European History

Political and Diplomatic

Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

The hundred years war was between France and England and raged from 1337 to 1453. Both sides wanted control of the most powerful empires of europe so the House of Valois and the House Plantagenet fought for nearly a hundred years and destroyed nearly half of europe in the process.

The Medici Family

1400 - 1494

The Medici Family ruled the city state of Florence throughout the 1400s. They were bankers and politicians that controlled the city from behind the scenes. They became one of the richest and most powerful families in Italy and in Europe. In 1434 cosimo de Medici became ruler of Florence

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469

Ferdinand and Isabella - Ferdinand and Isabella were the rulers of Castile and Aragon, but when they got married in 1469 they combined their countries to make Spain. Together they were able to secure their borders and expand and conquer other countries. Spain became a strong world power.

Tudor Dynasty

1485 - 1603

Tudor Dynasty - in 1485 Henry VII took the throne of England as the first tudor. Henry VII created the Court of Star Chamber and passed other laws to increase the monarchy's power. The Tudor dynasty controlled england for generations.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Charles V was the king of the Spanish Empire and in 1519 became the the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the most powerful man in Europe. Until 1556 Charles V controlled half the continent of Europe.

Catherine de Medici

1547 - 1559

Catherine de Medici was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. She is a prime example of a politique ruler sd regent for her sons. She was able to keep the power in the monarchy by manipulating the nobility and constantly changing sides.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Peace of Augsburg was a settlement within the Holy Roman Empire passed in 1555. Each prince could determine whether his lands would be Lutheran or Catholic. This excluded Calvinists and for decades they fought to retain their rights and started the 30 year war.

Austrian Habsburgs

1558 - Approx. 1607

When Charles V died in 1558 the Austrian Habsburgs controlled the Holy Roman Empire. They controlled the Holy roman empire along with several other kingdoms in northern europe. The Habsburgs influenced europe For decades.

The Spanish Armada

1588

The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from La Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. It was attacked and defeated by the english. The english gained control of sea.

The Edict of Nantes

1598

The Edict of Nantes was signed on April 13, 1598 by King Henry IV of France. The Edict Granted as Huguenots substantial rights in France. This was very important because at the time france was very catholic and allowing protestants rights was a very big change and influenced the rest of europe for centuries.

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Peace of Westphalia was a German settlement in 1648. It gave German Princes the right to be either Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist. It ended the 30 year war in the Holy Roman Empire.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

The fronde was a series of civil wars in France from 1648-1653. French nobles tried to gain control but they eventually lost. The nobility wanted more power over the king.

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the Roundhead armies in England. He defeated the Cavaliers in 1645 and turned England into a puritan republic. He wanted to take down the monarchy and bring in presbyterian church system, people did not like his strict rules and when he died they went back to a monarchy.

Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

Peter the Great was ruler of Russia, he took control in 1689. He created a strong central system with an army and navy. He turned Russia into a strong central european power with one of the largest militaries.

The Glorious Revolution

Approx. 1697 - Approx. 1701

In 1698 the English throne went to William of Orange and his wife Mary. This was a glorious revolution because of the English Bill of rights and a transition from a king that has great power to a government controlled by the parliament.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

When king Charles of Spain died in 1700 he left his crown to his grandson, Philip, who also had a claim to the French throne. All of europe started fighting in the Wars of Spanish Succession because they did not want France and Spain to unite because they would be too powerful. Philip eventually took control of spain but gave up his claim to the french throne.

Fredrick William

1713 - 1740

Frederick William was the ruler of Prussia in the mid 1600s. Established himself as the leader of Prussia and created a central power with an army, and had good relations with the nobels. He made Prussia a central power

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Charles VI made the Pragmatic Sanction in 1713. It recognized female heirs as rightful rulers. He only had a daughter and he wanted to make sure that when he died that no one would challenge her authority.

The 7 Year War

1756 - 1763

The 7 Year War took place from 1756-1763. Frederick II began the conflict when Prussia attacked Austria. The war ended in 1763 with no significant changes to the borders. France and Austria would have destroyed Prussia if England had not provided them with financial aid.

The Diplomatic Revolution

1756 - 1757

The Diplomatic Revolution took place in 1756 and was a dramatic shift in alliances in europe due to the conflicts in the Americas. The french allied with Austria and the english allied with Prussia. This caused many conflicts between the countries.

Pugachev's Rebellion

1773 - 1775

Yemelyan Pugachev was responsible for Pugachev's Rebellion from 1773-75 and a series of revolts that occurred in Russia after Catherine II seized power in 1762. Pugachev assumed leadership of an alternative government and wanted to end to serfdom in Russia. This organized leadership presented a challenge to the to Catherine II.

