China Timeline

Civil War

Civil War begins

April 1927

The Civil War
Communists vs the Guomingdang
The Communists wanted to take control through their liberation areas, and the Guomindang wanted to take control through Chongqing
Chiang led the Guomingdang, and governed it like a military dictator
Chiang believed a country was best ruled by one leader
Chiangs goals: To modernize the country
Unifying the country by improving communications, railways, postal services
Powerful foreign countries encouraged to build plants in China to helped develop industry
Rural Service set up which sent students into the countryside on their breaks to help peasants harvest their crops, yet did nothing to reduce land taxes which took ½ of the peasant’s income
Could not prevent famine
Liberation areas improved life--women’s associations were set up to help women protect themselves from violent family members such as husbands or fathers-in-law
Red Army set up thousands of new farming tools, new schools
Big estates of land were confiscated and divided among peasants who did not have their own
Rents were reduced, taxes were lightened
Guomingdang favored to win the army--were backed by American’s and had lots of money and weapons
Chiang recognized by numerous international governments as the true leader of China
Commu had no big cities, no airforce, small army
PLA led by Lin Biao, avoided major battles with the Guomindang, instead making guerilla tactics

The Long March

1934 - 1935

Post-Civil War

Establishment of the peoples republic of china


Creating the single party state under communism

Agricultural Act Law


Marriage Law


The resist america and aid korea campaign


Utilized rallies to convince Chinese to be suspicious of foreigners
People from US became singled out bc aided Korea
Many foreigners were arrested (including missionaries)
At the end of 1950, the only foreigners that were allowed in China were the Russians

Three and Five Antis Program

1951 - 1952

corrupt politicians, supposed tax evaders, deflecting away from problems in the government, both focus on what they claim to be corruption, they are anti-rightist movements

Full scale collectivization and the command economy

First 5 year plan

1953 - 1957

Intended to speed up industrial growth
Iron and steel, energy, transport, communications, machinery, and chemicals were the industries that were prioritized
All private industries and businesses were nationalized, although many former managers remained in their positions
Peasants were paid smaller amounts of money for grain, which led to a large surplus for investment
Iron and steel mills were set up in smaller town markets
Oil, coal, iron ore etc minerals were found
NE, factories and mines were further developed, which led to a larger amount of industrial expansion
Targets were exceeded by 20%

Hundred Flowers Campaign

1956 - 1957

Mao lifted censorship and encouraged criticism of life in China
People were allowed to speak against the government as long as the criticism was constructive--not hateful and destructive (which is what it became)

Anti-rightist campaign


The campaign that was a result of the 100 flowers campaign
Half a million people were denounced and labeled as rightists
Were persecuted, imprisoned, put into labor camps, and sent to the countryside for re-education

Great Leap Forward


Mao wanted to abandon the industry based soviet model that China had used in the first 5 year plan
The Great Leap was the second five year plan--campaign that combined agriculture and industrial growth
Goal was to become a new superpower
Predicted to surpass Britain in 15 years, and challenge the United States
Too idealistic--wanted the Chinese people to take responsibility for their own future
The slow rise in agricultural productivity led to a shortage in capital

Backyard Steel campaign


Thousands of furnaces setup to quickly set up steel
Complete failure--99% of the metal was unusable due to impurities, machines were constantly breaking because Mao overworked them

The Three Bitter Years

1958 - 1961

Mao fabricated the statistics of what China’s people actually needed to survive
Climate also was not cooperating

Return to Socialism Moderation and a lessening of the Command Economy

Liu Shaoqi is supported by Deng Xiaoping start modern socialism-

1963 - 1966

change education to be more open

Mao’s Return to Power

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1979

Red Guards, Red Book, and Maoism
Economic Standstill
Social reaction (reacting to the reforms made by leaders before Mao) and ideological programming
Youth movements
Fear, terror, violence (wanton--violence to make people afraid), show trials
Madame Jiang (of the Gang of Four) ran the cultural and theatre centers

Death of Liao Shaoqui

1966 - 1969

Deng ousted as a “rightist”

Early cultural revolution

1969 - 1976

PLA disperse the Red Guards
Schools begin; textbooks re-written
Cult status

Gang of Four


Mao taken to prison thanks to support from Huo Guofeng

Mao dies


Deng Xiaping takes over


One child policy