AP Euro Colonization


European Exploration

1400 - 1600

European Exploration
Spain and Portugal relied heavily on goods form New World; Spain tries to exclude Britain and France doesn’t work, so conflicts arise over cargoes coming from New World and Asia due to competition
Anglo-Dutch trade wars and British-French Rivalry over India and North America become new pattern of worldwide warfare in 18th century
European economic axis of trade went to Atlantic Ocean from Mediterranean Sea
Middle Passage- the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas; the middle

Privateering begins


Private pirates sponsored by the state

Portuguese exploration of the South Atlantic

Approx. 1450 - 1500

spurred by God, personal gain, national pride, and Renaissance curiosity
Portuguese explore coast of Africa; set up ports along West Africa hump (Gold Coast) and Central Africa (near the Congo River) for trade of gold, ivory, and slaves
Portuguese sailed around Africa to find sea route to Spice Islands, discover can make profit in Africa, built forts on western and eastern coasts of Africa to dominate gold trade
Since sugar cane introduced to Europe, Portuguese set up sugar can plantation on island off central coast of Africa, and later new plantations set up along coast of Brazil and other islands in Caribbean which needed slaves since American Indian population depleted from diseases so African slaves

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1750

Europeans bring horses, cattle, and wheat to New World and bring back potatoes, chocolate, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco to Europe. Diet in Europe became better so population grew and people able to live off of smaller plots of land. Artisans also have new art supplies and dyes from new world
leg of the triangular trade route.
Triangular Trade- the trade of slaves connecting Europe, Africa, Asia and American continents that characterized the new Atlantic economy. Merchant ships from England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch Republic traded European manufactured goods (cloths, gin, guns) to Africa for slaves. Then ships traded slaves for tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, and raw cotton in Americas where go back to be sold in European markets
About 10 million slaves were transported to the Americas due to high death rate

Christopher Columbus finds Hispaniola


Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas

Treaty of Tordesillas


divided New World mostly South America into separate spheres for Spain and Portugal, although most of South America belonged to Spain (the Pope was doing the dividing)

Vasco da Gama finds a route to India

1497 - 1498

Establish a trading port in Goa from Calicut

The Spanish crown granted encomiendas


Queen Isabella of Spain declare the Spanish encomienda, where Natives used as laborers so Spaniards can collect tribute, but will protect them, pay wages, and supervise spiritual needs, so able to put paternalistic system of government as please, for most part however Spaniards do whatever they want
Encomienda abolished after many natives died but many already baptized

Portugal claims Goa as a colony

1510 - 1961

Goa becomes a permanent colony of Portugal

Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe

1519 - 1522

Fall of the Aztec and Incan civilization

1521 - 1532

Spanish conquer Aztec Empire because Hernan Cortez is considered as a god so they gave him gold and a palace to stay in, but they took Moctezuma (Aztec emperor) hostage to use as puppet. Got kicked out when they tried to interfere in a Aztec sacrifice ritual. Came back and spread (smallpox) leading to demise of Aztec empire, so Spanish able to gain control of Northern Mexico

Francisco Pizarro conquer Incan Empire after Atahualpa won the civil war. Captured him then killed him and took over empire after Incans get sick go to Cuzco and establish Lima for new colony of the Spanish Empire

Lead to an influx of gold and silver into the Old World from the New World

The conquering was done by conquistadors who were loyal to the crown and motivated by greed.

Major conversions of Asia to Christianity

1542 - 1610

(1542-1548) Francis Xavier converted thousands in India then moved to Japan where he converted thousands on the southernmost islands
(1582-1610) Italian Matteo Ricci converted thousands in China by drawing parallels between Confucianism and Christianity; the stories that were sent back made people more curious about the Eastern countries
People praised China’s Confucian morality as better to intolerance of Christianity; comparison of cultures often leading to cultural revivalism since travel accounts show that Christian perception of god not only view

Portugal lands on Japan


They bring firearms

Spain founds settlement in Cebu Philippines


Portugal unable to dominate trade of Southeast Asia since lack both numbers and wealth to overcome local resistance and colonize the Asian regions; also threatened by Spain’s establishment of trade base in Philippines, as well as Dutch and English who better financed than Portugal in Southeast Asia

