AP Euro Communism and laissez-faire

Events

Physiocrats

1710 - 1765

Physiocrats (leader= Francois Quesnay) and Adam Smith credited as founders of modern discipline of economics; claimed they would discover the natural economic laws that governed human society;
first principle-land constituted the only source of wealth and that wealth could be increased only by agriculture since all other economic activities were unproductive, State’s revenue should come from single tax on land no collective taxes, Rejected mercantilist emphasis on significance of money as primary wealth factor;
second law- also reject mercantilism by stressing the existence of natural economic forces of supply and demand that made it important for individuals to pursue own economic self interest that would lead society to ultimately benefit;
Laissez-faire (let the people do what they want) was emphasized as individual interest would help the state and the government should stay put of economy
The new ideology is a result of the colonial power of Europe in this century. Mercantilism was very common before and still is at the time, but laissez-faire starts becoming popular.
laissez-faire movement was first widely promoted by the physiocrats, a movement that originated with Vincent de Gournay, a successful merchant. Gournay adopted the concept, which is the translation of Chinese philosophy wu wei from François Quesnay's writings on China. Gournay held that the government should allow the laws of nature to govern economic activity, with the state only intervening to protect life, liberty, and property. His ideas were taken up by François Quesnay and Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne

French economic growth

1739 - 1789

Fifty years before 1789, France experienced a period of economic growth due to expansion of foreign trade and increase in industrial production, but peasants not included in prosperity
Francois Quesnay was close to Louis XV so in 1754 persuaded him to give laissez-faire a try. On September 17, the King abolished all tolls and restraints on the sale and transport of grain, and for more than a decade the experiment was a success. But then, in 1768, there was a poor harvest, and the cost of bread rose so high that there was widespread starvation, while merchants exported grain in order to obtain the best profit. In 1770, the edict allowing free trade was revoked

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

There was no control exercised over the consequences of IR (no govt. intervention because everyone believed in “laissez-faire” with the invisible hand from Adam Smith’s philosophy that no intervention eventually leads to stability since supply and demand will balance out and occur naturally); brings up questions of morality but just mainly focus on $ (laissez-faire ideology occur)
Great Britain because of the Northern industrialists in the Parliament so they were able to vote for pro-IR laws but not Russia due to the iron fist and a strict autocracy (also had serfdom) (benefits of British they had the Parliament that had gradual change, Industrialists, colonies, etc. )
Proto-Industry was founded in Britain and was a pre-factory industry that was in country and had factory workers → increases supply to meet demands→ inventions made to help speed up production to meet those demands

Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is published

1776

Adam Smith was a Scottish philosopher who make important laissez-faire statement and wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations (Wealth of Nations) where enunciated 3 basic principles of economics and present strong attack on mercantilism
condemned the mercantilist use of tariffs to protect home industries (free trade was fundamental economic principle)
labor of individual farmers, artisans, and merchants constituted wealth of a nation
no state interference only 3 jobs; protect society from invasion (army), defend individuals from injustice and oppression (police) and keep up certain public works, like roads and canals that private individuals can’t afford
economic liberalism- economy liberated from the government

Thermidorian Reaction

1794 - 1795

was initiated after Robespierre’s death by killing all his supporters then they created a moderate constitution allowing the church to be reopened for public worship and free worship for all cults, laissez-faire , shut down the Jacobins, curtail the power of CPS, and provide their deputies with better protection against the Parisian mobs

Continental System

1806 - 1814

Napoleon Bonaparte's attempt to starve Britain, by making Europe stop trading with Britain. It did not work. It hurt other countries so they decided to stop and bring back the economy

Corn Laws

1815 - 1846

Laissez-faire advocates opposed food aid for famines occurring within the British Empire; in 1847, referring to the famine then underway in Ireland. The Corn Laws that protected landlords in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland against competition from less expensive foreign imports of cereal products. The Great Famine in Ireland in 1845 led to the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. The tariffs on grain which kept the price of bread artificially high were repealed. However, repeal of the Corn Laws came too late to stop Irish famine, partly because it was done in stages over three years.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Marxism’s origins came from the Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Marx was born into a relatively prosperous middle class family in Germany and came from a long line of rabbis but his father became Protestant to keep his job; he graduated with a scholarship in philosophy but he was not able to become a professor due to his professed atheism but became a editor for a liberal newspaper that was put down for his radical views so he moved to Paris and met his lifelong friend and financial patron Friedrich Engels (had first hand experience of the working class hardships since he was the son of a German manufacturer)
They joined a league of people supporting the working classes’ movement called the Communist League and wrote the Communist Manifesto for the group
The theory was that this would restructure society like the French Rev. and from Hegels (German philosopher) he took that the society would evolve
After the 1848 revolutions Marx went to London where he spent the rest of his life; he wrote Das Kapital that he only finished 1 volume of Engels edited the rest after his death; he was too busy working to actually create the movement like in the group called International Working Men’s Association which failed in 1872 but was revived in 1889

