Scandinavian Peace?


Vikings begin the attack on England

Approx. 789

The Danes fought English officials. One important English official died in Portland. It is suspected to be over more than just a trading brawl. This is where the tension began between England and Denmark.

The Oseberg Viking, a well preserved ship, longship is buried

Approx. 800

Hemming, the king of Denmark, makes a treaty with the Franks


This made the Franks, a dominant ethnic group in Norway, easier to control by using the idea of "acceptance" into the official Denmark kingdom.

The monastery of Armagh in Ireland is sacked by vikings


The monasteries built in remote spots would grow rich from patronage and trade. So once they had acquired enough economic prosperity they would be in perfect condition for raids.

Viking Settlers found Dublin, Ireland


They used this location as a base for other raids in Ireland moving inland.

Vikings raid Seville, Spain


The first time the vikings went to raid the mediterranean coast.

Communal gatherings like "The Thing"


The "thing", an assembly of free men and women of a region or country usually lawmen.

Danish Vikings establish a kingdom in York, England


This became the economic base for the west because of the trade surrounding the area.

Alfred the Great becomes king; Danish advances are stopped in England


The Scandinavians were absorbed by England because it would take to many resources. It makes sense because this way the king of England is able to tax the Scandinavians.

Harald I gains control of Norway


HIs father, Halfdan the Black, had died coming back from battle and drown in a frozen over lake. Harald gains control at the age of 10.

Raids in England begin again


A mass grave found in Repton, Derbyshire where the Great Army was buried after they died of starvation from the harsh winter.

Alfred divides England with the Danes under the Dane law pact


His intention was to advance to re-conquest London.

The Vikings raid along the Mediterranean Coast


Rollo, Viking Chief, was given Normandy


He was given Normandy by the West Francia to stop the raids going on in their countries, which was not effective.

Henry the Fowler, german king, defeats the Danes


The Danes were constantly attacking the Frisians by the sea and so Germany attacked the Danes.

Harald Bluetooth is baptized Christian and unites the whole of Denmark as a single kingdom


Denmark becomes Christian


After raiding a couple surrounding countries they brought back Christians as slaves or future wives and eventually the Danes began to accept the religion.

Viking ship sails in the Atlantic closer to Canada


After raiding the surrounding countries accessible by ship they began to move out towards the West

Ethelred pays ransom to stop Danish attacks on England


To prevent the destruction of towns Ethelred paid vikings what they wanted but eventually the money was not enough.

Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom


After wife's death Olav is distraught and begins to raid many surrounding countries. Once he met a Christian "seer" he left back to Norway and converted to Christianity.

Olav I dies and the Danes take over Norway


Since Olav was not a true heir to the throne after his death the Danes come into Norway and are easily able to take control.

The Danes conquer England so Ethelred flees to Normandy


Olav II regains control of Norway


Olav had spent most of his teenage years in Denmark and England. Upon his return to Norway he assumed his role as king

The Danes conquer Norway


Sweden Becomes Christian State


Before 1100, Sweden was pagen for a while. It continued up until 1100. Missionary activities from Sweden of Christian impulses received by Finland. The conversion of Christianity helped strengthen the royal power and centralize the power. What essentially began the start of a peaceful Scandinavia was the conversion of christianity. It gradually evolved into strong centralized powers with King and Church as their most important institutions. Christianity required education, which educated the people of Scandinavia as they were converting to Christianity. Sin and Grace were foreign terms to Scandinavian people, until this time.

Archbishopric for Scandinavia established at Lund, Sweden


the office of an archbishop-archdiocese

Public celebration of Pagan rights at Uppsala ended


Meaning that the end of a public celebration of anti-christianity ends

Bishopric established at Gardar, Greenland


Christian clergy begins to spread in more places around Scandinavia after established in Sweden.

A stave church is built at Urnes in Norway


Valdemar the Great rises


Valdemar the Great rises to the throne at Danish, and introduces an era of prosperity and security- bringing peace.

Norway King Crowned- King-Magnus Erlingson

1163 - 1164

First coronation-Norway law that introduces sole Kingship Archbishop Oyesses revises christian code.

King Sverre died


Speech Against the Bishops-by King Sverre died 1202 and successor seeks reconciliation with the church.

Building of Norway


Haakon IV-first to build Norway-strong-after region becomes single kingdom.

Sweden becomes under one ruling


Birger Jarl establishes a dynasty which brings all Sweden under a single rule

Birger Jarl of Sweden finds Stockholm


Birger Jarl of Sweden finds Stockholm, a city of brick that reflects the influence of the Hanseatic League, a union of trading centers in northern Germany.

Beginning of the Hanseatic League


Over seventy European trading towns. The league was a political, cultural and military force. Urban Scandinavia's arts, architecture and languages were effected. This grew the political and military state. This was an economic and political organization.