Storming of the Bastille

1789

In 1789 the people of France stormed and destroyed a state prison on the east side of Paris called the Bastille. it was attacked by an aggressive mob. The prison a symbol of the monarchy's rule. This was one of the defining moments at the beginning of the French Revolution.

The Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major wars. the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, fought against the rest of the European powers, primarily led and financed by the United Kingdom

Irish Rebellion

1803

Irish rebel against british control in 1803. They are crushed militarily by the British, but unrest among the Irish will remain in Ireland through the rest of the century

Napoleon becomes Emperor

1804

Napoleon was a great military strategist that became the emperor of France, their first emperor in over 1000 years. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804 he established the French empire

HRE dissolved

1806

In 1806 The Holy Roman empire is formally dissolved when Francis I gives up his title of Holy Roman Emperor.Napoleon reorganizes much of it into his Confederation of the Rhine.

Congress of Vienna

1814

At the Congress of Vienna, September 1814 to June 1815, the British, Spain, Portugal, a new France, and the Netherlands are meeting to discuss the world without Napoleon. Russia is not happy that they were excluded.

World War 1

1914 - 1918

In 1914 the first world war broke out in Europe. It was the first Global war that began in Europe. It started with the assassination of the heir of the Austrian throne but because of the complicated web of treaties and alliances it soon involved most of Europe.

The Treaty of Versailles

1919 - 1920

The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the conflicts between Germany and the Allied Powers. The treaty also created the league of nations and brought temporary peace to Europe but also began the cold war.

Hitler joined the Nazi party

1919

Adolf Hitler joined the nazi party, Germany's Fascist party. he would soon rise to be one of the most powerful men in Europe and in all of the world. Germany was in a depression and hyperinflation and world war one had destroyed its economy. Hitler believed that fascism was a way to save the country.

League of Nations

1920

In January of 1920 the league of nations was created as a result of the treaty of Versailles and the end of World War 1. The united states was not inncluded so the orginization was not as powerful as it was meant to be

Chancellor of Gemany

1933

Adolf Hitler was legally elected Chancellor Germany in 1933. He was a fascist leader and greatly improved the economy of Germany and created many jobs fr the German people.

Cultural and intelectual

Black Death

Approx. 1348 - Approx. 1350

The Black Death was a plague that spread across europe in the mid 1300s. The plague killed 75 to 200 million, mostly peasants. It forever changed the the social structure and population of europe.

Erasmus

Approx. 1466 - Approx. 1536

Erasmus was born in the Netherlands and was the most famous northern humanist. He was a religious and educational reformer. He believed that people were capable of more and helped with major reforms to the church.

Michelangelo

1475 - 1515

Michelangelo was a renaissance artist. His most famous piece is the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Vatican City, he painted it in 1508. His art was a cornerstone of the Italian Renaissance.

Indulgences

Approx. 1490 - 1517

The Catholic church sold indulgences to people to forgive them for their sins all across Italy and Europe. Indulgences were sold for hundreds of years and by 1517 they were being used to pay for the renovation of the Vatican. Luther believed that the church did not have the power to sell indulgences and only god could forgive sins. This was one of the many things that luther and other humanists saw as corruption in the church.

The Mona Lisa

1503

In 1503 Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa. Da Vinci was a very important Renaissance artist and scientist who developed many other important works of art.

School Of Athens

1509 - 1511

The School of Athens was painted between 1509 and 1511 by Raphael.It was painted to decorate the rooms in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. It is one of the most famous paintings in the Italian Renaissance.

Salvation By Faith Alone

1513 - 1518

Martin Luther believed in salvation by faith alone and the movement became popular in europe from 1513 to 1518. Salvation by Faith Alone meant that good works did not determine one's eternal salvation. This eventually led to the creation of the lutheran church which was not the intent of luther at all.

95 Theses

1517

The 95 theses are a list of problems with the catholic church written by Martin Luther in 1517. Luther was angered and upset with the corruption in the church so he posted the 95 theses on a door in Wittenberg Castle church germany. This caused anger in the church and the monarchies and eventually led to the Diet of Worms

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

Mannerism is a style in European art that emerged around 1520 after the high renaissance, lasting until about 1580. Baroque style began to replace it in the late 16th Century.

