Period of new ideas based on reason from Scientific Revolution
1.Spinnoza-philosopher-> conception of self
2.Locke-father of classic liberalism/natural rights/humans are born as a blank slate(tabula rosa)
3.Newton-natural principles/was the forerunner of scientific rev./world machines/physics
4.Voltaire-freedom of religion, expression, etc./ADD
Montesquieu:Spirit of Laws-applied scientific method to figure out natural laws governing relationships
3 basic gov.: republics(small states, based on city involvement) monarchy( mid-size states, ruling class who adhere to laws) and despots( large empires, dependent on fear to inspire obedience)
Criticized royal absolutism, lack of religious tolerance, lack of freedom of thought
- championed deism- world machine
Normans (vikings from France) cross the English Channel
Battle of Hastings (1066)- Normans beat the Anglo-Saxons(English), take over England
~the aristocracy of England becomes French, while the peasants are obviously still English
~Normans gain English throne, but also continue to rule France
Cause: Who owns Britain? Who owns France?
Rulers of England are now called Plantagenet vs. Valois (French)
Valois had issues with succession, Normans/Plantagenets claim French throne
Fought 100 yrs. to figure out their countries' succession after both Kings died
Battle of Agincourt (1415)
English go to France, size of English army < French army (1:14)
English had archers/ the long bow, which was a big help
Joan of Arc led English armies----the English win, but don't control France
Fight between Yorks & Lancasters over English Throne
END: Henry Tudor (Lancaster) wins and begins the Tudor Dynasty
Background: conflict lasted under 100 yrs
~It involved all Italian city-states, Venice, the Papal States & most European states
~CAUSE: dynastic trouble between Milan & Naples--> were interrelated, thought they should rule each other
1ST STAGE: King Charles VIII's War
- Milan vs. Venice
- Milan encourages Charles VIII (King of France) to invade Italy
-League of Venice created to fight French aggression--> end up winning
RESULT: shows the world that though the City States are rich, they are also weak
2ND STAGE: King Louis XII's War
- King Louis=French--> invades Italy again, but mostly attacks Milan
- the HRE gets involved & invades Pisa and Florence
- Pisa asks France for help
- France & ally Spain eventually win Naples, but later withdraw due to other conflicts
3RD STAGE: War of the League of Cambrai (Pope vs. Venice)
- starts with Pope--> his league/allies= Spain, Ferrara, and the HRE
- France doesn't get along with the Pope
- The Pope, who had previously spent time fighting in Venice decides that France is the problem instead
- Pope creates the Holy League= England, Spain, HRE vs. France
- France invades Milan, is defeated
- Pope dies, leaving the League without leadership so it falls apart, leaving France with the ability to attack Italy again
- Together, France & Venice conquer most of Northern Italy
4TH STAGE: War from 1521-1526
-King Charles of Spain becomes Emperor of the HRE--> HABSBURG RULE
- collapse of relationship between Habsburgs & France
- France & HRE fight--> France loses
-Treaty of Madrid: France is forced to give up Italy, Flanders, and Burgundy
5TH WAR: War of the League of Cognac
-Starts in 1526, Spain/HRE is gaining too much power
-Pope forms the league of Cognac=Papal States, France(King Francis I), England (King Henry VIII), Venice, Florence, Milan
- VERSUS Holy Roman Empire (the Imperial Army)
- The Cognac League seems to be winning, but Venice and France both leave the alliance, weakening it and allowing the Imperial Army to attack
- The Imperial Army sacks Rome--> the Pope is imprisoned
-Peace treaty established in 1529
Venice makes peace w/Charles V & the Medici's control Florence (allied w/HRE)
6TH STAGE: Sixth Italian War
- Charles V arrives in Italy, politically reorganizes the country's government/border
*END OF INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES**
- France & HRE on brink of war-->Duke of Milan dies--> war begins
- France captures Piedmont & Charles V invades Provence, but is blocked
- Charles V, who is also at war with the Ottomans, drops out to focus on that
- Treaty of Nice--> brings no significant changes
7TH STAGE: 1540'S
- Francis I(France) & Ottomans declare war against the HRE
- France & Ottomans capture Nice--> sends shockwaves throughout Europe because Christianity(France) and Islam (Ottomans) are working together
- HRE defeats French army in Piedmont
- Duke of Florence (married to Charles V's daughter) is killed
- Florence establishes a republic and creates an army
- HRE defeats Florentine army--> joins forces w/England-->invades France again
--They end up abandoning their campaign and nothing comes out of the war
8TH & FINAL STAGE: 1551-1559
1547--Francis I (France) dies, his son Henry II takes over
- declares war on Italy to show power
- takes back French speaking towns in HRE
1556--Charles V abdicates his throne
- ends cycle of war--makes Ferdinand King of HRE and makes Phillip King of Spain
-Peace of Cateau-Cambresis- England renounces claims in Italy
- Henry II(France) dies, son Francis II takes over--CAUSED FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION
Italian Wars= division between medieval and modern military technology
-field artillery, muskets,cavalry,modern military structure
Ottomans are still a major power
CAUSE: Schmalkaldic League= Lutheran German Princes against Charles V (HRE)
END: Peace of Augsberg- rulers of a German region can choose Catholicism of Lutheranism for their region.