Treaty of Nöteborg


A treaty divides Finland between two powerfully competitive neighbors, Sweden and Novgorod

Margaret Becomes Regent


With a victory in Falkoping, Margaret becomes regent of Sweden as well as Denmark and Norway

Kalmar Union

1397 - 1523

With the coronation of the 16-year-old Eric of Pomerania, the crowns of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are formally united for the first time. Legally, the countries were sovereign states that were separate, but they were bonded together by a common monarch that directed their foreign and domestic policies. As well as the conversion of christianity, this was one of the main aspects that began the unity and peace for Scandinavia. Although this only lasted for 126 years, it started the peace that could continue there after.

The end of the Union began a regional rivalry for power between Norway and Sweden and Finland. This regional divide was primarily under socioeconomic differences. Both internal and external factors affected its' collapse.

Viking Settlement Ends


The Viking settlement in Greenland ends, after 400 years, when the last ship leaves the colony and sails for Norway

The Swedish Riksdag


The Swedish Riksdag includes peasants as a fourth estate, alongside clergy, nobles and burghers

Reign of Hans I

1481 - 1513

Reign of Hans I (Sweden)

1497 - 1501

King John I (Hans) ruled over Denmark, Norway and Sweden under the Kalmar Union.

The First Period

1500 - 1523

Part 1 of conflict in Scandinavia over the Kalmar Union. In this time, there was a lot of Hanseatic intervention, trying to influence their decision. Denmark-Norway and Sweden were at constant civil war, trying to figure out if the Union should remain. Gustav Vasa is in power at the end of this period, and he sees the Kalmar Union discontinue.

Reign of Sten Sture the Elder

1501 - 1503

Reign of Svante Nilsson Sture

1504 - 1511

Reign of Sten Sture the Younger

1511 - 1520

Reign of Christian II

1513 - 1523

Christian the II was unpopular with his subjects, as many of them revolted against him (1522). He supported Lutheran reform, wanted a complete monarchical state, and wanted to end the Hanse influence. Seen as both a tragic unfit leader and a violent tyrant. Ruled over Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Protestant Reformation*


Aka European Reformation. Brought about a divide between traditional Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism. Lutheranism was widely accepted throughout this century. In Denmark, Frederik I remained Catholic, but he was lenient towards his subjects who were Lutheran. Frederik's son Christian III was Lutheran, making it difficult for him to assume the throne. Hans Tausen was one of the first prominent preachers. Christian III also brings Lutheranism to Norway. In Sweden, Lutheranism quickly spread and was taught in schools. King Gustav Vasa I was a huge supporter of Lutheranism at the time.

Reign of Christian II

1520 - 1523

Stockholm Bloodbath*

November 7 1520 - November 9 1520

Approximately 80-90 Swedish nobles were executed by the decision of Christian II, in alliance with archbishop Gustavus Trolle. These nobility either supported the Kalmar Union, Swedish Independence, or were directly against Christian II's rule. Many of those executed (as they were gathered in a room for a "party", then lead out one in groups), were a part of or supported the Sture party, meaning they were against Christian II. The Stures were a Swedish group of 3 families of high influence. The Archbishop claimed "heretics" to be the reason for the execution, though it was evident that near the end of his reign, Christian the II wanted to make a statement about his assertion of power.

Beginning of Denmark-Norway Kingdom


Reign of Frederik I

1523 - 1533

Frederik I supported Protestant Reformation. He was popular with the nobility, as he was a conservative who believed in restoring the crown-noble constitutional relationship.

The Second Period

1523 - 1560

A time of peace between Denmark-Norway and Sweden, with occasional cooperation. Sweden especially avoided conflict with Russia during this time.

Beginning of Kingdom of Sweden


Reign of Eric XIV

1523 - 1560

Counts War

1534 - 1536

Bloody civil war in Denmark between the townspeople, commoners/peasants and those who sought reform in the church against the nobility. This Civil War did not accomplish much on either end of the war, as social tensions between classes remained.

Reign of Christian III

1534 - 1559

Christian III turns Denmark into a Lutheran state, however giving himself supreme authority over the church. First to make churches governed by the state, rather than the other way around, which it had been for centuries under the Roman Catholic Church.

First Treaty of Brömsebro


Denmark-Norway and Sweden agree to join forces against the Hanseatic League. Also included alliance between the two countries, stating that when one was attacked, the other would provide aid such as troops and resources.

Reign of Frederik II

1559 - 1588

King during Seven Years War. Wanted Denmark to be greatest power in Baltic Region.

Reign of Johan III

1560 - 1568

The Final Period

1563 - 1721

At this time, the fate of Livonia (Latvia/Estonia) was unsure, since Hanseatic influence diminished. This period brought about the "Baltic Question" (which country was the strongest in the region?), mainly including questions of territory, economy (trade and commerce), the status of nobility, national identity, and overall country security. Denmark remained ahead of the rest of the countries in Scandinavia at this time, and then Sweden.