Factory Act of 1833 and Mines Act of 1842

1833 - 1842

• Factory Act of 1833- tried to improve protection of child workers
- 9-13 yrs old- work max 9 hrs
- 13-18 yrs old- work max 12 hrs
- under 9 years- can’t work
- kids can’t work at night and were provided 2 hrs of school a day= good since learning able to get out of factory job and better jobs
- Employers had to provide age certificate of workers but only had 4 factory inspectors to enforce this reform for all GB area
- Employers didn’t like since decrease $ production and some kids didn’t like since they might be only source of $ for family and limiting their work hours limits the pay they need to survive
• Mines Act of 1842- kids under age of 10 can’t work in coal mines since coal mines were dangerous (collapse) and working there shorten lifespan from inhaling coal dust or can disfigure body from pushing heavy coal carts up out of mine shaft; went against laissez faire and was passed in England (to a small degree show that willing to listen to lower class to prevent revolution)

Both acts went against laissez-faire, but were necessary so a revolution could be prevented in Britain

The Economist starts

1843

In Britain, in 1843, the newspaper The Economist was founded and became an influential voice for laissez-faire capitalism

The Communist Manifesto

1848

The ideas of the book claimed that all of history was a struggle between the upper classes and lower classes and that after the struggle ends the proletariat would create a dictatorship leading into a classless society

Second French Empire

1852 - 1870

Napoleon III stimulated the economy by promoting industrial growth (such as laissez-faire policies)

Capital-Intensive Corporation

1870 - Present

large investments used to buy expensive machinery to produce trade and distribute faster. Bad for working class because they were largely unemployed and have wage cuts because there is not much need for them.; a lot of money is required to start a company and it restricts ownership of factories so only the rich can but after the 2nd industrial ; Machines do most of work, workers less money, employers more money

Vladmir Lenin

1870 - 1924

Vladmir Lenin was a Russian (Marxist Socialist) ideological leader; Exile until 1900 in Siberia (Marxist) goes to Western Europe and meets up with other Marxist Socialist (Leninist (when Proletarian overthrows the bourgeois but the social elite will be leading the working class)
Creates a socialist elite that brings Socialism to Russia
Creates Bolsheviks 1903 (makes the Mensheviks mad and leave the meeting so he them make the Bolsheviks go ahead and control; pushes his Leninist agenda); Suppress Mensheviks (straight Marxism)

Post German Unification

Approx. 1871

Germany seeking stability after unification; works with liberty for economic stabilization; but Bismarck tries to curtail the liberals and tries to outlaw the social Democratic party after an attempted assassination on the Kaiser; institutes social welfare for working class Germans so he can beat the liberals that promise workers things by offering them more; also helps German agriculture

Second Interantional

1889 - 1916

(400 socialists Europewide for people to try to get people to band together across state lines since they are all working class) believe in Marxist Revolution and suffrage; against anarchists (since anarchists want no govt. (usually in the rural areas; later turn to violence))(communists are more industrial) doesn’t take off since nationalism really strong
Concept of Working Class hero (manly) since women wondering when they will take part in the social revolution but men do not want them to be in the union because women would dilute the heroic struggle of men and their masculinity; even the group that is voting for women suffrage is mostly misogynistic; Mayday is made to honor the laborer
Political Parties begin to address working class issues (inspired by Marx) as suffrage is extended; many Socialist parties rise up such as the Labour Party in GB, Socialist in France, Social Democrats in Germany

Pre-WW1

1900

Free Trade is ended as there is more government involvement like social welfare; free capitalism is maybe not good for the poor (welfare state fighting against the free trade)
Major threats to free trade are nationalism (should make money for your country only) and anti -Semitism (don’t want to buy it if Jewish people are making it

World War I

1914 - 1918

War ministries say demand is always there and high because you need weapons for war at all time so need to make lots of bullets instead of waiting for laissez-faire to balance the supply and demand
Henry Ford – assembly line (Model T (car), much faster since different parts in the line specialize on one thing meaning they can sell it quicker for a smaller price and make more

Russian Civil War

1917 - 1922

Civil War between Communists (Reds) (Leon Trotsky (leader of the Red army; good organizer so very good at winning the battles), Lenin lead (out-maneuver all the opponents) (23 independent nations sent armies to try and get rid of the reds because they are terrified of Communism (including US, GB, and FR so forever distrustful of them)) and whites who want to TURN BACK REVOLUTION (tsarists, independence groups)
Communists win (1922) - gov’t becomes authoritarian, cheka = secret police (no trial simply dead and disappeared) , 3rd International (Cominterm) founded (leaders of international communism which scares capitalism); seize peasant land to feed workers and soldiers; everything for party not workers, etc.)

