Timeline of Henry VII


Before Henry's Reign

Beaumont line barred from the succession


Henry gets his line through his mother, Margaret Beaufort
(bastard daughter of John Gaunt)
barred by Henry IV
Makes Henry's claim even weaker

Henry VI has a mental breakdown


Starts the ~30 years of dynastic strife in England

Richard, Duke of York tries to capture the throne


Start of the wars of the Roses

Edward IV deposes Henry VI


Henry VI briefly regains throne 1470-71

Direct Lancastrian line all dead


Henry Tudor into exile in Brittany


Leaves from Wales
(and later France)

Edward IV dies

April 1483

12 year old Edward V heir to throne

Richard III deposes Edward V

June 1483

Henry Tudor is now again a viable rival claimaint

Richard, Duke of Gloucester, uncle to the boy king
supposed to be protector
likely he has the boys killed
probably thought the Woodvilles would get too much power

this reignites the civil wars, giving Henry the opportunity to take the throne

"opened more dramatic possibilites"says Cunningham

Battle of Bosworth

22 August 1485

Henry wins the throne

Henry's step uncle Sir William Stanley decisively stepped in to Henry's favor
Richard III killed (v good for Henry's position)

Henry's supporters rewarded (not miser):
- foremost Jasper Tudor as duke of Bedford.
 John Morton was soon promoted archbishop of Canterbury and chancellor,
 John, Lord Dynham, treasurer of the exchequer
 Thomas Stanley was made earl of Derby
 his brother Sir William chamberlain of the household

Cunningham says those who fought agains thim allowed back in
e.g. Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey,
 who eventually succeeded Dynham as treasurer.

Henry Securing the throne

Edward, Earl of Warwick put in the tower


Son of Edward IV's brother, George, Duke of Clarence

Probably had the strongest claim to the throne

Henry arrives in England

August 1485

With ~400 exiles and same no. of French + Scottish troops
Jasper Tudor, John de Vere earl of Oxford

"Henry was never able to free himself from Yorkist plots against his throne."

Sir Giles Daubeney made baron


=> does reward those who loyal

Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York

January 1486

Margaret Beaufort (Henry's mother) and Elizabeth Woodville had conspired together against Richard
It was agreed that if he took the throne, he would marry the Woodville's daughter, Elizabeth of York

<6 weeks after he was crowned king

described as a "talented peacemaker"
although she was overshadowed by an "overbearing" mother in law, as if she was queen

=> Yorkists all get on side

Arthur is born

19 September 1486

Significantly strengthens Henry's dynastic position, says Cunningham

Battle of Stoke

16 June 1487

Lambert Simnel's supporters are routed by Henry's

Bc Warwick was in tower, was able to show that pretender

supported by:
Viscount Lovell (never heard of again)
John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (dies in the battle)
Margaret of York, dowager Duchess of Burgundy, Edward IV's youngest sister
Kildare's brother killed

Simnel had:
2,000 German mercenaries
4,000 Irish footsoldiers

Cunningham says Henry had ~2x the troops

John Guy described Simnel as the "easiest to deal with" (in reference to conspirators
although he had serious support in Ireland and Yorkshire
=> Cunningham says most of Ireland had recognised Simnel as king

Obscure plot found in Henry's household

December 1487

Plots in favour of Earl of Warwick


the real one

three executions
large fine on the abbot of Abingdon.

Subsidy of 1489


Raise only 1/3 of expected

Cunningham says it caused significant domestic problems too
=> quite heavy

Plot in Yorkshire against Henry


Cunningham says triggered by the subsidy for the expedition to Brittany

Sir Rober Willoughby made baron


=> does reward those who support him

Henry Percy killed in the North

April 1489

By rioters in Yorkshire
=> he was lieutenant in the north

• June,
• compensated for Northumberland's loss
• Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, as his lieutenant in the north,
• a role the rehabilitated Ricardian performed with distinction