Portuguese and Spanish Empires

1581 - 1640

(lasted longer) Both set up empires in the Americas with Brazil under Portugal's rule. Spain is also a power, but it has to deal with the challenges of the Dutch, British and French to its empire.
Precious metal lead to the price revolution was set off and affect Spanish economy

British and French colonization of the West Indies (Caribbean)

1612 - 1664

English and French had colonized large parts of the West Indies where they developed plantation economies, worked by African slaves, to produce tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar (high demand)
Mercantilism (British colonies participate)- provide raw material to mother country buy back latter goods
French colonies thinly populated

Fort Nassau was founded


Dutch settlement in the North Americas used to primarily trade fur with the natives and was later replaced with Fort Orange

The Dutch take Malacca (Malaysia) from the Portuguese


Dutch seized Portuguese fort in Moluccas and push them out of Spice trade, and Dutch continue to seize Portuguese coastal forts along trade routes throughout Indian Ocean
Since Dutch so aggressive, also push English out of Spice Trade, so Dutch able to consolidate political and military control over entire area
Dutch East India Company established pepper plantations helped bring Indonesia under control

Tension between the African tribes escalates

Approx. 1650 - Approx. 1720

The need to maintain constant supply of slaves lead to increase warfare and violence as African chiefs and their followers increase raids and wars on neighboring people with guns they acquire from trade.

Before Europeans in 15th century, slaves in Africa were prisoners of war and serve as domestic servant or wageless worker for local ruler, but when Europeans arrive, they bought slaves from local African merchants at slave markets for gold, guns, textiles, copper, or iron utensils, increased the demand for slaves, so local slave traders move further inland for people to sell which alarm rulers of well-being in society since more violence became apparent
• Local African rulers worry about slave trade impact on their societies, so protested, but African protests usually ignore by Europeans and other Africans since rulers view slave trade as source of income and trade in return for textiles guns, etc.
Slave trade depopulate villages in Africa and deprive African communities of youngest and strongest men and women
Some Europeans view slavery as bad, but most see as acceptable in Western society and view Africans as inferior to them fit for slave labor

Anglo-Dutch Wars

1652 - 1674

They were fought in the years 1652-1674 and 1781-1810, mainly over trade routes and overseas colonies.

Dutch replace Portugal as main power in Africa


Boers=Dutch Farmers settle in areas outside of Cape Town (South Africa) because of moderate climate and freedom from tropical diseases
Dutch seize Portuguese forts along West African coast and took control of Portuguese trade across Atlantic Ocean
Dutch East India Company- trading company established in 1602 under govt. sponsorship, also set up settlement in southern Africa at Cape of Good Hope= served as base to supply food and other provisions to Dutch ships en route to Spice Islands that then develop to permanent colony

Dutch prosperity


The Dutch were very economically prosperous but by the 1715 they were in an economic decline due to French and English competition in trade

Carnatic Wars/ British-French rivalry in India

1744 - 1763

fought between the British East India Company and the French East India Company mainly over the territories of India dominated by the Nizam of Hyderbad and the the Godavari region. Ends with a victorious Britain.
At end of the period during 7 years war (1756-1763) full control went to Britain
Britain= indirect rule of India that makes them lots of money (imperialism) control the Indian princes to control India; don’t send British troops to conquer India, send Indians to conquer Indians
Treaty of Paris 1763 is where the French leave India to the British
Sets up the British as the greatest colonial power

British East India Company control over India

Approx. 1750 - 1858

indirect rule of India

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1850

• The industrial age was an era of mobility and migration as people could travel all over the world; some went to pursue knowledge, some went to serve in colonial government, and other permanently moved within Europe or outside of it; this lead to the uprooting of tens of millions of people, disruption of social and family networks, and infliction of terrible violence on the native peoples dislocated by European colonizers
• Raw materials from around the world fed the new products of industry and many workers’ wages increased; the steady advance of industry and the development of a consumer economy gave rise to the service sector, laying the foundation for further changes in work life

Anglo-Dutch Wars

1781 - 1810

They were fought in the years 1652-1674 and 1781-1810, mainly over trade routes and overseas colonies.