Russia under Lenin

1917 - 1924

The Communist Utopia promote technological future but communists meet resistance (isn’t working 13% productivity of before and a lot of people are trying to hold onto their lives and do not want to let go of their belongings)
silenced with purges (kill them silently and people know they are dead, but they died silently), censorship, efforts made to modernize
Kronstadt Revolt (Bolsheviks are the elite and Kronstadts want true Marxism for; purged but shows that Russia needs to reform)
New Economic Policy (NEP) leads to Freer market & trade for economy (capitalism) and it encourages production; food and goods available, Workers Opposition; feel NEP only helps agriculture but they are crushed and leads to purge guidelines followed by millions of Soviets dying, goes against Marxist ideals, push literacy and hygiene, maximize production, Aleksandra Kollontal pushes for birth control, literacy, and daycares and in Soviet Russia (divorce, abortion, and birth control are readily available) Zhenotdel (Women’s democracy eliminate the patriarchal govt. of the rural and Islamic communities and although there is resistance they win because they are backed by the state)

Russia withdraws from WWI

1917

Russia Struggles as 7.5 million dead by 1917; Peasants suffering, workers angry (Homefront not capable of supporting warfront), economy underdeveloped, gov’t can’t provide basic necessities, army poorly supplied & run
Nicholas II (Romanov) Resists change and can’t unite people/ bureaucracy; Goes to lead army during war but NOT A MILITARY LEADER (horrible losses not good at leading the army when he is on the front lines) (everything is falling apart and he can’t keep it together), Leaves struggling gov’t to his wife (also not suited to rule) (Tsarina Alexandra)
Grigori Rasputin is a Holy man (pervert, peasant); Manipulates Alexandra while Nicholas is away and “cures” hemophilia in tsarevich Alexei (now indispensable to them so he is vitally important to the tsar)
people question government further (this peasant has no place inside the royal palace; known for being a pervert and closest ambassador to Tsarina; Tsarina supposed to be the most precious woman in Russia (the mother) and he has her ear and people think he is sent by Satan (also can target him for the anger of WWI)); assassinated
Provisional Government is established after riots (in February (really March)) (February Revolution 1917)– women are marching for bread, more people come in and leads to chaos so lead Nicholas II to ABDICATE
Aleksandr Kerensky heads Prov. Gov’t (hope it will do great things), made of aristocracy and old Duma, STAY IN WWI (biggest mistake of why they failed), how do we bring constitutional govt. to a country that never had a constitution
Soviets (used to be name for soldiers that have been arranged to represent the people of the government but now for people)) compete for power (power in hands of working class and poor)

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

Provisional Gov’t Falters due to people fighting for own rights, peasants are grabbing land, Germans help transport V.I. Lenin into Russia to start a Communist revolution to pull Russia out of the war (has ideas April Theses (peace (stop WWI), land (land for everyone), bread (food)) provisional govt. realize they need a military victory so attack A-H but fail so they are loosing hold)
Lenin releases April Theses as goals for gov’t, out of WWI, soviets = power, nationalize private land
Workers / Soldiers gather, agitate; Bolshevik Revolution (NOV 1917)= overthrow Provisional Government and use army to take control of ALL govt.; Gov’t in control of EVERYTHING and nationalize factories, abolish private property (kind of Marxist but Leninists are not socialists)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk= Russia withdraws from WWI but very humiliating because huge territory is given to the Germans (eventually he believes they will get it back but after done a lot of people are exited), Move to Moscow as capital, and Rename = Communist Party

Stalin comes to power

1924

Joseph Stalin comes to power (in his past he robbed a stage coach with Lenin (lots of money but kill 40 men and this helps fund the Bolsheviks and he was part of the provisional government but joined the communists under Trotsky, areas under his control he kills people and publicly kills deserters, he was General Secretary (not a supposedly great job, and he is meek and not charismatic but super cunning and uses his position to his advantage since he can give people jobs so he fills the government with his supporters)
suppresses Lenin’s will (which states that Stalin should not be in power), eliminates opponents (exile Trotsky after they get him out of the government (Lenin is murdered in Mexico via pick axe to face) and fills gov’t with his supporters; creates Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (his party and becomes the totalitarian dictator via purging, killing, and censoring)