Princess Margaret born

29 November 1489

Arthur made PRince of Wales following day

Second Plot in Yorkshire against Henry

January 1491

both result in executions and large FINES

Sir Robert Chamberlain, caught while trying to leave for France

Henry VIII born


Perkin Warbeck conspiracy


"nurtured in Ireland" -Guy
claims to be Richard, Duke of York

later months of this year

Cunningham calls this the "most threatening"
=> considering he is a pretender then, not too bad

Parliament assemble

October 1491

two fifteenths and tenths tax

Earl of Surrey quickly suppresses a tax revlot


Was rehabiliated, does show that Henry reconciled

Warbeck moved to Court of Charles VIII

March 1492

of France

by his supporters
=> triggered full blown war against France, says Cunningham

Warbeck wins over Sir William Stanley


king's chamberlain of the household (v close to king)
(Guy says was in 1493)

also is:
• John Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter

Yorkist broach found at Stanley's manor + his treasonable correspondance with Warbeck
Stanley beheaded in 1495

Penn + Cunningham say he was more suspicious after this
=> retreats into privy chamber

Series of arrests


of those conspiring with Warbeck in Henry's court

• including the dean of St Paul's and the provincial of the Dominicans
(Stanley +Fitzwalter)

=> Henry had sent Sir Robert Clifford as spy to Burgundian court

Warbeck + supporters invade England by sea


at Deal
=> beaten off by local levies
163 captured, 53 Englishmen executed later

=> thwarted in Ireland also

Cornish rebellion

May 1497

Henry had believed that the Scottish invasion had been part of a longer war
=> started raising taxes

Cornish people objected to this

rebellion led by blacksmith St Keverneon the Lizard

In Somerset they were joined by (only) Lord Audley
Only a few gentry

camped on Blackheath with >15,000

Plenty of nobles + gentry join, loyal to Henry

Defeated 17 June
leaders executed by end of month (Dealt with)
=> lots of fines + investigations
 Ian Arthurson saying it was a geographically spread attempt to remove Henry

Bc of this, never invaded Scotland

Warbeck's forces land in Cornwall

September 1497

fresh revolt

Warbeck has only 300 supporters

but by the time they reach Exeter they are joined by the remnants of those from Blackheath
=> said to be 8,000 to beseige Exeter

rebels soon melt away as Henry returns at full speed from Scotland
Under Daubeney + Willoughby de Broke

Warbeck captured
- Gunn says Henry had now averted "perhaps the greatest crisis of his reign"

Henry's more secure reign

Patronised Bristol-based voyages


of Atlantic exploration by the Genoese Cabot family

French ambassador writes about Henry


‘He would like to govern England in the French fashion, but he cannot’

Revolt in Meirionydd, Wales


Gunn said prompted by the king attempting to make profit out of princely jurisdiction
=> kept all the MArcher lords in bonds + recognizances

Pretender executed


Claiming to be Earl of Warwick
=> dealt with swiftly
Ralph Wilford

Earl of Suffolk travels to Guisnes

July 1499

Edmund de la Pole

one of the fortresses of Calais
without permission

had ignored Lord Bergavenney's suggestion that him and Lord Audley joined the Cornish rebels

But still had "draconian" fines placed on him for Lincoln's treachery
=> Guy's interpretation

CUNNINGHAM is more forgiving

sought the protection of his aunt, Margaret of York

his friend Sir James Tyrell (a member of Henry's garrison at Calais) allowed him to stay there. secretly offered to defect permanently

Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick hanged

November 1499

Warbeck had tried to escape twice now

Penn things that Henry framed/planned their escapes in order to justify executing them both (Machiavellian)
=> diplomatic suggests that it was the anxiousness of Spain that had triggered this

Cunningham says "the Yorkist threat seemed to have died with them"
-Suffolk persuaded to return home
-John Taylor in the tower -> had been the coordinator of Yorkist plots

Spanish ambassador writes home


‘England has never before been so tranquil and obedient as at present’