French colonies revolt; Saint-Dominigue ends its colonial rule in 1804

Approx. 1790 - Approx. 1805

Inspired by the French Revolution, many French colonies revolt and some like Saint-Dominigue in 1804 which later had the free slaves become serfs again due to financial problems. (Declared Republic of Haiti, but whites still above blacks)
Haitian's independence sparked by policies of the French Revolution.
Terrified slave owners in Americas that their slaves would uprise against them.
National Assembly declared mulatto freemen to have same rights as white men in 1791.
Colonial Assembly in Haiti resisted.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (former slave) led the rebellion.
Slave rebellion collapsed but free mulattos and blacks took up arms against whites.
1793 France abolished slavery in Haiti.
L'Ouverture imposed authoritarian constitution on Haiti and made himself governor-general.
Napoleon feared L'Ouverture would undermine his power and captured him; L'Ouverture died in prison in 1803.

French campaign in Egypt and Syria

1798 - 1801

Napoleon Bonaparte's attempt to defend French trade interests and weaken Britain's access to British India. Starts the craze of egyptomania with the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. (Many artifacts are then sent to Europe from Egypt through the years)

French colonize Algeria

1830 - 1962

France conquered Algeria and example of colonialism (direct rule) and make colonial empire (tried to make Algeria a part of France it self so there was a greater conflict when Algeria demanded its independence (had a large white population)

First Opium War

1839 - 1852

between China and GB, early imperialism demonstration, Europe attesting to expand reach into Africa and Asia, desired or profit more important than money, so GB wants to make money, China tells GB to stop selling opium (found opium in India), British bomb (cannons) all Chinese ports, war ends 1852, Treaty of Nanking,
- British officially allowed to sell in 4 more Chinese ports (5 total),
- China forced to pay an indemnity (payment for war),
- get Hong Kong
- Continued to sell more opium as well

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

people in China began to question the Qing dynasty which wanted to give women rights, wipe out westerners, wipeout Qing dynasty, wanted reform of land (was a populace movement) the Qing asked for French and British help

B.G. Tilak

1856 - 1920

British influence begins to fade in India
B. G. Tilak says noncooperation (says we should not work with them to dominate our own people and also promote Hindu customs and create a distinct Hindu culture (eventual goal is violent uprising since the British are outnumbered)

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

Following the unequal treaties China had to sign with Britain after the First Opium War. Ends with a defeat for China and now the sign the Treaty of Tianjin which states
Britain, France, Russia, and the U.S. would have the right to establish diplomatic legations (small embassies) in Peking (a closed city at the time)
Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Tamsui, Hankou, and Nanjing
The right of all foreign vessels including commercial ships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River
The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China, which had been formerly banned
China was to pay an indemnity of four million taels of silver to Britain and two million to France.
Opening Tianjin as a trade port
Cede No.1 District of Kowloon (south of present-day Boundary Street) to Britain
Freedom of religion established in China
British ships were allowed to carry indentured Chinese to the Americas
Indemnity to Britain and France increasing to 8 million taels of silver apiece
Legalization of the opium trade

Sepoy Mutiny/ India's 1st War of Independence

1857 - 1858

British East India company who have sepoys who are hindu and muslim who don’t eat pork and beef and the bullets are in paper cartridge that to be water proof need to have beef and pork fat covering it, and to open cartridge they have to bite package → cultural insensitivity and fight (leads to the British Raj)
(centuries of indirect British rule and cultural insensitivity)

The British Raj

1858 - 1947

Happens after the Sepoy Mutiny or the 1st Indian Independence War. India is put under the direct control of Britain rather than the British East India Company since Britian followed laissez-faire. Governemnt of India Act of 1858 proclaims Queen Victoria as the Empress of India; India is growing more and more nationalistic
India = Jewel of the Crown (GB’s most valuable colony) opium, coffee, indigo, cotton are produced and has a large native population; 300 million people
Indian National Congress = Indian people (elites) who are getting discriminated against and they are more educated; 2 groups one wants to use the European stuff to better themselves the others feel they are being abused and mistreated and need to get rid of the foreign invade
India gets Railroads, modern infrastructure; public services, warfare ceases* (between Muslim and Hindu and under the British they are all subhuman) but most Indians stay poor (out of 300 million only about 1 million are rich) and forced to grow cash crops (famine if your only growing cash crops) also a threat to culture

Suez Canal is built

1859 - 1869

Is built under Napoleon III's reign and allows trade with Asia (much easier way from the Mediterranean)\
(1869 is opens and profit; at beginning France and England work together to get to Asia easier) (Ismael (Egyptian leader under Ottoman Empire) and the Egyptians think this may be good for them like modernization and Europe even offers loans (w/really high interest rates) so it is harder and harder for Egypt to pay off the loans so the English and French go and seize the Egyptian treasury; some Egyptians mad and growing nationalism


Approx. 1860 - 1945

Imperialism (include vs. colonialism)- colonialism where Europe controls the rest of the world through economic or political control rather than complete control.

