4.1.1 History of Diabetes

By Izze Long


First tests to measure glucose in urine


First chemical tests to measure the presence of glucose in the urine are developed

Substance linked to diabetes discovered in the Pancreas


A german medical student, Langerhans, discovers the the pancreas is responsible for secreting two times of cells, one of them being the hormone Insulin.

Bernard's Liver Theory Disproved


Scientist Von Mering disproved the theory that removing the pancreas caused Diabetes.

Pancreatic fluid first used to treat Diabetes


Zuelzer extracts insulin from the Pancreas and injects it into five patients with diabetes. Glucose in the urine is reduced by the treatment but there were many negative side effects.

Benedict's Solution Invented


Benedict creates a new method, Benedict's Solution, to more effectively measure the amount of glucose in urine.

"Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes" released


Allen's book, "Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes" introduces a change in diabetes therapy from this point in time

Official Discovery of Insulin


Took place in 1921 in Canada by Fredrick Banting, an unsuccessful orthopaedic surgeon, who after reading about the association between the pancreas and diabetes became convinced that he could find the antidiabetic substance.

First human to receive insulin


On January 11, 1922, a 14-year-old boy became the first human patient to receive insulin made by Banting and Best.

Commercial Production of Insulin


Eli Lilly begins commercial production of insulin.

Home testing for glucose in urine introduced


Home testing for sugar in urine is introduced. This simple color reactivity test allowed for closer monitoring of diabetes at home.

Protamine Zinc insulin


1936, protamine zinc insulin was introduced. This was longer lasting and allowed for more flexibility.

Dip-and-Read Test


Helen Free develops the "dip-and-read" urine test, allowing instant monitoring of blood glucose levels

Oral Drugs for limiting blood glucose


Oral drugs that help lower blood glucose levels are introduced

Insulin Pump


First insulin pump developed

First Blood Glucose Meter


First blood glucose meter (Ames) is introduced for use in doctors' offices

Insulin Pens


The at-home insulin pen system is introduced

Instant Glucose Tablets


Instant glucose tablets are introduced to increase blood glucose levels with ease

First recombinant DNA Human Insulin


The FDA approves the first recombinant DNA human insulin. Called Humalog.

Current Life Expectancy


Life expectancy for people with diabetes in 2004 is still 15 years lower than that of the general population.