The Shoen's had improved military technology with brand new training methods, more powerful swords, horses, bows and amazing amor. They had begun to be faced with local conditions in the ninth century, military service became part of Shoen life.
Masakado threatened the authority of the central government leading to an uprising in the eastern providence of Hitachi and Fujiwara no Sumitomo
Japanese Heian court noble and warrior, aided the Taira clan in a series of revolts
The Japanese military was established from local drafts and later implemented the use of samurai. The samurai's started off as servants for the emperor and changed to private aristocratic militant groups.
The use of martial arts became a norm throughout the region. Samurai warriors were able to establish their own social class because of their strength in numbers along with influence.
The samurai created their own social class called warrior bands that worked closely to the emperor.
"Sutoku, in full Sutoku Tennō, personal name Akihito (born July 7, 1119, Kyōto—died Sept. 14, 1164, Sanuki Province, Japan), 75th emperor of Japan; his attempt to usurp his brother’s throne resulted in the bloody Hōgen War, which allowed the powerful warrior Taira clan to gain control of the government."
"He ascended the throne in 1123, taking the reign name Sutoku, after the abdication of his father, the emperor Toba; despite his abdication Toba continued to hold power. In 1141 Sutoku also abdicated, and his younger brother came to the throne as the emperor Konoe. When Konoe died in 1155, their father’s third and favourite son was selected to ascend the throne as Go-Shirakawa, much to the displeasure of Sutoku, who had expected the succession to pass to his own son. When Toba died the following year, Sutoku, aided by warriors of the Minamoto clan, attempted a coup (the Hōgen Disturbance). The coup was defeated by the forces of Taira Kiyomori, who then dominated the Emperor. Sutoku was exiled from the capital."
"Emperor Konoe was an emperor of the Heian period. A son of Emperor Toba & Empress Bifukumon-in, and grandson of Fujiwara no Nagazane, he took the throne in 1141 following the abdication of his half-brother Emperor Sutoku. Fujiwara no Tadamichi served as regent throughout his reign. Konoe was succeeded by his half-brother Emperor Go-Shirakawa in 1155."
He was the founder of Bakufu, the system where Feudal lords ruled for 700 years. He undermined the central government’s local administrative power.
"Go-Shirakawa was born on Oct. 18, 1127, Kyōto, Japan—died April 26, 1192, Kyōto), 77th emperor of Japan, during whose reign political power was transferred from the imperial court to the provincial warrior class.
He ascended the throne in 1155, taking the reign name Go-Shirakawa, after the death of his brother, the emperor Konoe. When his father, the former emperor Toba, died a year later, another brother, the former emperor Sutoku, attempted a coup d’état. Sutoku had succeeded Toba on the throne but had abdicated in 1141 on condition that his own son succeed Konoe. After Toba chose Go-Shirakawa instead as Konoe’s successor, Sutoku began to plot his revenge. In the ensuing Hōgen Disturbance (1156), the forces supporting Go-Shirakawa proved victorious.
In 1158 Go-Shirakawa abdicated, hoping to be able to control the government, as retired emperors often did. Real power, however, was exercised by the warrior Taira Kiyomori, leader of the successful forces in the Hōgen Disturbance. Kiyomori made his power absolute in the Heiji Disturbance (1159–60) when the powerful Minamoto clan attempted to challenge his rule.
Constantly involved in plots and schemes to further his own power, Shirakawa was regarded with distrust by the Taira clan; in 1179 Kiyomori confined him to his quarters as a result of Shirakawa’s attempts to confiscate the estates of Kiyomori’s deceased children. He did not regain full imperial power, despite the warrior Minamoto Yoritomo’s revolt against Kiyomori (1180) and the annihilation of the Taira clan that followed (1185)."
Conflict in the Hōgen era between the Taira & Minamoto clan that marked the end of the Fujiwara family dominance of the monarchy and the start of a prolonged period of feudal warfare.
Taira Kiyomori revived Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by power.
"Emperor Nijô reigned from 1158-1165. He was the son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa, and the father of Emperor Rokujô. Fujiwara no Tsunezane was his maternal grandfather; Fujiwara no Motozane served as kanpaku throughout Nijô's short reign.
He saw in his life both the Hôgen and Heiji Rebellions, two major struggles among aristocrat/samurai families jostling for power. In 1156, members of the Fujiwara, Taira, and Minamoto clans fought on each side of the conflict, supporting different heirs for the Imperial Throne.
