AP World History Important Dates to Remember

Events

Technological and Environmental Transformations

Approx. 100000 BC - Approx. 600 BC

Homo sapiens/ Cro-Magnons emerged

Approx. 90000 BCE

spread from Europe to Africa and Asia

New Stone Age

8000 BC - 5000 BC

Egyptian civilization emerged

Approx. 5500 bc

-Egyptian history begins when King Menes united Upper (southern) Egypt and Lower (northern) Egypt
-society ruled by a Pharoah (incarnation of sun god, Re), controlled access to Nile River
-Hatshepsut, female Pharoah
-mummification and worshiping the dead
Egyptian Acievements:
-written language: hierogyphics
-paper making
-field irrigation
-bronze tools/weapons
-365 day calendar
-monumental architecture: pyramids, temples
-women had more significance than any other civilization: handling home finances and educating children, managing a business, becoming a priestess

Sumer was established

Approx. 5000 bc

-established by knowledge of irrigation and a surplus of food/population
Sumerian Achievements:
-development of the first form of writing, cuneiform
-Code of Ur, Nammu - the oldest known complete code of law in the world

Bronze tools and weapons were first used in Mesoptamia

4000 bc - 3000 bc

(copper+tin)

Trade started between the Mesopotamians and Egyptians

Approx. 3500 bc

-established because of specialized labor and efficient means of transporation

Movement of Africans across the continent of Africa

3000 BC - 500 CE

-iron metallurgy
-agriculture was basis for society (and herding)
-conflist among Bantus for formation of organized militaries and formal government institutions

Indus River Valley Civilization emerged

2500 BCE

-2 main cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
-both cities: well-planned, fortified, uniformly constructed ('uniform' bricks), standardized measures
-written language remains untranslated, so we don't know how they fell into decline
-Indus Valley pottery found in Egypt and olive oil (from Sumer) found here - Cultural Diffusion

Sumerians traded regularly with the Harrapans

Approx. 2300 bc

-established because Sumer needed natural resources
-from Sumer to India: woolen textiles, leather goods, sesame oil, jewelry
-from India to Sumer: copper, ivory, pearls, semi-precious stones
-to Egypt from ___ : cedar, sign of wealth, for tombs

Xia Dynasty

Approx. 2100 BCE - Approx. 1600 BCE

-also called the Huang He (Yellow River) Civilization
-"Yellow River", because of the loess soil that it picks up and deposits
-the river was also called "China's Sorrow", because of its unpredictable flooding
-no need for irrigation system to be established, water-control systems instead, because of regular rain and fertile soil
-Xia dynasty first attempted to organize public life on a large scale, precedent for hereditary monarchical rule
-legendary founder, Yu: set up formal gov't, initiated flood-control projects, and organized large-scale public works

Hammurabi's Code was established

1792 bc - 1750 bc

-whole set of law
-set of laws to govern society, instead of arbitrary rulers
-favored upper classes
-"lex talionis" (law of retaliation) - 'an eye for an eye'

Silk Production started

1750 bc - 1027 bc

-started during the Shang dynasty
-silk was produced by raising silkworms on mulberry trees
-by the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 BC), silk was a luxury product in high demand and it's production was an imperial secret...until some Byzantine monks smuggled silkworms back to their empire in the late 500s and Byzantine started producing silk textiles

Shang Dynasty

1750 bc - 1027 bc

-extended control to NE China, using a well-armed military
-kings controlled surplus of agriculture and an extensive network of 1,000 towns
-built lavish tombs for emperors
-practiced ancestor worship; used oracle bones to foresee the future
-it's the earliest recorded dynasty whose rise and success was based on technology (bronze)
-the Shang controlled the production of bronze by monopolizing (taking full control of it) and empolying raftsmen

Hittites established their empire

1600 bc

-from ancient Anatolia
-used chariots
-were the precursors of the Iron Age, but also existed in the Bronze Age
-in most of Asia Minor and northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian craftsmen developed iron tools and weapons

