Music History Midterm


Rule of St. Benedict


Code of conduct to regulate daily life in a monastic community. Made by Benedict of Nursia. Monastery of St. Gall Switz-scriptorium (writing room) for production of books. Cloister.

Notre Dame School

1160 - 1260

Leoninus, Perotinus, and colleagues created a huge musical repertory. More than a thousand pieces. Polyphonic pieces created in these churches were comparatively few and were unique to them; almost never did an organum from one center reappear in a manuscript produced at another.. By the 13th century-University Paris attracting theologians. Works heard across Europe.



vielle->most likely to accompany estampie.
5 string fiddle
playing entire Guidonian scale
performing in up to groups of 4
harp/psaltery/ gittern
pipe and tubor=fife and rum
shawm=ancestor of modern oboe->treble and tenor
organ->only keyboard instrument. sliders not keys
portative organ->movable
court->accompany singers one hand with bellows in other.
positive organ->large and static
-high wall of the nave
-king of instruments and only one sanctioned by the church.
clavichord->key string->strings out of difficult to fabricate metal wire
strike thin metal string

Robertsbridge Codex->earliest collection or keyboard music->preserves 3 estampies and 3 motets from Roman de Fauvel.

Babylonian Captivity / Great Western Schism

1309 - 1403

Pope Clement V remained in Avignon. Avignonese popes built a Clementine chapel. Capella=building consecrated for religious worship and group of highly trained musicians who sang at services.
Avignon-both vitry and murs were in avignon

John Dunstable

1390 - 1453

may have been at Agincourt
travelled to France after invasion
astronomer/mathematician->music and sciences
Wrote Quam Pulchra es
perhaps in the contenance angloise because of pan-consonance

Ercole d'este


Este family ruled Ferrera. rough, brutal bunch, but they still knew good composers.



strophic song with 1-3 voices
burden is a refrain (repeated after each stanza)
strophe (sang by a soloist) plus refrain (singers joined in for burden)
-text in latin or english->dealt with christmas, easter, virgin mary or saints
-120 carols survive
-inserted to liturgy, en of mass or office, recreation at home.

Battle of Agincourt


celebrated the genre of the carol.
french army vs. english army at Agincourt.
Although french army was 4 times a large, the english bow and arrows prevailed.
CAROLS such as the Agincourt carol came out of this.
Henry V.

Agincourt Carol


celebrates the victory at Agincourt
1. 2 voice refrain (burden) sung by all
2. verse performed by soloists
3. expanded version of the refrain->chorus of 3 voices
Pride in their monarch/traiditonal love of choral singing.

feast of the pheasant


Duke philip of burgundy makes rally for cause of crusade against Constantinople turks.
lamento sanctae matris for this was made by Dufay

Cantus-firmus mass


cyclic mass in 5 movements are unified by single cantus firmus.

Ninety-five theses


naioled his 95 thesis to the door of the castle church.
defining moment of the reformation.
for music:
german language rather than latin
larger role of the congregation in the service.
local freedom
mass and canonical hours reduced to just mass and evensong
simple hymns
congregation expected to sing including women

The Augsburg confession/peace of augsburg

1530 - 1555

doctrinal statement of the lutheran faith.
1555-luther and emperor charles V agreed to peace of augsburg. treaty allowing religious freedom sort of.




Holy Roman empire. Uniform system of writing and schooling. Carolingian renaissance.

Notker Balbulus


"stammerer" Compiled collection of sequences called the Liber hymnorum.

Tuotilo of St. Gall


Talented monk. talented monk. left collection of tropes for the high feasts of the church year.
Wrote: Hodie cantandus est nobis (INTROIT trope)-before puer natus.
Omnipotens genitor (KYRIE trope)

Hildegard of Bingen

1098 - 1179

Cantrix. Arranged her music in a book called symphony. Wrote a LITURGICAL DRAMA Ordo virtutum.

Peter Abelard


nobleman turned cleric
Prof of logic
in charge of education of Heloise Fulbert
passionate and scandalous romances: birth of child and castration.
Love affair-poetry and music by Abelard
no love songs survive, just hymn and 6 laments
scandal caused scholars to be banned from the clase so the school moved across the seine

Eleanor d'Aquitaine


court at chinon near Anjou
drew poets and musicians
Marie de France-first to put legend of king Arthur in verse.
Had Bernart de Ventadorn at the court.

Bernart de Ventadorn


works have portrait and vida before piece
45 poems, 18 are supplied with melodies
Can vei la lauzeta-about eleanor. envoi=sendoff.

Master Albertus of Paris


composer named in Codex Calixtinus. Wrote Congaudeant Catholici - earliest notated three-voice composition. Cantor of the cathedral of Notre Dame of Paris in the mid twelfth century.

Countess Beatriz de Dia


Troubairitz. Wrote A chantar m'er. Fell in love with a fellow troubadour. Song laments her failur in love. Stepwise motion and has strong Dorian mode. Repetitive formal plan (ABABCDB).

