AP Euro 3rd Trimester Timeline Project

Events

Invention of the printing press

1450

With the invention of the printing press came more accessibility of printed materials for people to read. Although few common Europeans were literate, the printing press allowed for more autonomy and individual expression. Bibles were more widely available for people to read on their own. This let people have their own individual interpretation of the Bible, without relying solely on the authority of the Catholic Church.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Ferdinand and Isabella marry

1492

The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella was the first major step in making Spain a world power. This marriage brought separate parts of Spain together into one, centralized nation. The monarchs consolidated their power by exiling Muslims and Jews from Spain and financing the voyage of Christopher Columbus. These efforts would unite Spain under one religion and transform the country into a dominating force overseas.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Columbus begins Spanish Exploration

August, 1492

When Columbus voyaged to the New World for Spain, he established the beginnings of one of the world's most powerful overseas empires. His work led to the colonization of South and Central America. This developed into imperialism, which proved to strengthen the power and increase the wealth of European countries who participated in it. The conquering of South and Central America allowed for the trading of new and valuable resources that boosted Spain's economy.

Theme: Imperialism

Erasmus publishes In Praise of Folly

1509

In Praise of Folly heavily criticized the corruption of the Catholic Church. In publishing his work, Erasmus supported the rejection of blind obedience to the Church. This coincides with the Renaissance idea that the individual is important and should not follow the majority simply because of tradition. In Praise of Folly also contributed to the Protestant Reformation, which protested the collective of the Catholic Church.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Machiavelli publishes The Prince

1513

Machiavelli's The Prince advocates for rational and secular government from the rulers. It argues that if religion is dominant, the ruler will be ineffective and irrational. This Humanist trend was growing during the Renaissance. Although it does not turn to science for guidance, the document reflects the view that religion should not be the governing factor in politics.

Theme: Shift away from religion

Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses

1517

The posting of the 95 Theses by Martin Luther was the event that sparked the Protestant Reformation. It exposed the corruption of the Catholic Church and especially criticized the selling of Indulgences. The document was also a sign of the importance of the individual against the collective. It highlighted the necessity to read the Bible for oneself and go against the dogmatic Catholic Church.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Peasant Revolts

1524

Although the Peasant Revolts of 1524 were brutally crushed, they still symbolized the growing awareness of people's own individuality. The peasants justified their revolts in the name of Martin Luther's Protestantism. In order to maintain favor with German authorities, Luther renounced the revolts. Even so, the peasants recognized their own importance as individuals and rose up against the rulers who were dictating their lives and stripping them of autonomy.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Act of Supremacy

1534

The Act of Supremacy was passed in England under Henry VIII. It recognized the King as the sole head of the Anglican Church. Henry VIII consolidated his power by making himself the only religious authority in England, leaving no room for anyone to surpass him. He was also able to marry Anne Boleyn this way.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Copernicus publishes On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Although Copernicus was wrong about many of his scientific findings, he still marked the transition from relying on religion to science. Copernicus's idea that the earth revolved around the sun and not vice versa directly contradicted tradition Christian teaching. This landed Copernicus in serious trouble with the Catholic Church. Even so, he began what the Scientific Revolution would later do: question religious teachings in order to pursue scientific accuracy.

Theme: Shift from religion to science

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent served as the Catholic Church's way of fighting back against the problem of the Protestant Reformation. While the Council of Trent did not deal with war, it still exemplified the animosity between the Protestants and the Catholics. It argued for its own religious superiority over the rising Protestants. The Council worked to fix corruption but largely held firm that the Church's doctrines were correct.

Theme: Religious Conflict

Elizabeth I's reign

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth I of England was a uniting force who set the stage for her country to be a modern world power. Elizabeth centralized the nation under the Anglican Church. She was able to strike balance between the Protestants and Catholics who had inhibited the country from reaching its true potential as a consolidated state. Elizabeth was one of the most successful politiques, placing government over religion.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity

1558

The Act of Uniformity established the English Book of Common Prayer as the only prayer book to be used during church services. This unified the way people in England worshipped. Elizabeth further bridged the gap between Protestants and Catholics by forcing everyone to worship the same way. This was a centralizing force in terms of England's religion.

