A reaction to the Industrial Revolution, design leaders such as William Morris (1843-1896) and John Ruskin (1819-1900) believed in the beauty of hand-made quality goods. They resisted the use of the machine other than in aiding hand skills. In contradiction, Morris wanted his and others' quality products to be available and affordable for the mass population. The movement occurred in Britain and America and is characterized by simple, honest, timeless design
Aesthetic Movement designers in America, such as Christopher Dresser (1834-1904) were more open to using the machine, while still following the same constructive beliefs of the time.