Richard the Lionhearted


captivity between 1192 and 1194. Trouvere. wrote Ja nus hons pris ne dira.

Phillip the Chancellor


head of university of Paris. 700 sermons for Cathedral and university. 70 compositions
Wrote Conductus and Motets.



took rhythmic innovations of Leoninus and used them to create polyphonic works.
lengthy, complex, grand.
degree from University, notre dame.
4 voices
Viderunt omnes and sederunt princepes.
New type: tenor still holds out long notes but all upper voices proceed in strict rhythm.
constructs unit phrases. duplum parts in triplum, and in quadruplum.
tension and resolution of dissonance and consonance conflict.
first modern composer
shorter blocks of sound that are balanced and interposed.


1160 - 1201

wrote a great bok of polyphony called the Magnus liber organi.
Wrote his own 3/4 voice music.
Book contains hundred pieces of two-voice organum.
Did not set all the Ordinary and Proper, but only two responsorial chants of the proper. Gradual and the Alleluia. Melismatic chants in which soloists played a leading part.
Composer and singer.

Jacques de Liege

1260 - 1330

Ars Antiqua
preferred earlier Parisian music
uniform pace and ternary units
Pope John XXII charged into the fray to defend conservative church music.

Franco of Cologne


Wrote Ars cantus mensurabilis. About mensural notation.
scholasticism-constructing hierarchical categories.
Came to Paris to teach.

Jean des Murs

1290 - 1351

The Ars Nova. Parisian mathematician. wrote Notitia artis musicae (Art of New Music).

Philippe de Vitry

1291 - 1361

mathematician, bishop, and composer. Wrote Ars novae musicae (Art of new music). Work by the name Ars nova.
Renaissance man

Garrit Gallus/In nova fert/Neuma: motet with animal allegory.
devoured by wicked fox

isorhythm->rhythmic patter repeated again and again
talea->rhythmic pattern/unit (segment/slice)
color->melodic pattern/unit

Guillaume de Machaut


Canon at the cathedral in Reimes. Composed 23 motets, 19 laid, 42 ballades, 22 rondeaux, 33 virelai, hockey, polyphonic mass.
Hoquetus David
Je puis trop bien-ballade. AAB
Douce dame jolie-virelai
Kyrie of the Mass of our Lady-cyclic mass.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

official of the papal court. Italian poet.

Jacopo de Bologna

1310 - 1386

Non al suo amante. Set it in typical madrigal style for two voices. 2 three-line units sung to the same music, followed by a ritornello.
Square, even mechanical. not a single instance of syncopation.
lyricism in the florid upper voice. begins and ends each line with a vocal melisma.

Baude Cordier

1365 - 1398

unusual rhythmic sophistication.
Tout par compas suy composes. Shape of the music bears the title of the piece.
circular notation on lines drawn by a compass
cordier=string name
rota/round->goes around 3 times and also it is a canon

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

Florentine architect. Built the duomo in Florence. The cathedral was dedicated in 1436. Did thecathedral by studying the ancient pantheon. Dufay composes motet Nuper rosarum flores for the event. 6,4,2,3.

Philippus de caserta

1378 - 1394

Par les bons Gedeons balade
tenor has solid rhythmic foundation
2/4 time
contratenor->syncopations and hocket
cantus is flowing but difficult.
Part of the Ars Subtilior movement.

Guillaume Dufay

1397 - 1474

Native of the region of cambrai in northern france, but came to Italy and became the pope's magister cappellae in the 1430s. Went to florence when the pope was chased out of Rome, so he composed motet for building of the cathedral.
Nuper rosarum flores
Alma redemptoris mater II

Johannes Gutenberg

1400 - 1468

invented moveable type around 1450.
hundreds of metal type are cut with each letter. letters are arranged.


1410 - 1497

Born in burgundian lands.
moved to french royal chapel.
structure of imitation->age of imitative counterpoint.
Prenez sur moi=canon
L'homme arme mass the cantus firmus in the bass
also melody goes up then down again
Rondeau->d'ung aultre amer

Missa prolationum->most extraordinary contrapuntal achievement of 15th century
-4 voices sing two 2 voice mensuration canons
-perform same music at two different rates of speed.

It is only the higher voice that is written->the other voices just have to know from the notation what to sing
-musical games/challenges

Missa prolationum->most extraordinary contrapuntal achievement of 15th century
-4 voices sing 2 two oice mensuration canons

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

miraculous Maid of Orleans->rescued France from the English.
two kings of france, one french one english.
france retook reims and then paris.

Henry V

1413 - 1422

conquered northern france and was a valiant soldier
-he loved lit, poetry, music
-2 important chapels
1. Windsor Castle
2. traveled with him
Leonel power=unified mass cycle

Gilles Binchois

1430 - 1460

singer and composer int he chapel of Duke Philip the good.
wrote religious music->masses and motets and hymns.
Did not compose large-scale cantus firus masses. He created FRENCH CHANSON.