Henry gains control of North


"until 1500 or so, Henry had only fitful control of the North"-Guy

Suffolk flees for good


with his brother Richard to Aachen

Demands restoration of his ducal title, which he had not been allowed on death of his father

began to plot a Yorkist invasion of England
calls for support from Maximilian (Warbeck's old patron)

as a result Henry organised a "web of spies and informers" -Guy

Suffolk and his retinue attainted by parliament

• leading figures at court and in the garrisons of the Calais pale were under suspicion of plotting with him against the king.
• Lord William Courtenay
• Sir James Tyrell
• Sir Robert Curson
=> another round of arrests + executions

Katherine and Arthur marry

November 1501

Aged 15 and 16 they live together
"the zenith of Henry's reign, the point at which, for the first time since he had captured the crown, he had everything within his control" -Guy

payed more attention to the de la Poles even as they became more marginalised, impoverished them with his "intensively active diplomacy"
=> Guy says starting to get more suspicious from here

Purge of surviving males with a Yorkist connection

1502 - 1506

says Guy

in response to the de la poles fleeing

Henry buys Maximilian withdrawing any support for rebels

June 1502 - July 1502

for £10k

Asked Louis XIII to use his influence in Germany
=> to purchase Suffolk wherever went next

"Calais conspiracy"


Not a real conpiracy

The captains of Calais talk of who could be the next king. Speaking highly of de la Pole + others
=> never mention Prince Henry
H7's spies pick up -> he arrests + is v worried
probs overreacts

"The end of Summer" => Henry's reign gets harsher

All historians agree that this part of the reign was more draconian

"The years after 1502 were marked by a decline in Henry's health and, some contemporaries felt, in the character of his kingship."-Cunningham

Bond use accelerates sharply


Cunningham said used them as a means to control

Places 220 bonds



Prince Arthur dies

2 April 1502

After this Henry would not let the young Henry out of his sight (not allowed to joust)

Henry increasingly reliant on his spies

1503 - April 1509

But won't hear a word against his own men says Guy (ie Dudley)

Reginald Bray dies


succeeded by Richard Empson
=> reign takes a turn for the worse
hated by many for his draconian enforcement of debts to the crown with Edmund Dudley

after this death individual ministers or bodies with responsibility for the pursuit of different classes of income began to proliferate.
 master of the wards
 surveyor of the king's prerogative
 general surveyors of crown lands.

Subjects loyal to Henry start turning against him

  • Lord Bergavenney
  • Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset => disgraced

Elizabeth of York dies

February 1503

Henry becomes far more suspicious after this

became more scared of plots and pretenders
retreated into his privy chamber
increasingly relied on spies and informers
health started to fail, suffered a minor stroke, difficulties with eyesight, difficult to write

Edmund de la Pole leaves Aachen


imprisoned by the Duke of Gueldres (Henry had paid him to detain him)
=> until negotiations could be completed with Archduke Phillip the hadsome
receives gifts etc.

Last parliament of the reign


Dudley speaker
"a troubled assembly"-Gunn

Numerous attainders
=> followers of Warbeck/Suffolk

Act against retaining
=> resistance
limited to the king's lifetime
"This opposition was symptomatic of a feeling growing during Henry's last decade that he was becoming unduly rapacious towards his subjects."-Gunn

Until this time had levied parliament only to fund wars

Henry secures special clause in papal licence


"for his confessor confirming whatever absolution he had been given for illicit receipts from the sale of spiritual office."
=> even Henry knows he is avaricious

Dudley becomes president of the king's council


Henry was ‘much sett to have many persons in his danger at his pleasure’-Dudley

Henry falls sick in the early part of each year


From this time
=> rallies in summer

Henry dies

21 April 1509

followed by a court coup
Empson and Dudley executed

Henry 8th didn't succeed automatically, had a council which controlled him until Wolsey came along

illegally held prisoners quielty released

"Henry died just at the right time" -Guy
=> just before anyone tried to take the crown, like with R3

Number of peers had gone from 55 to 42
=> mostly by natural wastage
didn't appoint new

148 attainders had been passed throughout his reign

Henry's early foreign policy

Gunn says Henry "forced out of neutrality"


