused Alexander I to pull back, and Austria accept large territorial losses in return for peace as the Third Coalition collapsed. (McKay)

Alexander I
The Russian Tsar that decided that it was necessary to make peace with Napoleon after the Battle of Austerlitz. He signed the treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon

Battle of Jena
After the Prussians joined the Third Coalition Napoleon set out to destroy them at this battle where obliterated the Prussian army and occupied city of Berlin.

Third Coalition
The alliance between the countries of Austria, Russia, and Great Britain against the forces of Napoleon.

the German Confederation of the Rhine
After the third coalition collapsed Napoleon abolished many of the tiny German states as well as the Holy Roman Empire when he established this union of fifteen German states minus Austria, Prussia, and Saxony.

Treaty of Tilsit
The treaty between Napoleon and Alexander that saved Prussia from extinction and forced Prussia to become an ally of France in its battle against Great Britain.

The Hundred Days
Marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. Ended at the Battle of Waterloo

Duke of Wellington
The British commander that led a push into France with Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain which led to Napoleons abdication. Later he defeated Napoleon again at the Battle of Waterloo.

Battle of Waterloo
On June 18, 1815 the Duke of Wellington along with Marshal Blucher of the Prussian Forces defeated Napoleon's final battle and marked the end of The Hundred Days.

Levee en Masse
Responding to continued military crisis during the French Revolutionary wars, the National Convention sought to call up more troops to defend the new republic in this deceleration from the National Convention

Decrees of August 4
These were nineteen decrees or articles made in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution.

September Massacres
The September Massacres were a wave of mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. By the time it had subsided, half the prison population of Paris had been executed: some 1,200 trapped prisoners, including many women and young boys.