Theme: Centralization of Power

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

As the French Calvinists, or Huguenots, grew in numbers during the Protestant Reformation, so did the opposition against them. The French Wars of Religion were ongoing conflicts between the Roman Catholics and Huguenots. This conflict could not be resolved diplomatically, so it led to violent warfare. Huguenots were often fighting for the opportunity to worship freely.

Theme: Religious Conflict

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Catherine de Medici was the one who orchestrated the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. She called for the assassination of Huguenot leaders. Catholic Parisians then proceeded to take to mobs in the street, killing many Huguenots. This event shows the bloody animosity that Catholics and Protestants had toward each other.

Theme: Religious Conflict

Edict of Nantes

1598

The Edict of Nantes was signed by King Henry IV of France. This edict ended the French Wars of Religion. It also gave Huguenots limited religious freedom and demanded the fighting between Catholics and Protestants stop. Of course, the only reason the edict was necessary was because the wars between the two groups has gotten out of control.

Theme: Religious Conflict

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1650

The Dutch Golden Age consisted of enormous prosperity for the Netherlands during the 1600s. The country was very decentralized, but because each region was autonomous, they were able to function well on their own. The Dutch economy benefited from the trade brought on by the Dutch East India Company. They also were religiously tolerant and provided a safe haven for artists and intellectuals, promoting the well-being of the individual over the collective.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Dutch East India Company founded

1602

When the Dutch East India Company was founded, it began the Dutch overseas trading empire. This significantly improved the economy and was a major contributing factor for the Dutch Golden Age. The company also instituted a Dutch presence in India. This showed how imperialism could increase a country's power and wealth.

Theme: Imperialism

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years War was fought because Calvinists were not represented in the Holy Roman Empire. German princes could choose to rule their principalities under Roman Catholicism of Lutheranism, but not Calvinism. Violence was used in order to resolve the religious conflict. This war further demonstrates how disagreements between Protestants and Catholics turned violent.

Theme: Religious Conflict

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Although the English Civil War had many political motives, it was also characterized by religious disputes. Parliament was unhappy with Charles I's reign, and he was executed. When Oliver Cromwell took control of the English government, instituted a Puritan Republic. In this way, the English Civil War can be seen as a religious conflict between Puritans and Anglicans.

Theme: Religious Conflict

Louis XIV's reign

1643 - 1715

The reign of Louis XIV is one of Europe's best examples of absolutism. Louis XIV believed in the divine right of kings's theory, which said his power to rule came directly from God himself. This enabled Louis XIV to completely consolidate the power of the French state in himself. His centralization made France an economic power that was envied and modeled after by many countries.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War. It allowed Calvinism to be an option for German princes to pick for their region, alongside Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism. This treaty also ended the Protestant Reformation. It did so by putting a stop to religiously motivated violence and conflict.

Theme: Religious Conflict

Hobbes publishes Leviathan

1651

Hobbes was significantly influenced by the English Civil War. He saw how damaging the effect of a weak ruler was. Because of this, his work Leviathan argues for the necessity of an absolute ruler. Hobbes also discusses the Social Contract Theory, which further justifies the peoples' need for and contentment with a powerful king.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Margaret Cavendish attends a meeting of the Royal Society of London

1667

Margaret Cavendish became the first woman to ever attend a meeting of the Royal Society of London. Although she was a brilliant scientist, she was often disregarded because she was female. When she attended the meeting, she reflected the slowly but surely changing view that women could provide a greater role in society. She represented other female scientists who were trying to assert their importance.

Theme: Changing role of women

Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

1687

The Principia Mathematica shows the new discoveries that were brought about by the Scientific Revolution. Newton's work developed the field of physics and mathematics. This would later translate into the applied science of the Industrial Revolution. Newton's discoveries reflect the importance of scientific fact and thought, rather than religious belief.

Theme: Shift from religion to science

Glorious Revolution

1688

The Glorious Revolution marked the transition of power from the English King James II to William of Orange. This switch in leadership came about peacefully. It established the dominance of the British Parliament over the monarchy. In this way, the Glorious Revolution helped instill the centralization of British power, only in Parliament, not the king.