Approx. 1500 bc - 1000 bc

diffused through Asia over time

Vedic Age

1500 BCE - 500 BCE

-period when the Vedas, primary texts of Hindus, was recorded...Rig Veda is the first of these
-the Vedas were a collection of songs, hymns, and prayers for Aryan gods
-Aryans and Dravidians (people already living in south India) fought - no central gov't
-hundreds of chiefdoms were established
-permanent, reginal communities, based on agriculture instead of herding, were established around 1000 BC - 500 BC
-strong patriarchy
Castes (varnas):
1) Brahmins - priests
2) Kshatriyas - warriors and aristocrats
3) Vaishyas - cutivators, astisans, merchants
4) Shudras - landless peasants, serfs

5) Untouchables - preformed unpleasant tasks, came in the caste system later

-Occupation determined a person's "jati", or subcaste
-caste system limited social mobility

Aryans migrated from moden-day Iran to northern India

1500 bc

-migrated south through Hindu Kush mountain range to northern India
-limited agriculture
-domesticated horses, used in transportation and war machines, when attached to chariots
-religious/literary texts were memorized, passed by oral tradition
-over time, developed a rigid caste system, because of invaders and indigenous poeple

Hebrews, led by Musa (as), went to Palestine, where they established a kingdom

Approx. 1300 bc

-extended from Syria to the Sinai Peninsula
-Hebrews used Mesopotamian law as a guide, but their devotion to Yahweh and religion distinguished them from others

Turmoil in the Levant took place when unexpected "Sea People" entered

1180 bc

-empire ended with the Bronze Age
-the Hittite empire split into smaller, "Neo-Hittite" city-states

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BC - 256 BC

-ruled by proclamation (announcing they are now ruling)
-all power/loyalty transferred to the Zhou
-theory of politics: events of Heaven and Earth are closely related: (Mandate of Heaven - alibi for the person to rule...granted to an individual that is deserving... the "Son of Heaven") - divine right to rule, used b Zhou to take over the Shang
-cultural achievements: poetry, rituals, political essays, morals, religion, and philosophy
-most writings were lost, but the "Book of Songs" is still preserved

Mesopotamians manufactured iron tols

Approx. 1000 bc

Bantu people began settling where the had moved

1000 BC

-established segmentary societies

Chavín Civilization

1000 BCE - 300 BCE

-Chavín culture spread through Peru and vanished by 300 BC
-probably arose when maize became significant in South America, maize maybe used to promote fertility and abundant harvests
Chavín Achievements:
-large temple complexes, elaborate works of art, fishing nets, experimentation with minerals; and techniques of gold, silver, and copper metallurgy used in the creation of jewelry and small tools
-example of core civilization where agriculture flourished
-can be compared to a river valley civilization, such as in China, Mesopotamia, or India

Assyrian Empire

Approx. 800 BC - Approx. 600 BC

-officers in charge of military units: basis of merit, skill and bravery
-horse-drawn chariots (technological innovation)
-at height, covered much of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, and Egypt
-gov't: administrative techniques and powerful military

Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies

Approx. 600 BC - Approx. 600 CE

Farming and Agriculture Terms

Approx. 600 bc

Qanat - uses hydraulic and gravitational force to pull water from the ground using gravity. Water was taken from the aquifer and released to the agricultural fields at a lower level. Qanats made the cultivation of cotton, as well as other crops, possible. Used in Iran and Persia, the system spread throughout the Middle East and to China.

Noria - uses the energy derived from the flow of a river.

Sakia - raises water out of well or body of water. Sakias can have standing buckets attached directly to a vertical wheel. The most basic sakias are driven by donkeys, mules, or oxen.

Shaduf - hand-operated device for lifting time and still used today in India, Egypt, and a few other countries to irrigate land. South

The proliferation (rapid increase) of crops from South Asia to the Middle East encouraged innovation in farming and irrigation techniques.

Regional and Interregional Interactions

Approx. 600 CE - Approx. 1450 CE

Global Interactions

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1750

Industrialization and Global Integration

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1900

Accelerating Global Change & Realignments

1900 - Present

Lucy, an Australopithecine fossil, found

1974