The Diet of Worms

1521

The Diet of Worms was in Worms, Germany in 1521. It met to decide the fate of Martin Luther. He was placed under imperial ban because the pope and the holy roman emperor wanted him to stop spreading his ideas. He spent one year in hiding where he translated the bible.

Jesuits

1540 - Approx. 1560

Jesuits were a religious group created by the catholic church in the mid 1500s to fight the reformation and convert people back to catholicism. The jesuits worked in countries like the Holy Roman Empire because they were becoming strongly protestant. The counter-reformation succeeded in converting millions back to catholicism but failed to create a unified catholic europe.

On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres was a theory developed during the Renaissance by astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. He was one of the first people to go against what the bible said was the universe.

Baroque

1600 - 1750

The Baroque is an artistic style which used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting

Astronomia Nova

1609

Astronomia nova was published in 1609, by Johannes Kepler. he explained his findings from his 10 year study of the motion of Mars. the book was part of the discovery of planetary motion during the Scientific revolution.

Bishop Bossuet

1630 - 1650

Bishop Bossuet was Louis XIVs tutor in the mid 1600s. He believed in the divine right of kings and passes these thoughts on to Louis XIV. He helped Louis XIV make France an absolute monarch.

Cornelius Jansen

1630 - 1640

Cornelius Jansen was the leader of Jansenism. It was a french movement in the 1630s against the the influence of the jesuits. Even though they were devoutly catholic they were against royal authority . On May 31st 1653 the pope banned Jansen's Augustinus.

The Steam Engine

1698

Thomas Newcomen invented the steam engine in 1698 in england. The steam engine provided unlimited energy. It was the first steady source of energy in history.

Olaudah Equiano

1745 A.D. - 1797 A.D.

Olaudah Equiano was a freed slave living London in the late 1700s. He supported the British movement to end the slave trade. He gained support for the Slave Trade Act 1807, which ended the African trade for Britain.

Neoclassical

1750 - 1850

Neoclassicism is the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome

Thomas Malthus

Approx. 1770 - Approx. 1830

Thomas Malthus was a cleric and scholar in England in the late 1700s and early 1800s. He believed that while people increase exponentially and food could only increase linearly that eventually there would not be food for everyone. He was correct in many of his theories but incorrect in many.

Romanticism

1780 - 1850

Romanticism is An artistic and intellectual movement in the late 1700s. It focuses on nature and emphasis on the individual's expression. People wanted to return to the ideas of the past.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

In 1848 Karl Marx argued for socialism, revolutions occurred in Europe and he issued the communist manifesto. he is seen as the first communist.

Realism

1850 - 1900

Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s. Some artists rejected Romanticism. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement.

On the origin of species published by Charles Darwin

24th November 1859

In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. It is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

Game Laws

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1890

in the late 1800s game laws were passed in England. The laws allowed only nobles to hunt animals like deer. They wanted to exclude others from hunting to show that they were superior.

Impressionism

1870 - 1890

Impressionism was a very different art style than any others that had come before. it was much less realistic and much more focused on showing the emotions of the artists.

Post-Impressionism

1885 - 1915

Post-Impressionism is was the reaction in the 1880s against Impressionism. It was led by Paul Cézanne, and Vincent van Gogh. The Post-Impressionists rejected Impressionism's concern with the spontaneous and naturalistic rendering of light and color.

Cubism

1905 - 1920

Cubism, Futurism, Supremativism, Constructivism became popular modern art styles after post-impressionism. artists started to make pieces that were less and less realistic and were more expressive. brush marks were less exact and started to show emotion. The art was popular before and around World War 1 and began experimenting in new forms to express modern life

Abstract Expressionism

1940 - 1950

Abstract Expressionism is a Post–World War II style that includes pure abstraction and expression without form. World War II and the Cold War influnced Abstract Expressionism. some of the major artists are Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning, Rothko, Warhol, Lichtenstein

Postmodernism and Deconstructivism

1970 - Present

Postmodernism is an artstyle without a center and reworking and mixing past styles. The art style was influenced by the cold war and by the fall of comunism . Some of the major artist were Gerhard Richter, Cindy Sherman, Anselm Kiefer, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid

Economic and Social

Vitruvian Man, Da Vinci

1490

Leonardo da Vinci's drawing of the ideal human being this showed the humanist values that were present during the renaissance time period.

Columbus's Discovery of the New World

1492

In 1492 Columbus began his exploration of the new world, this was the beginning of the age of exploration. this opened up many economic opportunities for Europe

Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

Peasants in German principalities believed that Luther's message was that they had to overthrow their princes and gain control of there governments even though Luther mad it very clear that you had to respect your political authorities just not your religious ones.

