Eastern State Penitentiary, the 1st modern prison, opens in Philadelphia
This is the start of mass incarceration because its the first prison to open up. So its the beginning of it all. Basically a baby being born.
First Police force created in Boston. You have to have someone sending people to jail, the creation of police is the baby taking its first steps.
This is on the timeline for mass incarceration because this leasing system made it so the prison could get money from the inmates by leasing them out to private individuals to do work. So the more people in prison the more money. This made it so you need prisoners. In some towns the prison is the only thing keeping things running so if there is no prisoners theres no prison. Cops then would have to arrest more people to keep town running.
First State Police
Pennsylvania becomes the first state police. Adding more force to arresting people.
July 26 1908
FBI created. Another way to arrest criminals.
Congress passed the Harrison Act, banning opiates and cocaine.
Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill begins
This is on the timeline because once this was pass mentally ill people didn't go to mental hospitals but prisons or jails instead causing more people to house
End of Jim Crow
Before 1965, blacks were arrested for breaking very racist, discriminative, and pointless laws. These laws would be not drinking from correct fountain, bathroom, talking back, and more. Starting in the 1890s.
Nixon declares War on Drugs
This is a milestone, after nixon declares war on drugs mass incarceration boomed and more and more individuals are arrested for drug charges. Mostly poor, or black/minority people. Non violent criminals are arrested more and racial profiling greatly increases
New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller enacts toughest drug laws in the nation
This is on the timeline because even though there is a federal crime on drugs by nixon the state crime is even worse. Any individual caught with an illegal drug get 15 years to life
Nixon creates DEA
An agency just for catching people doing drugs making it so more and more people go to jail. Officially endorsing a wave of legislative and police action that began under President Eisenhower. 49%t of the U.S. federal prison population is now directly related to the War on Drugs
When can created there 24/7 coverage it made it so they can spread more rumors, myths, lies, about blacks or individual with drugs. Start of media influencing policy
Minimum drinking age act
Makes legal drinking age from 18 to 21
Privatization of Prisons
Private prisons become big because state prisons are overflowing with criminals. Mass incarceration of many non violent offenders cause this as well as some violent
Increase use of policing after the terrorism attack causing more arrest. Use of intrusive policing became more justified
2nd chance act
April 9th 2008
One of the first programs to supports state, local, and tribal governments and nonprofit organizations in their work to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for people returning from state and federal prisons, local jails, and juvenile facilities. To help reduce incarcerated people
Colorado and Washington
The passing of legal marijuana is a stepping stone to ending numerous people being arrested and put to prison for many years for having marijuana on them. The war on drugs can be considered to be over or diminishing greatly
October 30 2015
6112 inmates were to be set free that were convicted of drug related crimes. This effort is to reduce the overcrowding and provide relief to drug offenders. This is the ending of mass incarceration because we are finally trying to reduce it and end war on drugs.