CAUSE: Religious issues
Nobles, towns and provinces trying to resist centralization
END:Edict of Nantes
French kings persecuted Calvinists (Huguenots) but with no success
Huguenots came from all parts of society, including artisans and shopkeepers hurt by rising prices and rigid guild system, merchants and lawyers from provincial towns whose privileges were tenuous, and members of French nobility (especially members of House of Bourbon)
Majority of people and the Valois monarchy were Catholic
Catherine de Medici becomes de facto ruler for her two regent sons and seeks compromise, but finds this difficult
Ultra-Catholics led by Guise family
Civil Wars about more than just religion, they were also about towns and provinces revolting against monarchy
Politiques emerge with belief that no religious matter is worth ravaging civil war and that politics is more important than religion
Wars erupt in 1562 when duke of Guise kills Huguenots at Vassy
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in August 1572 occurred during apparent reconciliation when sister of Valois King Charles IX and Henry of Navarre, the Bourbon ruler, got married.
Guise family convinces King and mother Catherine that Huguenots wedding guests in Paris were a threat, resulting in death of 3,000 Huguenots and Henry of Navarre’s promise to convert to Catholicism
Ultra-Catholics form Holy League in 1576 and plan to seat Henry, duke of Guise, on French thrown in place of Henry III who has succeeded Charles IX
Turning point in wars came with War of Three Henries in 1588-1589...Henry duke of Guise seized Paris and forced his way to chief minister
Henry III then assassinated Henry duke of Guise and joins with re-Calvinized Henry of Navarre to crush Catholic Holy League
They are successful, but then a monk in 1589 assassinated Henry III because he was a Catholic king in alliance with a Protestant Henry of Navarre
Henry of Navarre becomes king but converts to Catholicism, thus ending the French Wars of Religion
Problems persist until Edict of Nantes in 1598 proclaims Catholic the official religion but grants official religious freedoms to Protestants
Key events: St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre, War of Three Henrys
CAUSE: King Philip (Spain) tried to prevent the spread of Protestantism/ Dutch didn't want to pay taxes to Spain
END: Southern Netherlands go to Spain
Northern Provinces are independent (Union of Utrecht)
KEY EVENTS: Pacification of Ghent
1555-Peace of Augsburg-->ended war between German Lutherans & Catholics
-Established that each state could determine its' own religion
- Lutherans can choose faith no matter what
-HRE close to split (Spain wanted to expand) & other countries were restless
1606- religious tension breaks into violence
- Calvinists felt threatened- form League of Evangelical Union (Frederick IV)
- Catholics form Catholic League as a response (Duke of Maximilian)
TRIGGER:Charles V & Bohemian ruler die without succession
- their land goes to Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria who enforces Catholic religion and uniformity
1st Phase: Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
- Ferdinand II becomes HREmporer, enforces Catholic uniformity
- Calvinists throw Catholic officials out of a window
-Ferdinand & the Catholic League invade Bohemia
- Ferdinand defeats Frederick V(Bohemian King) at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague
-Frederick flees to Holland
The Swedish Period (1630-1635)
The Catholic victories alarmed Protestants almost everywhere. The victories of the emperor endangered the independence of the German princes, while the French Bourbons were concerned about the growth of Hapsburg power.
The newProtestant leader became King Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1611-1632) of Sweden. In the summer of 1630, the Swedes moved into Germany. Later in the year, France and Sweden signed an alliance, and France entered the war against the Hapsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War had begun primarily as a German conflict over religious issues. The conflict now became a wider European war, fought mainly over political issues, as Catholic France and Protestant Sweden joined forces against the Catholic Hapsburgs.
During the early stages of the conflict, the Swedes won several notable victories. Tilly, the imperial commander, fell in battle in 1632.
Emperor Ferdinand II called on Wallenstein to form a new army. In November 1632, at the Battle of Lutzen, the Swedes defeated Wallenstein, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the fighting.
When Wallenstein entered into secret negotiations with Sweden and France, he was assassinated a few days later. The emperor's army decisively defeated the Swedes at Nordlingen in southern Germany.
The Treaty of Prague
The deaths of both Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein, together with the exhaustion of both the Holy Roman emperor and the German Protestant princes, brought an end to the Swedish period of the war. The Treaty of Prague, 1635 generally strengthened the Hapsburgs and weakened the power of the German princes.