Over Britanny
=> with the death of Francois and the capture of the place
Parliament met next January + gave an "unprecedented" subsidy"

Henry begins negotiations with Spain for marriage


King Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

To betroth their youngest daughter Katherine to Prince Arthur

Various truces with Scotland

1488 - 1492

Treaty of Medina del Campo


Spain closed to Yorkist pretenders -> v good
Future marriage alliance settled in principle (proxy marriage)

Henry's troops go into Brittany

March 1489 - April 1489

"most were home by christmas"

"Henry had spent some £124,000 for nothing"-Cunningham

Cunningham says it did show at leas thtat he had expanded England's navil power
 The Regent
 The Sovereign
• larger than any ships built by his immediate predecessors.

Henry's mid-reign foreign policy

Troops sent to Ireland after this time


Bc Henry worried about Kildare supporting Warbeck

Henry prepares for a "minor" invasion of France

March 1492

already knew he wanted to settle before the invasion

Guy says this because of Warbeck NOT because of the occupation of Brittany
makes sense, Penn points out that the Duke tried to sell out Henry twice while he was in exile

Kildare dismissed as deputy

June 1492

Treaty of Etaples

November 1492

Charles wanted to quickly end the war in order to take control of Naples

"perhaps the best he could now hope for"-Cunningham

  • stop supporting each other's rebels
  • pay for Henry's costs in full of the war, £159,000 (French pension regained) -peace

Warbeck escapes to Malines in the Burgundian Netherlands
=> costly trade war with the Netherlands

Kildare arrested and attainted


Kildare's attainder reversed

October 1495

Magnus Intercursus

February 1496

Trade with Netherlands restored
=> more secure after just bapped of Warbeck from England

Kildare restored as deputy

August 1496

retained the position for rest of reign
with "effective, if largely unsupervised, governance."-Cunningham

Botched Scottish invasion

September 1496

during the Summer

"glorified border raid"-Guy

James gave Warbeck 1400 followers

hoped to raise the whole of the north in rebellion
=> Warbeck disilusioned by JAmes
probs bc north didn't rise up
-> weren't roused by his manifesto against harsh taxes + low-born ministers

Parliament grant £120k taxation

16 January 1497

"heaviest taxation of the century"-Gunn
=> for a fleet carrying 5k men against Scotland

Henry makes truce with James IV

August 1497

to last for 7 years

at Ayton

when truth expired, James would marry Henry's eldest daughter Margaret "treaty of perpetual peace"

bound the two rulers to not support each others' rebels

Henry's more secure foreign policy

Treaty of Etaples renewed


With Louis XII, Charles' successor

From this time sought peace with Scots


says Cunningham

Arthur and Catherine married by proxy

May 1499

(not binding)

Catherine would be sent to England when she was 14

£20k palace built for marriage + celebrations
=> not miser

John Taylor surrendered by the french

September 1499

Visits Calais


For a meeting with Philip the Fair of Burgundy
=> to clear up trade issues
discuss possible marriage for Prince Henry + his younger sister

End of reign foreign policy

Peace with Scots

January 1502

Phillip paid a "loan"


small loan of £138,000 (more than his entire annual revenue from the crownlands)
for Edmund de la Pole

loans to Phillip £226,000-£342,000 by H's death

Phillip and Juana blown ashore


near Weymouth on their voyage to Spain
Henry entertained him
Trade agreement made HIGHLY FAVOURABLE to English merchants in cloth trade

Phillip offered (reportedly unasked) to hand over Suffolk
Suffolk taken to the tower

"received magnificently"
=> does spend

Death of a number of Henry's leadind councillors + supproters

in the later years

Cunningham says it heightedn political insecurities

Brings new men to the fore e.g. Edmund Dudley

Cardinal Morton dies


John, Lord Dynam dies


Robert, Lord Willoughby de Broke dies


Sir Reginald Bray + George Stanley, Lord Strange die


Tomas Stanley, earl of Derby dies