Theme: Centralization of Power

John Locke publishes Two Treatises on Government

1689

Just as Hobbes was influenced by the English Civil War, Locke was influenced by the Glorious Revolution. He wrote Two Treatises on Government the year after he had witnessed a peaceful transition of power. This inspired him to advocate for the rights of the individual, because he had seen the best side of humanity. In this document, Locke argues for an individual's right to life, liberty, and property, which would later influence the American Revolution.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

The Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish Succession. It placed Philip V on the throne of Spain. Philip V was also the grandson of Louis XIV, making the new Spanish king a Bourbon monarch. This compromise maintained the balance of power and ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain more territory. In this way, it helped French centralization by keeping power in the traditional French borders.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Montesquieu publishes Spirit of the Laws

1742

The Spirit of Laws advocated for the separation of government powers. Montesquieu argued that just and effective governments were divided into three branches: judicial, legislative, and executive. This was characteristic of the Enlightenment, because it argued that rationality should be applied to politics. It also reflected the transition away from religious politics to a more secular system.

Theme: Shift away from religion

Diplomatic Revolution

January 1756

The Diplomatic Revolution marked a change in the traditional European alliance system. Before, Austria had been allied with Britain and Prussia had been allied with France. The Revolution caused Austria to ally with France and Prussia to ally with Britain. It's goal was to maintain the balance of power, which was necessary given the newly centralized governments threatening to dominate Europe.

Theme: Centralization of Power

7 Years War

May 1756 - 1763

The 7 Years War was caused by the shift in alliances from the Diplomatic Revolution. Much of the war was fought overseas in the colonies of the major European powers. In this way, it was a war fought over Imperialism conflicts. The result was Britain gaining more territory at the expense of the French.

Theme: Imperialism

British East India Company rules India

1757 - 1857

The British East India Company governed India for a century. This was the beginning of Britain's occupation in India. Their presence there contributed largely to Britain's rise as the dominant European power in the 19th century. The economy was significantly improved with access to Indian commodities.

Theme: Imperialism

Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations

1776

Adam Smith's work Wealth of Nations exemplifies the economic thought of the time period. It reflects the Enlightenment values of applying rationality to economics. In the document, Smith argues for Laissez-Faire policies, where the government does not interfere in the economy. He argued for more individual control of one's economic dealings.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen created in France

1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen may have been the most important document of the French Revolution. It defined individuals' natural rights, something that could never be withheld for any purpose. The Declaration was organized by the National Assembly and heavily influenced by the Enlightenment. It was the motivating force behind the early stages of the French Revolution.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Storming of the Bastille

1789

The Storming of the Bastille was one of the pivotal moments of the French Revolution. Peasants worked together to raid the Bastille prison for military equipment and weapons. This event showed how peasants recognized their individual importance against the oppressive monarchy. They were motivated by the promise of individual rights from a new republican form of government, where they could have representation.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Olympe de Gouge publishes the Declaration of the Rights of Women

1791

In response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, Olympe de Gouges wrote her own Declaration. This one, however, included women in the idea that all people have natural rights. De Gouges was eventually executed during the Reign of Terror for her outspokenness toward women's rights. However, she still made important progress by challenging the male dominated society with her declaration.

Theme: Changing roles of women

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The Reign of Terror was the series of mass executions conducted during the radical phase of the French Revolution. Maximilien Robespierre orchestrated the Terror. He began by executing the enemies of the Revolution, but as time progressed, the criteria for being an enemy became much broader. Robespierre's effort to consolidate his power through purifying the government mutated into a chaotic and paranoid mass slaughter.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Napoleon's Reign

1804 - 1814

The reign of Napoleon turned France once again into one of the most powerful empires in Europe. When Napoleon crowned himself Emperor, he effectively placed all of the government's power on his shoulders. The likes of this power consolidation had not been seen since the reign of Louis XIV. Napoleon shook the balance of power in Europe by expanding France's territory.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Congress of Vienna