Burgundian chanson.
composed 60 chansons each written in formes fixe.

Dueil Angoisseus- BALADE about lost love.
poem by Christine de pisan who lost her husband at an early age.

Josquin des Prez

1450 - 1521

born in northern france then was a singer in southern france, and then he we an employee of King Louis XI in Paris and tours. he then went to italy and moved between quarts of milan, mantua, ferrera, and the papl curia in rome. he sang in the sistine chapel.
Missa Missa super voces musicalis
missa hercules dux ferrarie
il grillo
missa pange lingua

Heinrich Isaac

1450 - 1517

born in low countries, but then went to florence before being expelled with medici in 1494.
moved innsbruck with maximilian in 1496.

Steadfastly catholic music for the imperial court.
catholic liturgy.
Choralis Constantinus=sets chants from the german diocese of constance. The first systematic attempt to provide polyphony for the entire church year.

Wrote choralis constantinus
wrote innsbruck, ich muss in 1510f


1457 - 1504

choir director in churches around beligium. Died of bubonic plague in ferrera.
wrote multiple cantus firmus masses. Missa sub tuum presidium, a mass in the honor of the virgin mary.
one cantus firmi in upper voices, one in lower.
we listened to the credo of missa sub tuum presidium.

Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire

1459 - 1519

1477-married mary of burgundy, untiting burgundy and hre.
Innsbruck was the preferred residence of the holy roman empire.
music flourished there-Isaac

Ottaviano Petrucci

1466 - 1539

published odhecaton first printed music book. used multiple impression printing.

Claudin de Sermisy

1490 - 1562

church musician however he wrote parisian chanson. one of the greatest melody writers of his day. Claudin's chansons dominate Pierre Attaingnat's publication Chansons nouvelles of 1528.
Tant que vivray
structure of the text determines the structure of the music, each line beginning witha new idea and ending in a cadence. rhythm of the text determines the rhythm of the music.

Pierre Attaignant

1494 - 1552

made single-impression printing in paris. You would type set it just like gutenberg, and print it once which was cheaper and faster, but not as clear.



Pavane=replaced the fifteenth century basse danse as the primary slow dance of the court. in duple rather than triple meter. wedding music while entering the chapel.

galliard=fast leaping dance in triple meter. 6 beats and 6 steps. fast steps with periodic leaps.
show dance for the young.

Orlande de Lassus

1532 - 1594

munich-steadfastly protestant, but orlande de lassus was steadfastly catholic.

great master of the motet.
born in low countries.

De profundis clamavi-setting of the penitential psalms.


Mass Ordinary


Ordinary of the Mass
Agnus Dei

Songs for Ordinary:

Mass Proper


Proper of the Mass:
Alleluia-has jubilus

Example of songs:
Puer natus est nobis
Viderunt omnes (Gradual)
Alleluia. Dies sanctificatus (Alleluia)



Medieval spanish or protuguese monophonic song.
Cantigas de Santa Maria: anthology compiled about 1270 under Alfonso the wise.
Virgin Mary and the rose.
villancico: popular song consisting of several stanzas and a refrain.

Italian Formes Fixes

1300 - 1400

Non al suo amante
poem in the vernacular tongue to which music was added for greater emotional effect. 2 (sometimes three) three-line stanzas followed by a two-ling RITORNELLO (refrain).
Musical form of all trescento madrigals is AAB-sort of like a ballade?
musical canon. upper voices supported by a slower moving tenor. caccia means hunt.

BALLATA: dance song witha choral refrain.
b=piede (foot)
Francesco Landini was the first to write two and three-voice ballatas.
ballata=Or su, gentili spirti.

Ars Antiqua

1300 - 1350

Movement by Jacues de Liege and Pope John XXII, against the Ars nova movement.
preferred earlier parisian music
uniform pace and ternary units.

Ars Nova

1300 - 1350

Jean Des Murs and Philippe de Vitry
Music of the first half of the 14th century->innovations
1) new short note value =minim
subdivision of semi-breve
note values slow down
2) divide durations into duple as well as triplum
DOt->made it triplum
mode (long)
time (breve)
prolation (semi-breve)
3) Coloring certain notes->triplets and hemiola added to duple.
4) Meter/time signatures now appear in the history of music.

The Roman de Fauvel


Marigny chief financial minister accused of corruption.
Roman de Fauvel is a fable about political power gone awry. Ass=Fauvel. Most of the poem written by Gerves de Bus, but Vitry made insertions a few years later.
notaries at court.
Quare fremuerunt gentes->reworking of centuries old conductus.
Unit=3 breves->each breve
divided into 2 semi-breves
into 3 minims
perfect mode, impoerfect time, perfect prolation.

Gerves de Bus=Roman de Fauvel
Quare fremuerunt gentes=Philippe de Vitry

Formes Fixes


BALLADE: song setting a poem with 1-3 stanzas.
AAB. with refrain.
Je Puis Trop bien. by Machaut. Melody voice called the cantus.

