Researchers develop the first chemical tests to indicate and measure the presence of sugar in the urine.
Glycogen is formed by the liver and is discovered to be the same sugar found in urine--> the first link of diabetes to glycogen metabolism : Bernard discovered this
Langerhans, a German medical student, discovers that the pancreas contains two types of cells that secrets normal fluid while the function of the other is unknown. The unknown cells would later be identified as those which produce insulin.
The unknown cell within the pancreas is named "insulin," termed by the de Meyer of Belgium.
Benedict develops a new way of testing urine sugar (Benedict's method)
Insulin is "discovered." A dog is injected with it to test its actual effectiveness/function.
The first human test of insulin injections is successful upon Leonard Thompson.
Diabetes is defined into two types based upon their "insulin sensitivity." Type 1 (insulin dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin dependent).
The connection between diabetes and long-term effects such as kidney disease and eye disease are made.
Insulin pumps are developed and introduced to the public.
1973 - 1976
U-100 Insulin is introduced and the HbA1c test is used to further the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
The National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse is established to increase the research and knowledge of diabetes for the population and professionals.
1983 - 1986
The first biosynthetic human insulin is introduced and the use of the insulin pen delivery system is introduced.
1990 - 1997
External pumps become more popular as they allow for greater freedom from multiple injections.
The FDA approves the first recombinant DNA human insulin analogue, lispro (Humalog).
The life expectancy difference between diabetes patients and healthy people drops to only about 15 years.
Nearly 26 million Americans have diabetes. 79 million Americans are categorized as "pre-diabetic."