1930s

1930 - 1939

1930’s = Fascists and Communists use terror, violence, censorship (government in complete control); appeal to struggling areas (they promise order and peace and better circumstances for them)
Stalin Takes Over after Lenin, eliminates rivals (Trotsky), increases power (changes communism to stalinism; gonna use his power base to support himself), Ends NEP (does not help him), party organized with him as center; 5 year plan (industrialize Russia more)
Police State; Stalin is paranoid (in 1938 he purges the military as well (getting rid of all the general, this is why the Russians do horrible in the beginning of WWII because they don’t have any leaders in their army thanks to Stalin killing all of them), secret police (NKBD) monitor & eliminate conspirators
Purges eliminate any opposition (Bolsheviks) in 1936 (the NKPD round them up and question them without evidence, they are killed or sent to gulags (prison camps), many sent to Gulags (prison camps) and 1 million die per year even the elites are questioned, (meet the quotas but can’t be too good or too bad otherwise you are sent to the gulags (pretty much worked to death as they are starved, raped, murdered)
Russia’s industry after this is good but not the best (ex. Beginning of invasion Russia had the best tanks (but later not that good, but a lot of tanks (a huge amount)))
Capitalism and democracy is questioned
In Russia, 5 Year Plans are implemented as Stalin wants to develop industrial economy (so it can compete with US and others and won’t be crushed); Demands placed on industry with impossible quotas (iron, coal, steel) which results in Workers struggle, consumer goods scarce (but do it with a smile because they have suffered long and they are happy to help the Soviet Union), elite bureaucrats emerge, and a new policy of lying about how much they made for the quotas so that they don’t get punished

Cold War

1947 - 1991

1945/46 – Communism spreads in E. Europe; Creation of “Buffer States” (no free democracy, the buffer states (satellite states) to stand between Russia and West) (Stalin afraid of America due to nuclear bomb and want it and by having buffer state then if US were to drop a bomb then they would kill the innocent buffer states)
Only hold out is Yugoslavia (TITO- Josip Broz; coalition of Muslims, Czechs, Serbs and it is a communist nation but not part of Russian satellite buffer state)
1947 - Communism threatens Greece (going through civil war between communist and non-communist), Turkey (may become communist) so US gets worried and Winston Churchill voted out because great during war but maybe not for peace and he says “an Iron Curtain descended across the continent” iron curtain is theoretical division between the communists and west so US wants to make sure that Turkey and Greece do not become communist so start making policies
Truman Doctrine (1947) ; CONTAIN communism (stop spread of communism and avoid war); Political / economic aid (400 million dollars of military for Turkey and Greece to help them; scared the population into making them believe the Soviets are the enemy by stating that they need to spend to make sure that they stop the Societ expansion (make enemies with Soviet Union)
Marshall Plan (secretary of state) (1947); Massive economic aid to Europe (12 billion dollars into Europe to make sure that no one listens to radicals); Good conditions = no communism (because no one listens to radicals, better things are less radicals, reality less communism); Stalin wants to make sure that those in Russia do not see the West because they are living happily with lots of food while they are suffering in Russia
Germany divided in 4 zones, Berlin divided as well
W. German state created when 3 zones merge (French, Americans, British) (many Americans see Nazis as Germans so we pump as much money as we can and reprogram them to be good people because they believe they are bad) (Russians believe that fascism is because of capitalism so we have to get rid of capitalism so they won’t be Nazis) (when the 3 zones merge Stalin says no to merge and this will result in a powerful Germany which is bad)
Stalin’s reaction = BERLIN BLOCKADE ’48; Try to starve berlin by blocking the food to it and making America five him Berlin, then take Berlin
US response = BERLIN AIRLIFT ’48-’49; Food / supply drops to Berlin so America doesn’t not appear weak and he gives up
NATO formed 1949; Military alliance US & allies (all capitalist states such as Turkey, Greece, Britain)
Warsaw Pact 1955; Response to NATO – SU & allies