RONDEAU: two musical sections a and b.
Rose, liz, printemps.

Douce dame jolie by Machaut.



contrapuntal technique. musical genre. Occurs when the sounds of two voices are staggered by the carefree placement of rests. creating a highly syncopated piece.

Ars Subtilior


Style of rthymically complex music that radiated out from avignon to other parts of southern france and into northern Italy during the late fourteenth century.
Phillip of Casertus

Royal Dances


1) Carole->strophe and refrain->stanzas end in same refrain.
(soloist/stanza, chorus/refrain)
2) estampie->stomp->originally sung dance->song as they danced
then became purely instrumental

pair->punctum of musical phrases
refrain->open or closed ending

La quinte estampie real.

15th century Formes Fixe


contratenor placed bbelow the tenor to acheive a wider, richer sonority.

BURGUNDIAN CADENCE=contratenor jumps an octave.

still ballade-rondeau-virelai.

basse danse


principal aristocratic dance of court and city during the early renaissance. Slow, stately dance in which dancer's feet glided close the ground

basse dance book=58 dance tunes

16th century madrigal


unlike earlier trecento madrical in AAB form, the 16th century is
meaning that it has a new melody for each line of text.
Arcadelt=Il biano e dolce cigno.

subject is love and death.

vecchi also made a recording of this one.



popular/art song in germany.
tenorlied=pre-existing pop tune in the tenor
tenor cantus firmus.



monophonic spiritual melody
simple with strophic text
many were AAB form.
contrafactum=secular piece to sacred one.

ein feste burg ist unser Gott
by luther
polyphonic setting by walter.

French Chanson


rhythm of the text bgins to determine the rhythm of the music. subject matter more earthy. accent and duration of the word was as important as its meaning. the stress of the words determines placement and duration of notes. not exactly meaning tone painting of italian madrigals.
all 4 voices often declaim the text together.
homophonic declamation over linear counterpoint.

Claudin de sermisy=tant que vivray


Chants of the Mass (Both Ordinary and Proper)


Puer natus est nobis, Introit (Proper)
Kyrie (Ordinary)
Gloria (Ordinary)
Viderunt omnes, Gradual (Proper)
Alleluia, Dies sanctificatus, Alleluia (Proper)

Chants of the Vespers


Tecum principium (Antiphon)
Jesu, Redemptor omnium (Hymn)



Hodie cantandus est nobis (Introit Trope)
Omnipotens genitor (Kyrie Trope)

Viderunt Hemanuel


Aquitanian polyphony. Anonymous two-voice trope of the Gradual of the Mass for Christmas. Sustained-tone organum.

Congaudeant Catholici


Written by Master Albertus of Paris. Earliest notated three-voice composition. Found in the codex calixtinus. Conductus-polyphonic. All have one text. All voices move at the same time. Sacred text.

Ordo virtutum


Liturgical drama by Hildegard.

O rubor sanguinis


By Hildegard Von Bingen
antiphon for St. Ursula. Written in Dorian mode with Bb to avoide tritone F to B.

Can vei la lauzeta


Bernart de ventadorn about Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Viderunt Omnes


by Leoninus. long notes of tenor is the chant viderunt omne. On "dominus" there is a discant section though. Perotinus changes it with tenor still hlding out, but the upper voices in strict rhythm. constructs unit phrases. tension and resoolution of dissonance and consonance. first modern composer. shorter blocks of sound that are balanced and interposed.

A chantar m'er


by Beatriz de Dia.
About her illicit love for another troubadour.

Orientis Partibus


all parts sing a single text
C major triad (to us) actually Lydian transposed to C
upper voice cadence with the tenor
christmas carols-the friendly beast
humour-parody of liturgical christmas
For the Feast of Fools
youngest adult clerics took charge
blasphemous ass parade.

Dic, Christi veritas


By philip the chancellor. Conductus which was a \n attack on his enemies.

Dies Irae


Sequence. for the REQUIEM MASS-mass of the dead. After the alleluia.
Notker-known for sequences.

On parole de batre/A Paris/Frese nouvele


Motet. Anonymous. In vernacular french.

Sumer is icumen in


pes=bottom voice which continually repeats

4 voice canon above it
-return to beginning
-distance of 2 measures
Rota=type of canon that continually rotates like a wheel.

Summer canon was:
-first circular canon in music history
-first composition for 6 voices
-strong beat of each metrical unit creates/implies the same F chord.

2 texts
1. middle english
2. Latin->easter sunday
-rebirth and regeneration
recreation with the round.

Roman de Fauvel


Gerves de Bus. About Fauvel. The poem.

Garrit Gallus/In nova fert/Neuma


Phillipe de Vitry.
Ars Nova motet. With isorhythm. Animal allegory. speaks of rooster, chicken, and lamb being devoured by fox. Part of Roman de Fauvel.

Quare fremuerunt gentes


Anonymous polyphonic setting of Roman de Fauvel.