1815

The Congress of Vienna was held with the main purpose of restoring the balance of power in Europe. Napoleon's reign had disrupted this balance and after his exile, it was necessary to restore order. This was mostly accomplished by Metternich, the Austrian Prince who organized the Congress. He established the Conservative Order in Europe, which centralized countries' power in a conservative government.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Great Reform Bill

1832

The Great Reform Bill was a liberal act passed by Britain's Parliament. It extended suffrage to a wider number of people and addressed concerns regarding the rights of the individual. Its primary goal was to end the corruption that had taken place in Parliament for so many years. The Bill acknowledged seats in the House of Commons for new cities created by the Industrial Revolution.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Opium Wars

1839 - 1860

The Opium Wars were fought between Britain and China. Britain wanted to legalize the trade of opium in China so they could expand their trading empire. They recognized the benefits of Imperialism in India and wanted to acquire valuable resources from China in a similar way. The wars ended up opening new ports, enabling the British to easily trade with the Chinese.

Theme: Imperialism

Revolutions across Europe

1848

After Metternich's Congress of Vienna, a Conservative Order was established throughout Europe. However, the new conservatism did not go unchallenged. During 1848, numerous European countries, like France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire experienced revolutions that challenged the Conservative Order. They called for more liberal reforms, constitutional monarchies, and more individual rights.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto

February 1848

Marx was the founder of Communism, and he wrote down the party's beliefs and goals in the Communist Manifesto. He was inspired by the power of the working class during the Revolutions of 1848. In the Manifesto, Marx stated that the proletariat would one day rise up collectively and overthrow the bourgeoisie, eliminating class structure. This philosophy was used in Russia later to overthrow the tsar.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Government of India Act

1858

The Government of India Act transferred control of India from the British East India Company to the actual government of Britain. This further strengthened England's presence in India. Britain regarded India as the crown jewel of their empire and wanted to control the country directly under the government. The trading and resources they acquired from India were a major factor in their ability to stay dominant for so long.

Themes: Imperialism

Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species

1858

In Darwin's On the Origin of Species, he presents his claim on evolution and natural selection. Much of what he had to say directly contradicted the Bible and religious teachings. Because of this, Darwin's ideas were sometimes rejected. Nonetheless, his work was still accepted by many people, showing that a growing number were relying more on science than religion.

Theme: Shift from religion to science

John Stuart Mill publishes The Subjection of Women

1869

In The Subjection of Women, John Stuart Mill criticizes the way society oppresses women. He advocates equality of the sexes and argues that there is no reason why women should be regarded as less than men. Mill believed that society as a whole would benefit from the equal treatment of women. He saw women's role not as servile, but as valuable.

Theme: Changing role of women

Bismarck unifies Germany

1871

The unification of Germany helped develop the nation into a world power. Bismarck was elected chancellor of Germany, and he used nationalism and conservatism to unite the people in a common love of country. He started the Franco-Prussian War, which was a huge victory for Germany. This made people proud of their country and feel the need for it to come together as one, gaining support for unification.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Married Women's Property Act

1882

The Married Women's Property Act was passed by the British Parliament. It allowed married women to own property of their own, separate from their husband. This advanced women's rights by granting them more power and autonomy. It showed that women were slowly being regarded as productive and more independent members of society.

Theme: Changing roles of women

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

As Germany rose to the world stage as an imperial power thanks to unification, European countries needed to regulate their overseas empires. They met at the Berlin Conference to discuss the colonization and trade in Africa. The Conference increased European power in Africa, limiting the autonomy of most African countries. It was held during the era of New Imperialism.

Theme: imperialism

Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand

1914

The Assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the event that sparked World War I. A group of Serbian nationalists killed the Archduke. This triggered World War I when Austria declared war on Serbia, bringing in other European countries due to the complicated system of alliances. Because the assassination was motivated by nationalism, it represented the point of contention between the good of the individual and the good of the group as a whole.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Russian Revolution

1917

Vladimir Lenin led the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The Bolsheviks were the Communist Party. They dethroned the tsar and established their own government under Communism. This began the shifting view that the collective was more important and beneficial to the society as a whole than the individual.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Women gain the right to vote in Britain

1918

The suffragettes worked for many years to get women the right to vote in Britain. When suffrage was finally extended to them in 1918, it marked a big step forward for the women's movement. By granting women the right to vote, Parliament acknowledged that women were intelligent and valued members of society. It allowed women to have a greater amount of influence in politics as well.

