4.1.1 History of Diabetes

By Izze Long

Events

First tests to measure glucose in urine

1800

First chemical tests to measure the presence of glucose in the urine are developed

Substance linked to diabetes discovered in the Pancreas

1869

A german medical student, Langerhans, discovers the the pancreas is responsible for secreting two times of cells, one of them being the hormone Insulin.

Bernard's Liver Theory Disproved

1879

Scientist Von Mering disproved the theory that removing the pancreas caused Diabetes.

Pancreatic fluid first used to treat Diabetes

1908

Zuelzer extracts insulin from the Pancreas and injects it into five patients with diabetes. Glucose in the urine is reduced by the treatment but there were many negative side effects.

Benedict's Solution Invented

1909

Benedict creates a new method, Benedict's Solution, to more effectively measure the amount of glucose in urine.

"Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes" released

1913

Allen's book, "Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes" introduces a change in diabetes therapy from this point in time

Official Discovery of Insulin

1921

Took place in 1921 in Canada by Fredrick Banting, an unsuccessful orthopaedic surgeon, who after reading about the association between the pancreas and diabetes became convinced that he could find the antidiabetic substance.

First human to receive insulin

1922

On January 11, 1922, a 14-year-old boy became the first human patient to receive insulin made by Banting and Best.

Commercial Production of Insulin

1923

Eli Lilly begins commercial production of insulin.

Home testing for glucose in urine introduced

1925

Home testing for sugar in urine is introduced. This simple color reactivity test allowed for closer monitoring of diabetes at home.

Protamine Zinc insulin

1936

1936, protamine zinc insulin was introduced. This was longer lasting and allowed for more flexibility.

Dip-and-Read Test

1940

Helen Free develops the "dip-and-read" urine test, allowing instant monitoring of blood glucose levels

Oral Drugs for limiting blood glucose

1955

Oral drugs that help lower blood glucose levels are introduced

Insulin Pump

1970

First insulin pump developed

First Blood Glucose Meter

1970

First blood glucose meter (Ames) is introduced for use in doctors' offices

Insulin Pens

1986

The at-home insulin pen system is introduced

Instant Glucose Tablets

1993

Instant glucose tablets are introduced to increase blood glucose levels with ease

First recombinant DNA Human Insulin

1996

The FDA approves the first recombinant DNA human insulin. Called Humalog.

Current Life Expectancy

2010

Life expectancy for people with diabetes in 2004 is still 15 years lower than that of the general population.