Northern Seven Years War*

1563 - 1570

This war was a territorial one, at which Denmark (King Frederik II) attempts to claim Swedish territory. Not one side of the war (Denmark vs. Sweden) show much promise, as Denmark had economic troubles paying their mercenaries, and Sweden was unable to produce properly trained troops. The war ended simply because Eric XIV came into power and was mentally unstable and could not run a country at war.

Reign of Sigismund I

1568 - 1592

Treaty of Roskilde*

November 18, 1568

In the map above, yellow represents Swedish Territory, green is areas given back to Denmark-Norway, and red is what was already Denmark-Norway. After Sweden (King Charles X Gustav) defeated Denmark-Norway (King Frederick III) in the Second Norther War, Danes residing in Sweden were exiled from there. Roskilde was the city Denmark-Norway was defeated in (in their own country). In this Treaty, Sweden received Danish territory (Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm, Bohulslän and Romsdal. Denmark was forced to end any anti-Sweden alliances. Denmark also was disallowed from passing any of their ships through the Baltic. This moment is important because it introduced the borders of Sweden, Denmark (and Norway) that exist today. It contributes to the political and social trajectory of the countries that exist today, but also provided borders that would separate and (attempt to) keep each out of the other.

Reign of Christian IV

1588 - 1648

King during Thirty Year's War

Reign of Karl IX

1599 - 1611

Kalmar War

1611 - 1613

One of the Dano-Swedish Wars.

Reign of Gustav II Adolf

1611 - 1632

Torstenson War

1643 - 1645

Second Dano-Swedish War

Reign of Frederik III

1648 - 1670

During his reign, the system of absolute monarchism for Denmark, turning Denmark into a hereditary sovereign state (diminishing power of nobility and church).

Karl X’s First War

1657 - 1658

Third Dano-Swedish War, when Frederick the III of Denmark declares war on Sweden.

Karl X’s Second War:

1658 - 1660

Peace of Olivia (The Treaty)*

April 23, 1660

The treaty to end the Second Northern War in which Sweden was involved. Sweden needed to focus on fighting Denmark, while Poland-Lithuania had conflict with Russia. Both countries needed to stop their war to focus on their more important enemies.

Peace of Copenhagen Treaty*

June 6, 1660

The Royal Law, written by Peder Schumacher


Written by Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld, principal advisor to King Christian V. This law makes Denmark into a state of royal absolutism, meaning complete control of a country by its' monarch, and no legal restrictions can restrain a monarch and his choices.
*Known to be the constitution that has existed the longest in modern history.

Reign of Christian V

1670 - 1699

Scanian War

1675 - 1679

Reign of Frederik IV

1699 - 1730

Great Northern War

1700 - 1720

Great Northern War II start date 1709. War is declared on Sweden and their allies (Latvia and Estonia) by Denmark-Norway and their allies (Russia and Poland). King Karl XII of Swedenwas killed in this war while traveling through Norwegian territory. War ends with Treaty of Nystad.

Reign of Ulrika Eleonora

1719 - 1720

Reign of Fredrik I

1720 - 1751

Treaty of Nystad

September 1721

Sweden loses control over Latvia/Estonia.

Reign of Christian VI

1730 - 1746

Amended relations with Sweden and created an alliance with them.

Reign of Frederik V

1746 - 1766

Reign of Adolf Fredrik

1751 - 1771

Reign of Christian VII

1766 - 1808

Reign of Gustav III

1771 - 1792

Had interest in restoring the Kalmar Union.

Reign of Gustav IV Adolf

1792 - 1809

The Battle of Copenhagen*


Reign of Frederik VI

1808 - 1839

Treaty of Hamina

1809 - 1917

Sweden gives Finland to Russia Grand Duchy of Finland (until 1917)

Reign of Karl XIII

1809 - 1818

Treaty of Kiel*

January 14, 1814

Denmark gives Norway to Sweden, creating a dual monarchy of Norway and Sweden.

Convention of Moss

August 14, 1814

End of the Swedish-Norwegian War.

Swedish Peace

August 14 1814 - Present

Sweden has not actively participated in any war since they declared their independence from Norway.

Reign of Karl XIV Johan

1818 - 1844

Also known as Bernadotte.

Reign of Christian VIII

1839 - 1848

Reign of Oscar I

1844 - 1859

Reign of Frederik VII

1848 - 1863

Reign of Karl XV

1859 - 1872

Had interest in restoring Kalmar Union.

Reign of Christian IX

1863 - 1906

Reign of Oscar II

1872 - 1907

Norwegian Independence


Over 360,00 Norwegians vote to end the alliance with Sweden. Norway is granted their own ruler (for the first time since the Middle Ages of Scandinavia), and recognized as their own country.

Reign of Frederik VIII

1906 - 1912

Reign of Gustav V

1907 - 1950

Reign of Christian X

1912 - 1947

Christian X was King during both World Wars.

Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark Neutral

September 19, 1939

As World War II has just begun, Scandinavian countries declare neutrality in the war.