Non al suo amante


Madrigal by Jacopo da Bologna. 2 three line units. each sung to the same music, followed by a ritornello. Form is AAB. voices are square, but there is melisma in the upper voice.
ritornello is in different musical meter from that of the preceding stanzas.

Rose, liz, printemps


Rondeau by Machaut.

Douce dame jolie


Virelai. AbbaA. By Machaut.

Je puis trop bien


Ballade by Machaut. AAB.

Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady)


By machaut. First complete treatment in polyphony of the Ordinary of the Mass. Cyclic mass. Common musical theme. Contratenor, contratenor bassus and contratenor altus.

Hoquetus David


By Machaut. Uses Hocket. highly syncopated piece. Part of 14th century music in Reims.

Fumeux Fume par fume


By Solage. An example of the Ars Subtilior movement.

Par les bons Gedeons


tenor has solid rhythmic foundations
2/4 time
contratenor has syncopations and hocket
cantus is flowing but difficult
polymeter->2 or more meters sounding simultaneously.
Ars subtilor-subtler art
rhythmically complex music.

Or su, gentili spirti


Ballata. Written by Francesco Landini.
MOst important composwer of the trecento. AbbaA
principal vocal line is still the cantus, but this part is more fluid. Syncopations occur frequently and sometimes run across the bar line. Parallel thirds and sixths appear in greater abundance. 6ths expanding to the octave=Landini cadence.
First line of Landini's text invites the participants to enjoy love and thereby experience Paradise, the general theme of giovanni de Prato's Il Paradiso.

Tout par compas suy composes


Rondeau with a canon and special notational form. By BAUDE CORDIER.
Rondeau form with a round:
1 (AB), 2 (ab), 3 (AB)

Nuper Rosarum Flores


Written by Dufay.
Motet for the dedication of the duomo of Florence. Example of a CEREMONIAL MOTET.
number symbolism: 2,4,7,14, and 28 were important as well as 6,4,2,3. Religious, civic, and musical symbolism. Mensuration signs.

L'homme arme tradition


L'homme arme
no meldoy has been so borrowed
many by burgundian composers
ABA form
profane songs had sacred meaning
christian soldier
ultimate soldier=christ.

Missa L'homme arme Kyrie and Agnus dei
Dufay in 1460
dotted rhythm
in agnus dei->the crab goes out full but comes back half.
Missa L'homme arme Agnus dei
Ockeghem in 1460.
cantus firmus in the bass and opens with a duet
Missa l'homme arme agnus dei
Busnoys in 1470s-much richer texture.
Missa L'homme arme agnus dei III
1490s by de orto-dotted rhythm just like dufay but only 1 voice comes in at first
Missa l'homme arme super voces musicales kyrie and agnus dei
Josquin in 1490s
puts each movement in a different key just like orto, also the cantus firmus is in the top voice.

Missa sub tuum presidium


multiple cantus firmus mass by obrecht.
mass in honor of the virgin mary.
7 voices, multiple cantus firmi.
in credo:
composer sets two cantus firmi in the highest two voices, sub tuum presidium, and another audi nos in the bottom.

el grillo e bon cantore


by Josquin des prez
a frottola

Miserere Dei


Written by Josquin
One of the 7 penitential psalms.
relationship between music and text.
prevalence of psalm tone. recitation tone with mediation on the upper neighbor tone.
divides the twenty verses into 3 parts.
uses some word painting.
in phrygian scale-mournful quality.
inspired by a sermon by Savonarola which opening line is miserere dei.





Canonical hours/ Liturgical offices


eight periods of worship occuring throughout the day. Work of the lord=opus dei.
Matins (nigh office)
Vespers-most important for the history of music.



tells you what the next note will be.

lesser doxology


Formula they say at the end.

Neumatic vs syllabi vs melismatic


Syllabic-one note for every syllable of text.
neumatic chant-3, 4, 5 notes for each syllable of text.
melisma-lengthy vocal phrase setting a single syllable



Psalter=book of 150 psalms found in old testament.
Psalmody= the singing of psalms
Antiphon=short chant before the psalm and repeated after it.
Antiphonal singing=where the chorus sings back and forth.
Psalm tones=recitation formulas. intonation sung by cantor.

Intonation, Recitation, Mediation, Recitation termination.

Hymn= short chant with small number of phrases. ONe melody.

Double Verse structure


Each musical phrase is sung twice to accommodate a pair of verses. Sung antiphonally.


900 CE

Addition of music with text to a pre-existing chant. However it did not precede it but it followed it. The sequence follows the ALLELUIA OF THE MASS.
Notker Balbulus was a famous writer of sequences.

8 Church modes


Dorian: D to D. D final. A reciting tone. Authentic
Hypodorian: A to A. D final. F reciting tone. Plagal.
Phrygian: E to E. E final. C reciting tone. Authentic.
Hypophrygian. B to B. E final. A reciting tone. Plagal.
Lydian: F to F. F final. C reciting tone. Authentic.
Hypolydian: C to C. F final. A reciting tone. Plagal.
Mixolydian: G to G. G final. D reciting tone. Authentic
Hypomixolydian: D to D. G final. C reciting tone. Plagal.