Nijô ascended to the throne two years later, in 1158, and the following year, 1159, conflict broke out again, except that this time the lines were drawn between clans. Taira no Kiyomori and Minamoto no Yoshitomo, who had fought together in the Hôgen Rebellion against other forces now led the Taira and Minamoto clans against one another. The conflict ended in Taira victory - Kiyomori seized power and became an extremely influential figure at court, while Yoshitomo and several of his sons were killed; his other sons were banished, and would return in the 1180s to lead the Minamoto in the destruction of the Taira.
Nijô lived a short life, coming to the throne at age 15, and dying at age 22. He was succeeded by his son, who took the throne as Emperor Rokujô."
The Kamakura Period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors, and established a bakufu, the kamakura, shogunate, in Kamakura. Is a period in Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.
Kyōto raised the diplomatic counter of Japan's divine origin, rejected the Mongol demands, dismissed the Korean messengers, and started defensive preparations
After further unsuccessful entreaties, the first Mongol invasion took place.
A second invasion was launched. Seven weeks of fighting took place in northwestern Kyushu before another typhoon struck, again destroying the Mongol fleet.
The Mongol war had been a drain on the economy, and new taxes had to be levied to maintain defensive preparations for the future. The invasions also caused disaffection among those who expected recompense for their help in defeating the Mongols. There were no lands or other rewards to be given, however, and such disaffection, combined with overextension and the increasing defense costs, led to a decline of the Kamakura bakufu.
In 1335, Emperor Go-Daigo sent a large army to Kamakura to fight and end Ashikaga’s power for good. The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu Restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.While some daimyo and their samurai followed Ashikaga, others remained loyal to Go-Daigo. In 1335, Emperor Go-Daigo sent a large army to Kamakura to fight and end Ashikaga’s power for good.
He was the 96th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Post-Meiji historians construe Go-Daigo's reign to span 1318–1339; however, pre-Meiji accounts of his reign considered the years of his reign to encompass only between 1318–1332. Pre-Meiji scholars also considered Go-Daigo a pretender emperor in the years from 1336 through 1339.
Kogon 1331(1332)-33 [one of the rulers over the Northern court] He was the first of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1332 through 1334.
Go-Daigo attempted an uprising against the Hojos, but he was taken prisoner by the Hojos. He was exiled but managed to escape, most likely with the help of followers in the Hojo camp. Within a year, in 1332, Go-Daigo was ready to make another attempt.
Ashikage hereditary military dictator) of Japan, who achieved political stability for the Ashikaga shogunate, which had been established in 1338 by his grandfather, Ashikaga Takauji. The period of this shogunate’s rule (until 1573) subsequently became known as the Muromachi period after the district of Kyōto in which Yoshimitsu lived.
August: Hôjô Tokiyuki takes over Kamakura. Takayoshi leaves the city to arrange the assassination of Prince Morinaga.
September 8: Ashikaga Takauji captures Kamakura again and kills Hôjô Tokiyuki.
The period that ensued was known as the Nambokucho War (and it lasted for 60 years, and is the longest single war in Japanese history).
February 23: Ashikaga Takauji's army infiltrates Kyoto.
February 25: Takauji infiltrates Kyoto.
February 27: Kitabatake Akiie counter-attacks and makes Takauji retreat to Settsu. Takauji later moves on to Harima.
March 16: Go-Daigo comes back to Kyoto.
March 26: Takauji leaves Harima for Kyushu.
April 15: Ashikaga defeats the Kikuchi at the Battle of Tadara-no-hama (Chikuzen).
May 15: Ashikaga Takauji's campaign to recapture Kyoto begins.
June 5: Nitta Yoshisada is defeated at the Battle of Minatogawa (Harima); and Kusunoki Masashige is killed.
July 6: Go-Daigo leaves Kyoto to Mt. Hiei.
September 20: Komyo moves to the Imperial throne in Kyoto. Takauji creates the Kemmu Shikimoku.
Most samurai and peasants were convinced that they were better off with a shogun, not an emperor. Ashikaga won. In 1336 Ashikaga Takauji entered Kyoto and established his own shogunate. Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336.
"Another ruler over the northern court was the second of the Ashikaga Pretenders, although he was the first to be supported by the Ashikaga Bakufu. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1336 through 1348."
January: Go-Daigo flees to Yoshino and establishes his court, this moves us into the Namboku-cho Period Period.
April 7: Ashikaga forces capture Kanagasaki.
December 24: Kitabatake Akiie defeats Ashikaga Yoshiakira at the Battle of Tonegawa (Musashi).
March: Kitabatake Akiie and Ashikaga Tadayoshi battle close to Sekigahara in Mino province.
April: Kitabatake Akiie is defeated by Ashikaga forces at Tennoji (Settsu province).
June: Kitabatake Akiie is defeated and killed at Ishizu (Iwami province).
August: Nitta Yoshisada is killed and his army defeated by the Ashikaga at the Battle of Fujishima in Echizen.
September 19: Go-Daigo dies.
May: Prince Kanenaga arrives on Kyushu to gather support for the Southern Court.
Kusunoki Masatsura(Masashige's son) , is killed in the Battle of Shijo Nawate fighting against the Ashikaga
Shimazu Sadahisa dies and the Shimazu domain is divided between his two sons, Ujihisa and Morohisa.
Ashikaga Tadayoshi is captured and killed.
Supporters of Tadayoshi join with the Nitta clan to succesfully drive Ashikaga Takauji from Kamakura, which he had been keeping safe.
Kitabatake Chikafusa dies.
Ashikaga Takauji dies at age 54 in Kyoto.
Takauji's son, Ashikaga Yoshiakira, becomes the second Ashikaga Shogun.
Ashikaga Motouji, the Kanto Kanrei, dies and is succeded by Ashikaga Ujimitsu.
Hosokawa Yoriyuki is named deputy shôgun to Ashikaga Yoshiakira.
Ashikaga Yoshiakira dies and is succeeded as shôgun by Yoshimitsu; Hosokawa Yoriyuki becomes regent to the young shogun.
Hosokawa Yoriyuki is forced from Kyoto by his rivals.
Oûchi Yoshihiro defeats his brother at the Battle of Sakariyama and assumes control of the Oûchi.
Prince Kanenaga dies.
December 16: Emperor Go-Kameyama of the Southern Court abdicates; the union of the Northern and Southern Courts follows, ending the Namboku-cho Period.
Hosokawa Yoriyuki dies.
Oûchi Yoshihiro is defeated at Saki by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.
Ashikaga Yoshimitsu dies.
Shikaga Yoshimochi dies.
Fall: "The Kyoto region experiences the first 'modern' peasant uprisings as riots and demonstrations break out in the call for debt cancellation in a year that had seen both famine and plauge."
July 6th: Ashikaga Shogun, Yoshinori, is assassinated by Akamatsu Mitsusuke. He is ultimately succeded in 1443 by Ashikaga Yoshimasa.
September: Thousands of ikki rioters march on Kyoto and after defeating the Kyôgoku compell the bakufu to give in to their demands for debt cancellation.
Ashikaga Yoshimasa becomes the 8th Ashikaga Shogun.
The Akamatsu destroy the remnants of the Southern Court.
Ashikaga Yoshimasa builds a new Muromachi Palace.
The Ônin War opens in Kyoto as shûgo side with either the rival Hosokawa or Yamana clans.
1472: Asakura Toshikage defeats the Kai family of Echizen and becomes the defacto lord of that province.
1473: Yamana Sozen dies and his cause is taken up by Oûchi Masahiro.
Hosokawa Katsumoto dies.
1477: December: The Yamana and Hosokawa return to their domains; the Ônin War has set the stage for the Sengoku Period.
End of war.
Hojo capture Odawara.
Arrival of Europeans in Japan bringing muskets
An unsuccessful siege of the Kawagoe castle
Muskets first used in war at the Kajiki siege.
Battle of Okehazama makes Oda Nobunaga powerful by defeating Imagawa Yoshimoto.
Destruction of the warrior monks of Mount Hiei by Nobunaga.
Death of Takeda Shingen.
Siege of the warrior monk castle of Nagashima
Last of three sieges ended in no survivors and complete destruction of the fortress.
Siege and battle of Nagashino.
Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga defeated Takeda Katsuyori.
use of firearms and modern weapons made it a key battle in Japanese military history.
Building of Azuchi castle.
Death of Uesugi Kenshin
In August 1580, the Abbot Kōsa (Kennyo) was persuaded to surrender, ending the 11-year-long siege.
One of the few sieges where starvation was used as a battle tactic.
The siege lasted 200 days and ended with the lord of the castle, Kikkawa Tsunei surrender and killed himself.
With no clear reasons Oda Nobunaga is murdered.
Hideyoshi used this victory as a stepping-stone to gain control over Nobunaga's former territories and eventually all of Japan."
Battle gives Hideyoshi much control.
The Battle of Komaki and Nagakute was a series of battles in 1584 between the forces of Hashiba Hideyoshi.
This series of battles included: The Battle of Haguro, Mission to Mikawa, The Battle of Iwasaki Castle, The Battle of Hakusanmori, The Battle of Hinokigane, and The Battle of Nagakute.
1586:Siege of Toshimitsu - the Shimazu seize Toshimitsu and Funai castles from the Ōtomo, despite delaying tactics from Hideyoshi's allies.
Battle of Hetsugigawa - Sengoku, Ōtomo, and Chōsokabe continue to battle and delay the Shimazu, but ultimately retreat, leaving Bungo province to the Shimazu.
1587: Battle of Takajō (also called Takashiro) - Hashiba Hidenaga attacks the Shimazu in Hyūga province, forcing them to retreat to Satsuma.
Siege of Ganjaku - Toyotomi Hideyoshi attacks the Akizuki clan in the north of Kyūshū.
Siege of Akizuki - Hideyoshi continues his assault on the Akizuki by sieging Oguma castle; the Akizuki surrender.
Battle of Sendaigawa (also called Chidorigawa) - Hideyoshi and Hidenaga join forces and begin their attack on Satsuma.
Siege of Kagoshima - Hideyoshi and Hidenaga surround the Shimazu capital, and earn a surrender without laying siege to the castle.
He was the last emperor to reign during the Sengoku period, and the first of the Edo period, his reign spanning the years from 1586 to 1611.He was the last emperor to be depicted in the medieval fashion in his official imperial portrait - with facial hair, a symbol of masculine power. By the time of his successor's portrait being painted, however, attitudes had shifted, and a clean-shaven face was seen as a key element of an overall tidy appearance.
Building of Osaka castle.
Third and final siege Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeated the Hōjō clanand gained control over the castle.
This was one of the final battles in Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s campaign to reunify Japan.
The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering Korea and China.
The invasions lasted from 1592 until 1597.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi and his death was kept secret, and the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the Council of Five Elders.
The Battle of Sekigahara was battle that soidiied the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Final era of Japanese traditional government, culture, and society before the Meji Restoration of 1868.
Tokugawa Ieyasu becomes Shogun.
During the Tokugawa shogunate period, the emperor established a feudal military dictatorship.
Tokugawa Ieyasu bans Christianity in Japan, leading churches in Japan to be destroyed and missionaries were imprisoned.
Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the Toyotomo clan in Osaka Castle.
Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes the shogun.
Meishō was the seventh of eight women to become empress regnant. The six who reigned before her were (a) Suiko, (b) Kōgyoku/Saimei, (c) Jitō, (d) Genmei, (e) Genshō, and (f) Kōken/Shōtoku. Her sole female successor was Go-Sakuramachi.
Japan was effectively cut off from Western nations for the next 200 years (with the exception of a small Dutch outpost in Nagasaki Harbor).
There was estimate of 300,00 Christians in Japan at the beginning of this period. After the Shogunate’s brutal repression of a Christian rebellion on the Shimabara Peninsula in 1637-38, Christianity was forced underground. (fun fact: The new dominate faith was Confucianism, a relatively conservative religion with a strong emphasis on loyalty and duty.)
Tokugawa Iemitsu bans Portuguese traders
Tokugawa Iemitsu bans all foreigners from Japan, apart from Chinese and Dutch who were restricted to Deshima.
47 Ronin Incident – a daimyo is killed by 47 ronins in revenge of their master daimyo.
Adam Laxman, a Russian envoy arrives in Japan.
The Russians’ attempt to establish trade relations with Japan fails.
Began his rule at the age of 12 after the death of Emperor Komei. He thenk gained complete control of the country in 1867 after the end of the tokuwaga shogunate.
During most of the tumultuous years from the arrival of Commodore Perry in Japan in 1853 to the complete defeat of the last forces of the Shogunate in 1869, one man could be trusted to support all the wrong policies. This was the Emperor Osahito, posthumously named Kōmei, who supported the continuation of the Shogunate, did not wish to alter Japanese society, disliked Chōshū which he blamed for bringing violence to the city of Kyoto in 1864, and seems to have felt that the presence of foreigners in Japan was a form of pollution. Kōmei died on 30th January 1867 at the age of 35 and was succeed by his 14 year old son. The political situation in Japan was that the Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance or Satchō Alliance had been formed in 1866 in secret and about 7,000 rifles supplied to Chōshū. During the second half of 1866, the Shogunal forces invading Chōshū had been decisively defeated and had been forced to make a truce. Meanwhile, the Shogun Iemochi had died in August 1866 and Yoshinobu had become the last Shogun in early January 1867 with Kōmei's support.
After two centuries, Japanese isolationism comes to an end.
The first Japanese embassy opens in the USA.
Meiji Restoration – Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigns, and the Emperor regains power. This was the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji Period.
With the end of the Tokugawa Era, Emperor Meiji regained power and moved the capital from Kyoto to Tokyo. Emperor served as a figured head while majority of the power went to a small group of nobles and samurai. The goal of Emp. Meiji was to take the power from western powers and restore military and political power back to the Japanese government. The new government was established as a Oligarchy. The era came to an end when Emp. Meiji died on July 30, 1912.
Power was given back to the emperor after the decrease in military power.
The creation of a new Japanese government, changed Japan into a democratic state, thus granting more human rights and religious freedom to the people. The breakdown of social classes, took away the government privileges granted to the samurais.
This Law required healthy male Japanese citizens of all classes to serve three years in the first reserves and two additional years in the second reserves.
With the expansion of European and American imperialism, the government increased funding for their military under their new democratic government.
Prime Minister Yamagata Aritomo allowed for the military to draft soldiers into the military from different social backgrounds but all having strong alliances to the emperor.
The first democratic constitution was established in Japan in 1889. The document made way for the creation of a Japanese parliament name the Diet. The Diet worked under the emperor, who granted sovereignty to the public. Like other western government, the emperor also served as the head of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The Diet served as the only government with legitimized power because the other groups did not work as a cohesive group.
Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War. Japan defeated China and gained Taiwan. Russia, France and Germany to return Taiwan and other territories gained from the war. The intervention of the three core countries was named the Triple Intervention and caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their "rearmament".
Another war broke out between Russia and Japan over interests within Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese army beat the Russians gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased their influence on Korea and annexed the country in 1910. The Japanese victory increased nationalism allowed the country to develop national self confidence.
The Taisho period served as a buffer between the Meiji Period ( a democratic and socialist period) and the Showa period ( a military and utilitarian government) The role of Japan in WWI, showed that they could work with major world powers and command respect from the opposition.
"The army, unhappy with the current military budget, withdraws its minister from the cabinet forcing Saionji to resign as prime minister."
Japan enters WWI on the side of the Allies. At the end of the war, they gain territories from Germany.
Prime Minister Okuma Shigenobu dissolves the Diet due to their opposition to extra funding and the expansion of the military.
Japan and the U.S. sent troops to aid the Czech Republic. The U.S. sent 7,000 troops while Japan sent 72,000.
Started with the rule of Emperor Hirohito in 1926 (ended with the end of WWII- 1945) and the economic crisis that caused a clash between the farmers and elite militia men. There was a rise in fascism, totalitarianism, ultra-nationalism. Japan removed themselves from the League of Nations, granting them political isolation and complete loyalty to the emperor and military. The military also separated themselves from the government and operated under their own authority.
The military invades China and sets up a temporary "puppet regime".
"During the rise in military power, the Japanese military within China fabricated the bombing of a rail-line by Chinese soldiers, which was used as justification for Japan’s military aggression against China."
A group of extremist composed of navy and army officer assassinated the Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi. The assassination almost triggered a military coup but instead ended the rule of political parties In Japan.
Japan invaded Manchuria, China, causing a war to breakout. Japan had a military advantage because it had more armor and artillery than China. In 1939, most of China's main cities were under Japanese control including Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai.
Japan entered the war on the side of Nazi Germany. After the allegiance, Japan attacked all of it neighboring Asian countries and launched the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Japan later surrendered in 1945.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. drops two atomic bombs, one on Hiroshima and the other on Nagasaki. The devastation caused Japan to surrender and for their government to be placed under U.S. military control. This caused all of the Japanese military and naval forces to be disbanded.
New constitution comes into force, establishes parliamentary system with all adults eligible to vote.
The current Japanese period, is focusing on rebuilding their economy and limiting the role of the military.