Theme: Changing role of women

Treaty of Versailles

1919

The Treaty of Versailles was the piece of legislation that effectively ended World War I. It placed full blame for the war on Germany and force them to pay war reparations to the rest of the European countries. This placed Germany in a state of financial crisis and political decentralization, because a centralized Germany would cause the country to be too powerful. In the end, the humiliation that Germany suffered from the Treaty of Versailles influenced Hitler to seek revenge during World War II.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Hitler publishes Mein Kampf

1923

Mein Kampf served as Hitler's plan of operation for when he obtained power. The book discusses Hitler's political beliefs and how he intended on transforming Germany. His ultimate goal was to restore Germany to its former glory, making it a world power once again. The Fascism outlined in Mein Kampf places the need of the collective above the need of the individual.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Hitler creates the Nazis' 25 Points

1925

The 25 Points outlines the Nazis' method of operation, goals, and mission. It lists the desire for more German territory and a land that consists only of people who are ethnically German. This shows that anti-semitism was clearly a defining factor of Nazism right from the beginning. It also reflects the idea that the greater good is more important than anything else, so individuals can be sacrificed along the way for the preservation of the state.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Beginning of Great Depression

1929

The American stock market crash of 1929 was the onset of the Great Depression worldwide. It forced Germany into a state of economic collapse, making money worthless and many people out of jobs. Hitler and the Nazi Party capitalized on the widespread discontent with the Weimar Republic's inability to help the situation. They promoted their Fascist ideas of the importance of the collective, and people supported it in hopes of bettering their lives.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Hitler appointed Chancellor

1933

Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Hindenburg. This gave him the power necessary to transform the German government. In his new position, Hitler consolidated all the power in him alone. This made Germany strong and almost invincible under the leadership of one man.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Jean-Paul Sartre publishes Being and Nothingness

1946

After World War II, Existentialism became the primary philosophy among European intellectuals. The war made people lose faith in traditional institutions like religion. Sartre's Being and Nothingness reflects the chaos and uncertainty that many people felt after the horrors of the war. The document also makes a strong argument for atheism and against religion as a whole.

Theme: Shift away from religion

Berlin Airlift

1948

During the Cold War, Berlin was divided into an East and West side. The West was controlled by the western allies, while the Soviet Union controlled the East. Stalin place a blockade on East Berlin, preventing food and other necessary supplies from entering the city. The United States brought in these supplies by plane during the Berlin Airlift, reflecting the Cold War battle between capitalistic democracy and communism.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Creation of NATO

1949

NATO was created in order to develop an alliance system against the Soviet Union. The organization offered protection from Communist forces. It essentially mandated that if one country were attacked by the Soviets, all other NATO countries would work to help the country being attacked. NATO is a more modern version of the centralization of power in that it creates a strength between allied countries.

Theme: Centralization of Power

Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex

1949

Simone de Beauvoir was an Existentialist who focused on the experience of women after the second world war. Her work, The Second Sex, illustrates the injustice that women faced in the post-war period. She emphasizes that women are "othered" and seen as a lesser version of men. This work exemplified how Simone de Beauvoir was an outspoken woman who was influencing the intellectual world.

Theme: Changing roles of women

Fall of Berlin Wall

1989

A large wall had been erected to separate West Berlin from East Berlin during the Cold War. When the wall fell, it meant that the two parts of Berlin would be unified. It also symbolized the Soviets' weakness, which would eventually lead to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was a victory for the democratic side promoting individualism and a loss for the communist side.

Theme: Individual vs. Collective

Creation of European Union

1993

The European Union began as the European Economic Community. Its major goals were to enhance economic integration among European countries. The European Union functions with the same purpose. It has worked to unify and centralize the economic and political affairs of the European countries who are members.

Theme: Centralization