St. Barts Day Massacre

August 22, 1572

It was a Massacre of Huguenots by the Catholics in France. It was plotted by Catherine de Medici and was supported by Spain and the Pope. The French government wanted to get rid of the Huguenots before they gained to much power in France. France was still catholic and needed the support and money of the pope.

John Law

1600 - 1620

John Law was a french economist in the early 1600s. He set up bank system and controlled the financial side of France for a while. He printed too much money and a financial bubble formed. His ideas eventually failed and it severely weakened france's economy.

Beginning of Slave Trade

1640 - 1680

Beginning of large-scale introduction of African slave labor in the British Caribbean for sugar production. This was the first time in history that a large number of slaves were used and chosen based on race.

Audiencias

Approx. 1650 - Approx. 1750

Audiencias were a system Spanish royal courts in spanish america in the 1600 and 1700s. Philip II created many of these in his colonies to administer royal justice. They were on of the most important parts of the colonial governments in the spanish colonies.

Leviathan

1651

Book written by Hobbes and was about the influence of social contract theory and about the problems with the structure of government.

The treaty of Utrecht

1713

The treaty of Utrecht established the board is for the Spanish Empire in 1713. The treaty gave the spanish government rights over most of south america, parts of north america, and the caribbean islands. At the time it was one of the biggest empires in the world.

Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu)

1748

The Spirit of the Laws is a treatise on political theory, published in 1748 Baron de Montesquieu

Enclosure Acts

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1860

In the late 18th century and the early 19th century enclosure had taken effect across all of England. English nobleman enclosed there farmland to increase profits but it resulted in lots of peasants losing their lands. Lots of land that had available to the public was fenced off and was now unusable by the peasantry

Social Contract (Rousseau)

1762

This was a book about Rousseau's view of the social contract theory.

Wealth of Nations

1776

A book on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth. written by the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

Versailles

1776

Louis 14 built Versailles in 1776 to house thousands of nobles in france and to show them that he was the king chosen by god that could outspend any noble. It was built as propaganda and a monument that represented the king's domination over the nobility

Yorkshire Association Movement

1778

In 1778 Christopher Wyvill created the Yorkshire Association Movement. Large groups of property holders met to demand that parliament lower taxes in england. They believed that parliament had not managed funds well and were spending too much on the american revolutionary movement

Principle of Population

1798

Principle of population was a book written by Thomas Malthus that explained how there is only a certain a mount of food that can be produced so the population can never increase too much. much of what he said about population was correct but he was also disproven when new agricultural methods were devolved.

Britain is a rising Industrial power

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

Britain is rising as an industrial power in the early 1800s. The average life expectancy is around 40

Italian Unification

1815 - 1817

Italian unification was the social movement that combined the different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1849

Irish potato famine killed approximately 1 million Irish citizens. it was a period of mass starvation in Ireland. There was not much genetic difference between the potato crop.

German Unification

1871

It was the social and political movement that led to the unification of all the German principalities into one country called Germany.

New Economic Policy

1921

The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin. Peasants were allowed to sell some of their produce for profit and small traders were allowed to run businesses

The Great Depression

1929 - 1939

In 1929 the Great Depression weakened European economies and the stock market crashed. all of the European and worldwide Economies were affected. Unemployment rates for most European countries went up 20%. Conditions for the improved after world war 2.

Collective Agriculture

1930 - 1940

In 1930 Joseph Stalin began collectivizing agriculture in the USSR. Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up their individual farms and join large collective farms. This was done to help rapidly industrialize the USSR.

Concentration Camps

1933 - 1945

From 1933 through 1945 concentration camps were established across northern Europe. The camps were designed to murder thousand of jews and other groups that Hitler disapproved of.

Molotov Plan

1947

The Molotov Plan was the system created by the Soviet Union in 1947 to provide money to rebuild the countries in Eastern Europe that were aligned to the Soviet Union. this was the soviet unions equivalent of the Marshall plan.

Marshall Plan

1948 - 1951

A program by which the United States gave large amounts of money to European countries to help them rebuild after World War II. The USA was trying to keep countries from becoming communist.

The Berlin Airlift

1948 - 1949

The Berlin airlift was the transportation by plane of supplies into West Berlin because the soviet union had closed off all transportation into the city. This happened in 1948 and was an important event in the cold war.

the Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

In 1961 the Berlin wall was built to separate east and west Berlin. Families were separated from each other. Conditions on the east side were not good and many people tried to escape to the west side.