1850 - 1910
A reaction to the Industrial Revolution, design leaders such as William Morris (1843-1896) and John Ruskin (1819-1900) believed in the beauty of hand-made quality goods. They resisted the use of the machine other than in aiding hand skills. In contradiction, Morris wanted his and others' quality products to be available and affordable for the mass population. The movement occurred in Britain and America and is characterized by simple, honest, timeless design
Aesthetic Movement designers in America, such as Christopher Dresser (1834-1904) were more open to using the machine, while still following the same constructive beliefs of the time.
Henry Cole (1808-1882) organized the event for various countries to come together and share ideas. He believed that it would lead to greater competition and a higher class of work.
1867 - 1959
While he was inspired by the ideals of Morris and Ruskin from the Arts and Crafts movement, he differed in their view of the machine. Wright believed the machine was worthy of use, as it saves time and effort and frees precious human labor.
Frank Lloyd Wright was always trying to answer the question of "What's appropriate for Americans?" He worked to think of Americans needs while also creating character and expression in his work. He founded the Taliesin School where he was the sole teacher.
Wright incorporated his houses and buildings into whatever landscape they were a part of. His last project was the Guggenheim Museum which was not entirely functional for the purpose of exhibiting art pieces, yet the architecture itself is a piece of art.
1880 - 1914
Art Nouveau, "New Art" in french, was a design movement characterized by a search for new vitality, energy, life force. Design was influenced heavily by flora and fauna featuring curvilinear lines and a sense of danger. Emphasis was on affecting people's moods and the machine was now being embraced.
A leading designer was Henry Van De Velde (1863-1957) who designed with factory production in mind and whose goal was for his products to reach as wide a population as possible.
A group of Austrian artists, painters, sculptors and architects banded together with the motivation to experiment with the new and reject emulation of the old.
One prominent member was Gustav Klimt
1900 - 1914
Two noteworthy early modernists include Adolf Loos (1870-1933) and Le Corbusier (1887-1965) who believed that progression of cultural intelligence was signified by a move away from applied ornamentation and towards the machine and the purest forms of function. They believed ornamentation was unnecessary and waste time, effort and money; in other words, childish.
Established by Josef Hoffmann and Kolomon Moser who broke off from the Vienna Secession. This group was centered on the value of individual work and against the evils and cheapness of the machine.
The goal of this group was to increase competition as an effort to improve manufacturing companies in Germany. The group composed of craftsmen who worked in partnership with mass production. This group emphasized form and function rather than ornamentation.
Inspired by Herman Muthesius (1861-1927) who believed achieving form was the fundamental task and the goal of the group to raise manufacturing quality.
"Form without Ornament"
Henry Ford (1863-1947) is often credited for the use of an assembly line to achieve mass production. This idea was very influential in design, as a way to increase speed and efficiency while lowering cost. Most importantly, it required less human effort.
1914 - 1918
World War I was traumatic for many, but also lead to a strong nationalism. Particularly in Paris, this influence sparked a new form of Art named Art Deco.
In addition, World War I created a push for new technologies that were later translated from war time to other aspects of life.