Qanat - uses hydraulic and gravitational force to pull water from the ground using gravity. Water was taken from the aquifer and released to the agricultural fields at a lower level. Qanats made the cultivation of cotton, as well as other crops, possible. Used in Iran and Persia, the system spread throughout the Middle East and to China.
Noria - uses the energy derived from the flow of a river.
Sakia - raises water out of well or body of water. Sakias can have standing buckets attached directly to a vertical wheel. The most basic sakias are driven by donkeys, mules, or oxen.
Shaduf - hand-operated device for lifting time and still used today in India, Egypt, and a few other countries to irrigate land. South
The proliferation (rapid increase) of crops from South Asia to the Middle East encouraged innovation in farming and irrigation techniques.