Sarum Chant


Sarum chant is England's own special dialect of Gregorian chant.

organum/organum terms


Earliest polyphonic music genre.
parallel organum=all voices move in lockstep, up or down.
vox principalis (principal voice)
vox organalis (organal voice)
occursus=running together. Early form of cadence.



addition of music or text to a pre-exusting chant. Composed by Tuotilo of St. Gall.
include different interpretations of the text
provides creative outlet
need things for saints.
How do you embellish:
1. add text to a melisma
2. add music and text to front or back.
3. add another long melisma.
tropes are also good because they can help people remember the melismas.



trivium: rhetoric, logic, grammar
quadrivium: geometry, astronomy, music, arithmetic.

Guidonian hand


to facilitate sight-singing with hexachords. Each place on the hand had a different pitch with its name (solre).



solfege-ut, re, mi, fa, sol la.
natural hexachord: starts on C
soft hexachord: starts on F with Bb
hard hexachord: starts on G with B natural.
lowest note is G of bass clef-starts with a hard hexachord.



Southern france=troubadours who spoke
Langue d'oc
2,600 courtly poems
Northern france=troubairitz who spoke
Langue d'oil
Chansonnier (book of songs) borrowed notation of monastery and brought it to court.
2,100 poems

fin'amors=ideal love
new view of women: chivalric society, with woman on a pedestal. honor and obey her.
more virtuous/purer, but weaker sex.
veneration and protection

trobairitz=woman troubadour.



independent urban enclave
men empolyed in teh cathedral
free from control of the king
12 house for clergy, music school

modal notation/rhythmic modes/Ligature


6 rhythmic modes. repeating rhythms. variants by extending and subdividing these 6. INdividual square notes grouped into units of 2,3,4, LIGATURES.
mensural notation-1 symbol determines notation.



sung as clergy moved from place to place
not part of formal liturgy
1,2,3,4, voices
some became sort of christmas carols
Feast of Fools-youngest adult clerics took charge
blasphemous ass parade.
Phillip the Chancellor wrote serious moralistic conductus (Dic Christi Veritas) which attacked his enemies.

substitute clausula


compositional essay written in discant style to replace another.
Perotinus did this using Leoninus' work.



section, phrase, or "musical clause"



style of music in which both voices move at the same time.

organum purum


pure organum. older sustained-tone organum. floried two-voice organum.



bottom voice holds or draws out the notes.



discant clausula-sacred words added. self contained section of disc ant in rhythm
each upper voice declaims its own new poetic text. upper voices elaborate on the meanig of the tenor
2nd voice is the motets.
polytextual=up to 2 texts. sometimes 3.
Montpellier codex=345 motets.
text on upper line
El mois d'avril/o quam sancta/el guadabit
seubjetct matter->esoteric to frivolous.
diversity of borrowed tenors
formal procedures
On parole de barre/A Paris/Frese nouvele



tail- long melisma on a single syllable
might come anywhere to emphasize words
end of fulminate-word painting



Nave-west-public. town hall and civic auditorium
Choire-east end of church. high altar where the clergy sat. everyone sang gregorian chant, the solos and polyphony were specialists who sang organum.

mensural notation


symbol-specific notation. Different from the modal modulation which was contextual notation.
long, breve, semibreve, minim.
triple relationship to the unit next to it.
duplex long=2 longs



parallel 6/3 chords in English discant. Singers create faburden by improvising around a given chant. One voice sang above the plainsong by a fourth, and one below by a 3rd.
cadences=bottom voice drop down to form octave with top one. 6/3 chords punctuated by 8/5 chords.

English Discant


pleasing choral polyphony in which one or two voices improvise note-against note counterpoint upon a chant using only consonant intervals.
a strict style with all parallel 6/3 chords is called faburden.



2 or 3 voices engage in voice exchange, or phrase exchange. Each voice starts with its own phrase, and then they switch. After each part has sung all phrases, the voices begin new phrases and then switch. May stand as an independent song or the technique could be put into a motet/conductus. Round.



polyphony in late middle ages with three voices.
The highest part was called the treble from "triple because it was the third voice.



Isorhythm=rhythmic pattern is repeated again and again in the tenor voice.
talea=rhythmic pattern or unit
color= the melodic unit in an isorhythmic motet



rule. second voice must duplicate exactly the pitches and rhythms of the first. Tout par compras is a rondeau and also a canon.