China becomes communist

1949

Mao Zedong (1893-1976 a Communist fighting Chiang Kai-Shek since before WWII (civil war) 1949 finally beats Chiang Kai-Shek) (China mainland (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (with Chiang Kai-Shek is the Republic of China) US only wants to talk to Taiwan since it is not communist); Welfare of agricultural peasants (rural) is major more than benefiting the industrial proletariat (workers in the factories), collectivization (similarities (women equal, collectivize farms, rapidly industrialize, use oppression)

COMECON

1949

COMECON created (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Economic cooperation in Communist Bloc; SU rips off satellite nations (they are exploited by the SU as they sell at low prices to SU), delays development of satellite nations (Russification, DE Christianization, are increased, discrimination against old elites, purges increased)

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Split at 38th parallel after WWII (because China was a failure of containment); North (Communist) invades South to unify and S pushed back to Pusan
US/UN “police action” aids South (have to somehow show the UN has power and sanction the fight against North but Soviet can veto so US provokes them and they walk out allowing the rest to vote yes to fight the North)
Invasion at Inch’on (McArthur and UN go above 38th parallel); Push N all the way to Yalu River but Chinese army joins North Korea leads to a Stalemate, armistice, 38th parallel remains (technically North Korea is still at war with the UN)

European Coal and Steel Community

1951

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (6 nations (Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands); (goal is to use the resources of West Germany to make Europe rich so that there was a cooperation) Economic cooperation; Prevent future wars (since if they went to war they would lose a lot of money)
Common Market; Aka Economic Community (EEC)
Est. with Treaty of Rome 1957 (same countries as ECSC; prevent the rise of nationalism by using capitalism since if they went to war they would lose a lot of money); Goals – reduce tariffs & nationalism; common trade policies

Khruschev

1953 - 1964

Premier of Soviet Union, condemns Stalinism

SEATO

1954

South East Asian Trade Organization to stop the geographic expansion of communism

Vietnam

1954 - 1975

1954 Cien Bien Phu (important fort for France) falls so now France has to go and negotiate because they can not win so Geneva Conference 1954 decide that Vietnam divided at 17th parallel; Ho Chi Minh in North (SU backs); Ngo Din Diem in South (US backs) (not democratic or republic but not communist so US backs but he is not a good person)
Whether or not Vietnam will be communist and united there is a election and many south wanted to unite cause they hated Ngo Din Diem but US rigs the election so that Ngo wins and Ho Chi Minh feels like this is colonialism so he sent the Vietcong to win over the hearts of the peasants, so the South is starting to agree with the North (US sending “advisors” to help train the South’s troops with US weapons and have them be ready to fight a war)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 (’54 French out ’60 supposed to unite but no ’63 No Dien Diem dead) (LBJ sends in troops without declaration of war_
Vietcong = difficult enemy (supported by N. Vietnam and N. W supported by Russia and China; get supplies from train lines and they are guerrilla fighters) (America can’t finish the job so it has to . . .
By 1967, US institutes draft (problem because 1. Lends itself to the belief that in African American man you can be drafted (fought with pride) mand don’t like the idea of fighting in Vietnam 2. At 18 drafted, but not able to vote so you have to go before you can stop the war (old enough to die, but not enough to vote) (people start protesting)
1968 = Tet Offensive in Vietnam (Vietnamese new year North Vietnam attacks over 1000 American bases and South Vietnam towns (forces; not just front line everyone (shows America is losing))) (Richard Nixon says he will pull them out of Vietnam (many protests in world against it like in Tokyo and Mexico City (America not above law)
Nixon starts pulling out of Vietnam, but must attack first so they first have to attack another country (train with supplies) (Cambodia)
1973 N. Vietnam talk and they are now at peace, so America leaves and then in 1975 N. Vietnam attacks and invades S. Vietnam and unites it)

Leonid Brezhnev

1964 - 1982

Attempts at reform, economic freedom (more consumer goods (such as TVs), allowing discussions of culture and science with the West, more economy)

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

Brezhnev Doctrine (Brezhnev says no country can ever break away from the Warsaw Pact and no socialist country can become capitalistic

Prague Spring

1968

Alexander Dubcek = Czech communist
Calls for social, political openness (socialism with a human face reforms 1. Competing political groups are allowed 2. Secret ballot 3. No censorship)
Strays from SU Communist line (threats from SU since against Communism of SU; goes against when Dubcek no attend Warsaw Pact leaders leads to tanks)
Gains significant followers
Brezhnev sends tanks, troops
graffiti, radio response in East after this
Crushed, but spirit lives on (even though the reform communists are gone; now people are questioning the superpowers, but still stuck with them)

