The Danes fought English officials. One important English official died in Portland. It is suspected to be over more than just a trading brawl. This is where the tension began between England and Denmark.
This made the Franks, a dominant ethnic group in Norway, easier to control by using the idea of "acceptance" into the official Denmark kingdom.
The monasteries built in remote spots would grow rich from patronage and trade. So once they had acquired enough economic prosperity they would be in perfect condition for raids.
They used this location as a base for other raids in Ireland moving inland.
The first time the vikings went to raid the mediterranean coast.
The "thing", an assembly of free men and women of a region or country usually lawmen.
This became the economic base for the west because of the trade surrounding the area.
The Scandinavians were absorbed by England because it would take to many resources. It makes sense because this way the king of England is able to tax the Scandinavians.
HIs father, Halfdan the Black, had died coming back from battle and drown in a frozen over lake. Harald gains control at the age of 10.
A mass grave found in Repton, Derbyshire where the Great Army was buried after they died of starvation from the harsh winter.
His intention was to advance to re-conquest London.
He was given Normandy by the West Francia to stop the raids going on in their countries, which was not effective.
The Danes were constantly attacking the Frisians by the sea and so Germany attacked the Danes.
After raiding a couple surrounding countries they brought back Christians as slaves or future wives and eventually the Danes began to accept the religion.
After raiding the surrounding countries accessible by ship they began to move out towards the West
To prevent the destruction of towns Ethelred paid vikings what they wanted but eventually the money was not enough.
After wife's death Olav is distraught and begins to raid many surrounding countries. Once he met a Christian "seer" he left back to Norway and converted to Christianity.
Since Olav was not a true heir to the throne after his death the Danes come into Norway and are easily able to take control.
Olav had spent most of his teenage years in Denmark and England. Upon his return to Norway he assumed his role as king
Before 1100, Sweden was pagen for a while. It continued up until 1100. Missionary activities from Sweden of Christian impulses received by Finland. The conversion of Christianity helped strengthen the royal power and centralize the power. What essentially began the start of a peaceful Scandinavia was the conversion of christianity. It gradually evolved into strong centralized powers with King and Church as their most important institutions. Christianity required education, which educated the people of Scandinavia as they were converting to Christianity. Sin and Grace were foreign terms to Scandinavian people, until this time.
the office of an archbishop-archdiocese
Meaning that the end of a public celebration of anti-christianity ends
Christian clergy begins to spread in more places around Scandinavia after established in Sweden.
Valdemar the Great rises to the throne at Danish, and introduces an era of prosperity and security- bringing peace.
First coronation-Norway law that introduces sole Kingship Archbishop Oyesses revises christian code.
Speech Against the Bishops-by King Sverre died 1202 and successor seeks reconciliation with the church.
Haakon IV-first to build Norway-strong-after region becomes single kingdom.
Birger Jarl establishes a dynasty which brings all Sweden under a single rule
Birger Jarl of Sweden finds Stockholm, a city of brick that reflects the influence of the Hanseatic League, a union of trading centers in northern Germany.
Over seventy European trading towns. The league was a political, cultural and military force. Urban Scandinavia's arts, architecture and languages were effected. This grew the political and military state. This was an economic and political organization.
A treaty divides Finland between two powerfully competitive neighbors, Sweden and Novgorod
With a victory in Falkoping, Margaret becomes regent of Sweden as well as Denmark and Norway
With the coronation of the 16-year-old Eric of Pomerania, the crowns of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are formally united for the first time. Legally, the countries were sovereign states that were separate, but they were bonded together by a common monarch that directed their foreign and domestic policies. As well as the conversion of christianity, this was one of the main aspects that began the unity and peace for Scandinavia. Although this only lasted for 126 years, it started the peace that could continue there after.
The end of the Union began a regional rivalry for power between Norway and Sweden and Finland. This regional divide was primarily under socioeconomic differences. Both internal and external factors affected its' collapse.
The Viking settlement in Greenland ends, after 400 years, when the last ship leaves the colony and sails for Norway
The Swedish Riksdag includes peasants as a fourth estate, alongside clergy, nobles and burghers
King John I (Hans) ruled over Denmark, Norway and Sweden under the Kalmar Union.
Part 1 of conflict in Scandinavia over the Kalmar Union. In this time, there was a lot of Hanseatic intervention, trying to influence their decision. Denmark-Norway and Sweden were at constant civil war, trying to figure out if the Union should remain. Gustav Vasa is in power at the end of this period, and he sees the Kalmar Union discontinue.
Christian the II was unpopular with his subjects, as many of them revolted against him (1522). He supported Lutheran reform, wanted a complete monarchical state, and wanted to end the Hanse influence. Seen as both a tragic unfit leader and a violent tyrant. Ruled over Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Aka European Reformation. Brought about a divide between traditional Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism. Lutheranism was widely accepted throughout this century. In Denmark, Frederik I remained Catholic, but he was lenient towards his subjects who were Lutheran. Frederik's son Christian III was Lutheran, making it difficult for him to assume the throne. Hans Tausen was one of the first prominent preachers. Christian III also brings Lutheranism to Norway. In Sweden, Lutheranism quickly spread and was taught in schools. King Gustav Vasa I was a huge supporter of Lutheranism at the time.
