Environmental Legislation - By: Caleb Taylor and Zane Wallace

• (Green - Land) • (Blue - Water) • (Red - Biodiversity) • (Purple - Air) • (Brown - Animals) • (Orange - Energy (all kinds) • (Black - Food) • (Pink - People)

Acts

National Park Service Act , 1916

1916

• Established the National Park Service
• Preserve and unimpaired the land for future generations

Soil Conservation Act , 1935

1935

• Provided for control and prevention of soil erosion, delegated all activities relating to soil erosion to the Secretary of Agriculture, and established the Soil Conservation Service

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act , 1947

1947

• gives United States Department of Agriculture responsibility for regulating pesticides

Clean Air Act , 1955

1955

• provided research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control
• made states in charge of prevention and air pollution at the source

Fish and Wildlife Act , 1956

1956

• establishes a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy with emphasis on the commercial fishing industry but also with a direction to administer the act with regard to the inherent right of every citizen and resident to fish for pleasure, enjoyment, and betterment and to maintain and increase public opportunities for recreational use of fish and wildlife resources

Price-Anderson Act , 1957

1957

• designed to ensure that adequate funds would be available to satisfy liability claims of members of the public for personal injury and property damage in the event of a nuclear accident involving a commercial nuclear power plant
• encourage private investment in commercial nuclear power by placing a cap, or ceiling on the total amount of liability each holder of a nuclear power plant licensee faced in the event of an accident

Wilderness Act , 1964

1964

• Established the National Wilderness Preservation System

Water Resources Planning Act , 1965

1965

• established a Water Resources Council to be composed of Cabinet representatives, including the Secretary of the Interior
• established River Basin Commissions and stipulated their duties and authorities
• established a grant program to assist States in participating in the development of related comprehensive water and land use plans

Water Quality Act , 1965

1965

• required states to issue water quality standards for interstate waters, and authorized the newly created Federal Water Pollution Control Administration to set standards where states failed to do so

Land and Water Conservation Act , 1965

1965

• regulates admission and special recreation user fees at certain recreational areas
• establishes a fund to subsidize state and federal acquisition of lands and waters for recreational and conservation purposes

Species Conservation Act , 1966

1966

• provide a program for the conservation, protection, restoration, or propagation of species and subspecies of fish and wildlife, including migratory birds, that are threatened with extinction, or are likely within the foreseeable future to become threatened with extinction

Freedom of Information Act , 1966

1966

• allows full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the US government

National Trails System Act , 1968

1968

• established the Appalachian and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails and authorized a national system of trails to provide additional outdoor recreation opportunities and to promote the preservation of access to the outdoor areas and historic resources of the nation

National Environmental Policy Act , 1969

1969

• assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that significantly affects the environment

Marine Mammal Protection Act , 1972

1972

• Need a permit to take an animal(except natives)
• people may not harass, feed, hunt, capture, collect, or kill any marine mammal or part of a marine mammal

Clean Water Act , 1972

1972

• introduced goals of eliminating releases of high amounts of toxic substances into water
• introduced National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System which regulates point sources of pollution

Endangered Species Act , 1973

1973

• protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation

Renewable Resources Planning Act , 1974

1974

• A bill to amend the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 and related laws to strengthen the protection of native biodiversity and ban clearcutting on Federal land, and to designate certain Federal land as ancient forests, roadless areas, watershed protection areas, special areas, and Federal boundary areas where logging and other intrusive activities are prohibited

Safe Drinking Water Act , 1974

1974

• established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources
• EPA to establish minimum standards to protect tap water and requires all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with these primary (health-related) standards

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species , 1975

1975

• ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild
• accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act , 1976

1976

• gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes

Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act , 1976

1976

• authorizes long range planning by the United States Forest Service to ensure the future supply of forest resources while maintaining a quality environment
• RPA requires that a renewable resource assessment and a Forest Service plan be prepared every ten and five years

Federal Land Policy and Management Act , 1976

1976

• governs the way in which the public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management are managed

National Forest Management Act , 1976

1976

• designed to counter damage to natural ecosystems on public lands
• U.S. Forest Service to develop regulations that limit the size of clearcuts, protect streams from logging, restrict the annual rate of cutting, and ensure prompt reforestation