The French Period (1635- 1648)
The settlement reached in the Treaty of Prague was wrecked by the French decision to intervene directly in the war. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), the chief minister of King Louis XIII (r. 161~1643) of France wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs and take the province of Alsace from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, Richelieu was plotting against Spain and its Hapsburg king, Philip IV (r. 1621-1665).
Both in Germany and in the Franco-Spanish conflict, the fortunes of war fluctuated. For a time, the forces of the Holy Roman emperor, aided by King Maximilian of Bavaria and other Catholic princes, more than held their own against the Swedes and German Protestants. France's success against Spain, enabled the French to send larger forces into Germany. This helped tip the balance in favor of the emperor's foes.
Emperor Ferdinand II died in 1637 and was succeeded by his son, Ferdinand III (r. 1637-1657). Peace negotiations began in 1641, but made little progress until the death of Cardinal Richelieu in 1642 and the French occupation of Bavaria in 1646.
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 ended the Thirty Years' War. Sweden acquired western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania was assigned to Brandenburg. France annexed part of Alsace and some nearby territory.
The settlement formally recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic and Switzerland and granted the German states the right to make treaties and alliances, thereby further weakening the authority of the Holy Roman emperor.
In religious affairs, the Peace of Westphalia expanded the Peace of Augsburg to include Calvinists, as well as Catholics and Lutherans.
The Peace of Westphalia ended the Holy Roman emperor's hope of restoring both his own power and the Catholic faith throughout the empire. The empire was now fragmented into a number of virtually independent states.
The end of the Thirty Years' War left Hapsburg Spain isolated.
The French war against Spain continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage of his daughter Maria Theresa to King Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) of France.
Together, the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of the Pyrenees established France as the predominant power on the European continent.
B. The Seven Years War
From 1756- 1763
Diplomatic revolution in 1756 leads Bourbon France to ally with Habsburg Austria and Russia VS. Great Britain and Prussia.
Happened in Europe, India, and North America
In Europe, Frederick II(King of Prussia) wins at Rossbach in 1757...saved when Peter III comes to power in Russia and R withdraws from involvement, ends in stalemate
Peace of Hubertusburg in 1763 with Austria recognizing Prussia’s control of Silesia.
Anglo-French struggle in rest of world known as Great Wars for Empire, Robert Clive and Britain win in India and the French withdrawing via Peace of Paris in 1763.
In North America it was known as the French and Indian War, and took place along the Quebec border by St. Lawrence River and in Ohio River Valley.
William Pitt the Elder helps British navy win and thereby cut off French troops
With the Treaty of Paris ,French gave Canada and lands east of Mississippi to Britain - French Ally Spain gives Spanish Florida to British, and in return the French gave the Louisiana territory to Spain.
Monarchs, Absolute Rulers and Enlightened Despots
- Divorced Catherine of Aragon by leaving the Catholic Church
- Starts the Church of England
-Anne Boelyn's daughter with Henry VIII
- the "Virgin Queen"
Started 30 Years War
King during the English Civil War (1642-1649)
Led Roundheads during Civil War
Only dual monarchy in England
William of Orange= Protestant from the Netherlands
Initiated Enlightenment Reforms
Enlightened Despot; his brother Leopold II undoes all of his reforms
Chief Minister and Regent of France
"The Sun King"
King before/during the French Revolution
National Convention-Committee of Public Safety
The First Republic
Consul until 1804
Emperor until 1815
abstract ideas about the world and life
May be restricted to only one area
Mannerism was replaced by Baroque in late 16th Century
Embraced by Catholic reform movement, especially in Catholic courts of Habsburgs such as Madrid, Prague, Vienna, and Brussels
Baroque artists sought to combine classical ideals of Renaissance with religious revival of 16th Century
Baroque art and architecture reflected 17th Century search for power
Italian architect and sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) completed Saint Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican
His Thrown of St. Peter and sculpture Ecstasy of Saint Theresa are most well known
Artimesia Gentileschi (1592-1653) less well known but still prominent for her Judith Beheading Holofernes which depicts the Old Testament scene in which Judith slays the Assyrian general to save her town
Rococo emphasized grace and gentle action, rejected strict geometrical patterns and emphasized curves
- Highly secular
- Antoine Watteau’s lyrical view of aristocracy reflected world of upper-class pleasure and joy
- Element of sadness is revealed in the fragility and transitory nature of love/life
- Baroque-Rococo architecture style used in both palaces and churches
- Neumann designed Church of Vierzehnheiligen and the Bishop's Palace
- Neoclassical artists wanted to recapture the dignity and simplicity of the Classical style of ancient Greece and Rome
- Jacques Louis David recreated a moral, serious painting that emphasized honor and patriotism in Oath of the Horatii
that revolutionized the area