Visit to China

1972

Nixon visits China
Opens relations, trade (better relations with China; huge step because no Western influence has been in China for a long time, so a move forward (US superpower president) pragmatists in China say we may be communists, but we should trade with them still (even if communist they can hang out with us (now Soviet left out
Slows harshness of Mao’s Cultural Revolution ) (helps the Chinese because this makes them less inclined to use violence)

Visit to Moscow

1972

Nixon visits Moscow
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (limit Anti-ballistic missiles to 200 missiles each (anti-ballistic missile is a missile that will shoot down other nuclear weapons, but the rest are not limited; with this limitation of the defensive system then it shows that we can kill everyone so we shouldn’t shoot nukes because we need to be aware of the danger)
1975 Helsinki Accords – Human Rights for satellite nations, but they are still satellite nations (Ford) (critics how can you guarantee Soviet cooperation? People who like say we are maybe doing good for people in Soviet bloc.

OPEC spike prices

1973

OPEC (organization of petroleum exporting countries) spikes oil prices after Yom Kippur War (since they want more power via more money; if US or ally of US then no oil for you; leads US to oil crisis
Embargo on US
Leads to STAGFLATION in West (inflation goes up; SU losing money too because they were selling us stuff; unemployment up, loans harder to get)
inflation, interest rates, & unemployment UP (bad because US very reliant on oil; first time a raw resource country is dictating to US who is superpower; imperialism turned on its head; US and world surprised)
(not based on laissez-faire and is for personal gain on a non economic level)

Rebellion in Poland

1980

Solidarity (founded 1980) (upset with food prices)
Labor movement / trade union (ANTI-Communist)
Lech Walesa, Anna Walentynowicz found (want better prices for things and better wages, start picking up a bunch of people like non-communists, intellectuals, etc. and this leads to them to protest a lot including protesting against Communism)
Sets stage for downfall of Communism in Eastern bloc (even though put down by the Polish army, etc. not put down because the beliefs still exist and just a little bit more to be pushed over the edge)

Ronald Reagan's presidency

1981 - 1989

Collapse of DÉTENTE (“evil empire = Soviet Russia”)
Huge military budget (SDI (strategic defense initiative) (satellites with lazers on them to take down nukes = critics call it star wars (living in sci-fi and spending this much money on this instead of your people (people who like say by upping our spending slightly causing Russia to work really hard to get even close so spend into oblivion) (bad because US let the SU off and US should have taken the SU down)

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Premier(son of peasants, traveled a lot) – sees inefficiencies of USSR (lines for soap and bread; leads to cynical Russian population that has vodka readily which is bad because now 24 hour drunks)
Determined to take on new ideas (30% crops are rotting, pollution bad so he has to fix it)
Gorbachev’s Reforms
Glasnost (openness)
More free expression, flow of information
Open Communism up to criticism (can criticize the party)
Perestroika (restructure soviet economy)
Modern technology, freer market, some capitalism (like pricing and profit(need incentive to make the Russians work hard) (work hard)
Restrict arms production, leave war in Afghanistan
Boris Yeltsin (controls SU in last days believes Gorbachev should do more)
Chernobyl (nuclear reactor melts down (spewing out radiation in Ukraine and all the way up to Sweden) (bureaucracy very slow at making out with the news and this leads to many people dying; now Glasnost a problem since people are taking bad about the system)
1979 invaded Afghanistan (SU starts bleeding, guerrilla fighting hard but SU doing good until US starts funding Afghanistan) (bleeding the SU out) (US helping the Muja Hadine (a group in Afghanistan) (eventually becomes the Taliban))

Berlin Wall Falls

1989

(people can jump over without being shot) (throw away Communism)

Tianamen Square

1989

Gorbachev visits top communist leaders in Bejing, and a bunch of students go to protest, the Chinese government sends in tanks and 1000 are killed, the Chinese govt. oppresses the movement; shows that not everyone is pleased with the govt. (Maybe Eastern Bloc can throw off chains)

Velvet Revolution

1989

Czechoslovakia = Velvet Revolution (Vaclav Havel A playwright who makes people believe in the movement via his writings, public protest against it; John Palach (Prague hero (1968) set himself on fire; Dubcek throw off the shackles of Communist Rev., and this is good since communist govt. resigns)

Hungarian Independence

1989

Hungarian Battle for the Holidays (Fall 1989 elect non-communists and tear down communist posters, etc.)

Polish Independence

1989

Poland elects Lech Walesa president 1989 (Solidarity candidates beat communists; Gorbachev ignores and Poland becomes free of the Warsaw Pact and SU)