Approximately 80-90 Swedish nobles were executed by the decision of Christian II, in alliance with archbishop Gustavus Trolle. These nobility either supported the Kalmar Union, Swedish Independence, or were directly against Christian II's rule. Many of those executed (as they were gathered in a room for a "party", then lead out one in groups), were a part of or supported the Sture party, meaning they were against Christian II. The Stures were a Swedish group of 3 families of high influence. The Archbishop claimed "heretics" to be the reason for the execution, though it was evident that near the end of his reign, Christian the II wanted to make a statement about his assertion of power.
Frederik I supported Protestant Reformation. He was popular with the nobility, as he was a conservative who believed in restoring the crown-noble constitutional relationship.
A time of peace between Denmark-Norway and Sweden, with occasional cooperation. Sweden especially avoided conflict with Russia during this time.
Bloody civil war in Denmark between the townspeople, commoners/peasants and those who sought reform in the church against the nobility. This Civil War did not accomplish much on either end of the war, as social tensions between classes remained.
Christian III turns Denmark into a Lutheran state, however giving himself supreme authority over the church. First to make churches governed by the state, rather than the other way around, which it had been for centuries under the Roman Catholic Church.
Denmark-Norway and Sweden agree to join forces against the Hanseatic League. Also included alliance between the two countries, stating that when one was attacked, the other would provide aid such as troops and resources.
King during Seven Years War. Wanted Denmark to be greatest power in Baltic Region.
At this time, the fate of Livonia (Latvia/Estonia) was unsure, since Hanseatic influence diminished. This period brought about the "Baltic Question" (which country was the strongest in the region?), mainly including questions of territory, economy (trade and commerce), the status of nobility, national identity, and overall country security. Denmark remained ahead of the rest of the countries in Scandinavia at this time, and then Sweden.
This war was a territorial one, at which Denmark (King Frederik II) attempts to claim Swedish territory. Not one side of the war (Denmark vs. Sweden) show much promise, as Denmark had economic troubles paying their mercenaries, and Sweden was unable to produce properly trained troops. The war ended simply because Eric XIV came into power and was mentally unstable and could not run a country at war.
In the map above, yellow represents Swedish Territory, green is areas given back to Denmark-Norway, and red is what was already Denmark-Norway. After Sweden (King Charles X Gustav) defeated Denmark-Norway (King Frederick III) in the Second Norther War, Danes residing in Sweden were exiled from there. Roskilde was the city Denmark-Norway was defeated in (in their own country). In this Treaty, Sweden received Danish territory (Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm, Bohulslän and Romsdal. Denmark was forced to end any anti-Sweden alliances. Denmark also was disallowed from passing any of their ships through the Baltic. This moment is important because it introduced the borders of Sweden, Denmark (and Norway) that exist today. It contributes to the political and social trajectory of the countries that exist today, but also provided borders that would separate and (attempt to) keep each out of the other.
King during Thirty Year's War
One of the Dano-Swedish Wars.
Second Dano-Swedish War
During his reign, the system of absolute monarchism for Denmark, turning Denmark into a hereditary sovereign state (diminishing power of nobility and church).
Third Dano-Swedish War, when Frederick the III of Denmark declares war on Sweden.
The treaty to end the Second Northern War in which Sweden was involved. Sweden needed to focus on fighting Denmark, while Poland-Lithuania had conflict with Russia. Both countries needed to stop their war to focus on their more important enemies.
Written by Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld, principal advisor to King Christian V. This law makes Denmark into a state of royal absolutism, meaning complete control of a country by its' monarch, and no legal restrictions can restrain a monarch and his choices.
*Known to be the constitution that has existed the longest in modern history.
Great Northern War II start date 1709. War is declared on Sweden and their allies (Latvia and Estonia) by Denmark-Norway and their allies (Russia and Poland). King Karl XII of Swedenwas killed in this war while traveling through Norwegian territory. War ends with Treaty of Nystad.
Sweden loses control over Latvia/Estonia.
Amended relations with Sweden and created an alliance with them.
Had interest in restoring the Kalmar Union.
Sweden gives Finland to Russia Grand Duchy of Finland (until 1917)
Denmark gives Norway to Sweden, creating a dual monarchy of Norway and Sweden.
End of the Swedish-Norwegian War.
Sweden has not actively participated in any war since they declared their independence from Norway.
Also known as Bernadotte.
Had interest in restoring Kalmar Union.
Over 360,00 Norwegians vote to end the alliance with Sweden. Norway is granted their own ruler (for the first time since the Middle Ages of Scandinavia), and recognized as their own country.
Christian X was King during both World Wars.
As World War II has just begun, Scandinavian countries declare neutrality in the war.