Landini Cadence


6ths expanding to the octave. So prevalent is the cadential gesture in his music, that it was called Landini cadence.

hauts instruments/bas instruments


hauts instruments=loud= shawm, clavichord, cornett,
bas instruments=soft-clavichord, lute, vihuela, viol, violin, recorder, organ



Continental composers developed a related style after it came over from England.
Singers of sacred music improvised at pitches a fourth and sixth below a given plainsong. The chant is on the top. Both faburdon and fauxbourdon create 6/3 chords.

choir schools

1400 - 1550

school that took in boys at the age of six and gave them a musical education in the low countries. Most of the composers of learned polyphony in western europe during 1425-1550 were born in burgundian low countries.

Cyclic Mass pairings


unification methods of the masses:
1. motto->brief characteristic motive in one or more voices which recurs at the beginning of each movement in the same or only slightly varied form and serves a motto for the entire cycle. however, these only affect the first few measures
2. borrowed cantus firms which underlies all movements as a structural voice

2 paired movements:
Gloria and Credo
Santus and Agnus

Some examples:
Dufay's Missa Sancti Jacobi->includes complete ordinary but also pieces of the proper.-motto mass

Dunstable and Leonel Power=tenor mass or cantus-firmus mass.

magister cappellae


Dufay became the magister cappellae for the pope.
It is the leader of the chapel.

Court at Burgundy

1425 - 1550
  1. important center for the patronage of the arts
  2. all great polyphonic composers beween 1425 and 1550 400 attendants



collected anthology of chansons. Collection of form fixe-ballade, rondeau, virelai

plenary mass


where the ordinary and the proper of the mass are put together.
Example=Dufay's Missa santi jacobi
has complete ordinary with some pieces of the proper.


1435 - 1492

born in burgundy
composed motet/chanson for king louis
musical cryptograms
picture of a bell.

an acrostic=Je ne puis vivre->produce name Jaqueline d'Aquerjile.
virelai AbbaA
a in triple, b in duple

each voice up the scale to distance of 10th
clarifying the mode of the piece
lydian mode (Bb)
transposed to C->c major.

Deuil Angoisseus


-about love lost
-poem by Chrstine de Pisan, a burgundian poet who had just lost her husband
-3 parts->Lydian mode with Bb
-gone are rhythmic complexities of Ars subtilior and rigid isorhythm->simplicity and grace
-final cadence the contratenor jumps an octave->burgundian cadence.

consort/broken consort


consort=ensemble of instruments all in one family
broken consort=mixed ensemble

cappella sistina


sistine chapel choir in rome






add everything in the tool box

Je puis vivre


an acrostic for Jaqueline d'Aquerile
a in triple, b in duple
lydian mode (Bb)
transposed to C->c major
each voice up the scale to distance of 10th

Stacked canon


interval of canon is not in unison.
For example prenez sur moi by ockeghem.
prenez sur moi also means take from me. funny.


1470 - 1530

used as a catchall word to describe polyphonic setting of a wide variety of strophic italian poetry.
Josquin=wrote el grillo, a frottola

stretto fuga


strict imitation.

mensuration canon


by ockeghem. missa prolationem.
mensuration canon=2 voices perform the same music at different rates of speed
also example of a speculative mass, where it isn't made off of any tune. it is made specially.

Margaret of Austria

1480 - 1530

daughter of mary and maximelian in Austria
music patron
3 times married, 3 times widowed
had a basse danse book with 58 dance tunes

carnival song


short homophonic pieces in three vocal parts. texts deal with everyday life on the streets of florence and are sometimes sexually explicit.
strophes of text
Lorenzo de' Medici wrote sian galanti di Valenza.

during time of the Medici family in Florence.
brought notrthern composers to his city. Most famous was Heinrich Isaac.



sacred counterpart to the lauda. simple, popular sacred song written in the dialect of italian. performing lauda was a essential part of confraternities. Putting sacred text on top of secular pieces=called contrafactum



court chapel. 12 singers responsible for religious music of the court.
Hired Heinrich Isaac.

soggetto cavato


"a cut-out subject" subject cut out from the vowels.
for josquin's Missa Hercules Dux Ferrarie he cuts out the vowels from hercules dux ferrarie and made them his cantus firmus.

Alternatim technique


by hofhaimer in his organ setting of salve regina.
verses of the chant assigned to alternative performing forces
1) organ
2) choir monophonic chant
3) organ.

salve regina for organ by hofhaimer. 1510

Song of Songs


Lyrical book in Old Testament: song of king soloman
Dunstable drew the text for Quam pulchra from this.
beautiful woman=nation of Israel which also means the virgin mary.
mythical union w/virgin.

contenance angloise


english manner->Dufay and Binchois took Dunstable's methods.
what is the english manner?
Quam pulchra es
every note is a member of a triad or a triadic inversion and not a dissonance. Dunstaple gives the text an almost entriely syllabic setting.



isorhythm applied to all voices not just tenor

part book


volume that contains the music of one voice part only. vehicle for disseminating vocal music until the middle of the seventeenth century.



dining to vocal and instrumental chamber music



Palter=150 psalms of the old testament

Penitential psalms


most lavish of the ducal books. composed by lassus.
richness in harmonic color, quick changes in texture.
bold musical gesture.
penitential psalms=tets express a sense of sinfulness.

musica reservata


text sensitive music reserved for small circle of connoisserus=private music.


Musica enchiriadis


Music handbook. Describes a type of polyphonic singing called organum.
author=abbot hoger.
taught not the rules of composition but a technique for improvising music extempore.

Aquitanian polyphony


surviving today from southern France. 65 pieces of two-voice organum. Many works come from various monasteries in the region of Aquitaine in southwestern France. Most are tropes, sequences, and conductus.

Example: Viderunt Hemanuel. Verbum patris umanatur o. o.

Winchester Troper


contains mostly tropes. Pitches written in unheightened neums. Two-voice polyphony is not notated in one manuscript. Memory aid not a sight-reading tool.

Guido of Arezzo-Micrologus


Everything church musician needed to know: scale, intervals, church modes, transposition, even a bit about polyphony.
New system for a musical staff and note names.

John of St. Gall- De Musica


set forth the 8 church modes in 8 modes.
Numbers and greek names.

Codex Calistinus


surviving at the church of St. James in Compostela. Contains 20 polyphonic pieces, for Mass and Vespers. musical notation does not suggest rhythms. composers named in the manuscript is Master Albertus of Paris.

Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (Art of Measured Song) by Franco of Cologne


By Franco of Cologne. Clearest exposition of the music theory of the thirteenth century.
Consonsance-PC=unison octave.
Intermediate consonance=5th and 4th
Imperfect Consonance is M/m 3

Imperfect D=m7, M6, whole tone
Perfect D=m6, semitone, tritone, M7

scholasticism->constructing hierarchical categories.

Magnus Liber Organum

  1. composer named Leoninus wrote a great book of polyphony.
  2. Perotinus the great altered contents.
  3. Gothic polyphony sung at choir of notre dame.

Bocaccio, Decameron


Wrote about the horrific affects of the black death. BUt he survived. Created a set of stories centered around women. THey sing ballatas. Decameron intends to correct this inequity by letting women learn the ways of the world through ballatas.
He describes Landini's ballatas in the Decameron.

Treatise on Note Shapes


Sincopa (syncopation)
temporary shift of metrical accents. Proportions-time signatures written as fractions that modified the normal value of notes. irrational groupings of notes. Polymeters that may last for several measures.
By Philippus de Caserta.
Set forth new notational forms to have these proportions.

Squarcialupi Codex


music manuscript containing 354 compositions. Anthology of music important in Florence during the trecento (1300s) when the arts flourished.
Italian texts.

Old Hall Manuscript


147 compositions, mass and motets
-motets in honor of St. George->St. George chapel in Windsor castle of Henry V
-largest collection of English polyphony
-music of advanced English style
-contained Henry V music

Buxheim Organ Book


largest source of renaissnance organ music
written in keyboard tablature->rote symbols and pitched letter names
-measure lines in music.

The Art of Counterpoint-Tinctoris


"no music before 40 years is worth listening to"



printed by Ottaviano Petrucci. In this book were 100 chanson mostly from Ockeghem, Busnoys, Obrecht, and Josquin.
multiple-impression printing because he did it multiple times. it was expensive and time consuming but it looked good.

Nicola Vicentino

1511 - 1576

reinstitution of chromatic and enharmonic genera as a way to re-impose the power of ancient Greek music

Choralis constantinus


first systematized attempt to create polyphonic setting of entire year's church service.
by Heinrich Isaac.

350 motet-like compositions
chants from the german diocese

Gioseffo Zarlino

1517 - 1590

rules of counterpoint refined.
recognized two forms of waht later would be called the triad (major and minor).
major was appropriate for heroic sonds and the minor for sad, plaintive music.

Geistliche Gesangbuchlein


Little book of spiritual songs.
by Johann walter who set chorales in polyphony.
core repertory for lutheran church choirs.
4 parts

Geneva Psalter


by calvin
thought it should be monophonic in unison by the congregation
translation of all 150 psalms into french then english.

Heinrich Glarean/Dodecachordon


presence of two new modes
Ionion mode=C to C (hypo on G to G)
Aeolian mode=A to A (hypo on C to C)

major/minor scales




During Carolingian era: Change from oral culture to written symbols. Not diastematic. Signs for single pitches and groups were neumes.



symbol on a a line or space representing a single, precise pitch.


Page: Huizinga, The waning of the Middle Ages


Huizanga-says that art has degenerated into escapism and aesthetic longing of aristocrati courtoisie.
Development/rondeau form:
difficulty is that rondeaux, virelais, and ballades do not develp but work in patterns of short-term repetition.

proposal, examination, confirmation-the aAa in the middle of the rondeau is a kind of examination of whether we think the a melody is good.



Talks about the origins of the cyclic mass, and how there are two methods, the motto and the cantus firmus. Also talks about how Gloria+Credo and Agnus+Sanctus were put together. Then the talks about plenary mass, as well as how the caput melody was found.