Soil and Water Conservation Act , 1977

1977

• appraises the status and trends of soil, water, and related resources on non-Federal land and assesses their capability to meet present and future demands
• evaluates current and needed programs, policies, and authorities
• develops a national soil and water conservation program to give direction to USDA soil and water conservation activities

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act , 1977

1977

• program to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations, and to set forth reclamation guidelines for surface mining areas
• States in which there are surface mining operations on non-Federal lands are directed to develop programs which provide for environmental regulations, establish permit programs, and provides for enforcement procedures for requirements of the state program
• Any state which does not have a management program, approved by the Department of Interior, will be governed by the rules and regulations set forth in the Federal program, as developed by the Department of Interior
• Similar programs are to be developed by the Department of Interior, in conjunction with the States, for surface mining operations on Federal lands

Arctic Conservation Act , 1978

1978

• this act makes it unlawful to take native mammals or birds
• enter specially designated areas
• introduce non indigenous species to Antarctica
• use or discharge pollutants
• discharge wastes
• import certain Antarctic items into the US

Energy Tax Act , 1978

1978

• shift from oil and gas supply to energy conservation
• promote fuel efficiency and renewable energy through taxes and tax credits

Low Level Radioactive Policy Act , 1980

1980

• established that each state was responsible for disposing low level radioactive waste generated within its boundaries

Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act , 1980

1980

• authorizes financial and technical assistance to the states for development, revision, and implementation of conservation plans and programs for non-game fish and wildlife

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act , 1980

1980

• Also called superfund, designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances
• created Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry which uses federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment

Nuclear Waste Policy Act , 1982

1982

• use of deep geologic repositories for the safe storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste. The Act establishes procedures to evaluate and select sites for geologic repositories and for the interaction of state and federal governments. It also provides a timetable of key milestones the federal agencies must meet in carrying out the program

International Environmental Protection Act , 1983

1983

• amended the natural resource provisions of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act by authorizing the President to assist other countries in wildlife and plant protection efforts in order to preserve biological diversity

Food Security Act , 1985

1985

• allowed lower commodity price and income supports and established a dairy herd buyout program

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act , 1986

1986

• allocated funds from the Land and Water Conservation Fund for the purchase of wetlands by the secretary of the interior
• also instituted a National Wetlands Priority Conservation Plan

Montreal Protocol , 1987

1987

• Protect stratospheric ozone
• Phase out compounds that deplete the ozone, cfc, halons, carbon tetra chloride, methyl chloroform

Ocean Dumping Ban Act , 1988

1988

• transportation of material from the United States for the purpose of ocean dumping
• transportation of material from anywhere for the purpose of ocean dumping by U.S. agencies or U.S.-flagged vessels
• dumping of material transported from outside the United States into the U.S. territorial sea. A permit is required to deviate from these prohibitions

Madrid Protocol , 1989

1989

• designates Antarctica as a ‘natural reserve, devoted to peace and science’
• establishes environmental principles for the conduct of all activities
• prohibits mining
• subjects all activities to prior assessment of their environmental impacts
• provides for the establishment of a Committee for Environmental Protection, to advise the ATCM
• requires the development of contingency plans to respond to environmental emergencies
• provides for the elaboration of rules relating to liability for environmental damage.

Lacey Act , 1990

1990

• makes it unlawful to import, export, sell, acquire, or purchase fish, wildlife or plants taken, possessed, transported, or sold

Pollution Prevention Act , 1990

1990

• focused industry, government, and public attention on reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use
• Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Source reduction refers to practices that reduce hazardous substances from being released into the environment prior to recycling, treatment or disposal
• Pollution prevention includes practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water, or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation

Environmental Education Act , 1990

1990

• promotes environmental education
• established the Office of Environmental Education within the Environmental Protection Agency to develop and administer a Federal environmental education program

California Desert Protection Act , 1994

1994

• designated 69 wilderness areas as additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System
• abolished Death Valley national monument and incorporated its land into Death Valley National Park
• abolished Joshua Tree National Park and incorporated its land into Joshua Tree National Park
• established Mohave National Preserve

Food Quality Protection Act , 1996

1996

• standardized the way the EPA would manage the use of pesticides and amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, And Rodenticide Act and the Federal Food Drug and Cometic Act

Kyoto Protocol , 1997

1997

• set binding obligations on the industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases