AP Euro 1945-1965

Major Events

US occupation of Japan

1946 - 1949

US attempts to establish a democracy within Japan after WWII. Helps Japan rapidly grow and return to pre-war economic levels.

Marshall Plan

1947

US financially aids post-WW2 countries to help make their economy stronger. This was made to contain the spread of communism and to create stronger relations between the US and EU countries.

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

The US pledges to provide financial aid to any country that is threatened by the spread of communism. It shifted the US policy within the Cold War from detente to containment.

Berlin Airlift

1948

NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: made as a defense alliance against the SU and communism through financial and military aid to other countries.

People's Republic of China

1949

China becomes a communist state when Zedong wins the revolution.

Germany splits

1949

East Germany becomes the Democratic Republic of Germany (communist) and West Germany becomes the Federal Republic.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Between North Korea (aided by China) and South Korea (aided by US). It ended with a stalemate on the 38th parallel but tensions are still high.

Treaty of Paris

1952

Aims of economic expansion, employment growth, and a higher standard of living, to be encouraged through the common market for coal and steel. The common market would be based on equal access to the sources of production, the establishment of the lowest prices, improved working conditions, growth in international trade, and the modernization of production.

Geneva Summit

1954

Conference in order to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina.

Warsaw Pact

1955

Made an alliance between the eastern European countries, mainly as a response to NATO. Includes USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

Communist North Vietnam (led by Mihn) vs dictatorship South Vietnam, proxy war within the cold war between SU and US, ended with North Vietnam takeover.

Sputnik

1957

Sputnik satellite was launched by the SU, starting the space race between the SU and the US.

EEC created

1957

European Economic Community: creates a common market between several EU countries and improves all economies involved

U-2 Incident

1960

Bay of Pigs

1961

Berlin Wall

1961

Built because of mass migration from east to west Germany which hurt west Germany's economy and society.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

SU (in good relations with the communist Cuban leader Castro) had missiles in Cuba that could destroy the US. Ended with a peace treaty that took SU missiles out of Cuba and US missiles out of Turkey.

Nuclear Test Ban

1963

Brussels Treaty

1967

People

Stalin

1945 - 1953

Soviet leader

Clement Attlee

1945 - 1951

GB prime minister, head of Labour Party

Truman

1945 - 1952

US president

Churchill

1951 - 1955

Josip Tito

1953 - 1965

Led Partisan revolution and made Yugoslavia independent from SU

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

US president

Khrushchev

1955 - 1964

Soviet leader that brought on a period of de-Stalinization. His relaxed policies led to invaded countries revolting and demanding independence.

Kennedy

1962 - 1963

US president

Social/Political Changes

GB welfare state established

1945 - 1951

Established by Attlee ministration

Zhdanovshchina

1946 - 1953

"Era of Zhdanov"; post-1945 purge conducted in the SU against intellectuals, artists, and writers, condemned for their supposed “bourgeois” sympathies.

Pop art

1950 - 1979

Massive retaliation

1953 - 1955

Idea that if both sides of a potential conflict are heavily armed, neither will attack the other in fear of total destruction (led by Eisenhower).

National Defense Education Act

1957

Passed in the US in response to Sputnik, it provided an opportunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation. It also changed the education system in the US forever.