“New Imperialism” was being practiced by the various European countries as in their rush for political not just economic power in the form of empire; they took political control of Africa and fought to dominate even more Asian lands until, by the beginning of the twentieth century, they claimed to control more than 80% of the world’s surface
With varying degrees of success, they tried to stamp other continents with European culture
New Imperialism begins 1860 due to the raw materials; slavery no longer viable from Africa so they start finding gold, diamond, etc. also Africans again desirable since you can sell them stuff from their own country; opens up new markets (focuses on Africa and Asia)
Imperial expansion and industrial prosperity = strong Nation-State; nationalism on the rise; can show how cool your country is by conquering other countries though Economic & Political control; go after the Mediterranean for easier access to Africa and Asia
Europe takes early control (trade) and gains access to Asia/Africa through the Suez Canal
Africa Before Imperialism only had slave trade (coastal only) and had diverse Ethnic Groups, religions, languages; ex = Xhosa, Zulu in S. Africa (fight back) (Social Darwinism states that the strong eat the weak; creates this myth that Africa is one group not seperate groups (3,000 ethnic groups, 2,000 languages so myth is wrong)
Natural Resources made Europe want Africa; ex: Diamonds  Cecil Rhodes regent of South Africa from Britain stumbles onto the diamonds and becomes lavishly rich; commodity used to be Africans now other minerals, gold, rubber, cotton, metals
Europe was able to easily conquer after the industrial revolution produced weapons (Breech-loading rifle (has bullets that have shelling; multiple bullets in a minute; first machine gun (Maxim gun) 600 rounds a minute and uses recoil to load itself and better transportation
Also obtained new medicine against malaria which used to make sure the Europeans would not get into the interior without dying ; the medicine is quinine
Imperialism used Nationalism, Social Darwinism, cultural superiority/ “Civilizing Mission” (White Man’s Burden

Napoleon III tries to establish a Mexican Empire


Napoleon tries to establish a empire in the Americas with Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as the Emperor, but he is later killed as Mexico revolts with the help of the US troops.

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

the emperor becomes a figurehead while the shogun is the one you has power; japanese superiority and close off from trade but America comes and makes them open up the country for trade or war will come; creates the modernization/ westernization of Japan; the emperor is like the Pope to the JApanese people and he replaces the shogun during the Meiji Restoration; emperor in only position of power; they want to conquer not be conquered; the only people allowed before the US was the Dutch; the man who opened Japan up was Matthew Perry
Japan; westernize literature, clothing, etc. 1885 the Japanese create a constitution based off the German one acts like democracy but is really authoritarian; emperor is only a puppet and politicians pull the strings

Japanese Empire

1868 - 1947

post ww1- Japan (South East Asian Empire)
Japanese Aggression; Emperor = Hirohito (1926) (not politically or militarily significant, democracy at first but when democracy fails in depression the shogunate military starts calling the shots); Nationalists push militarism, empire (we are warrior and we need to conquer)
Goal is to free Asia of European influence and rule it because of racial superiority; take inferior lands
1931 = Japan seizes Manchuria (blow up a railcar and make it look like China did it so they have an excuse to do so and try to keep invading more of North China and destroying the European influence) Chiang Kai-Shek (leader of China) trying to appease the Japanese (appeasement) (gives Japan northern china so no more war but it backfires as the Japanese see it as being weak and sees China as a country for their taking)
League of Nations condemns but Japan leaves the league of nations (league doesn’t do anything) aligns with Hitler (Anti-Cominterm (if Russia fights one of us Russia fights both of us, allows them to invade more of China) (can wage this was because they are getting oil and coal from America)
1937 = Rape of Nanking (horribly violent, hundreds of thousands of people die (Germans and Japanese do such evil things that it makes people side; very unrepentant after it as well) (when the news gets back US limits the amount of oil and coal); US embargo of raw materials (but when they invade South Vietnam US says no more coal and oil)
• Pacific Theater- GEACPS(Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (no more Western influence with Japan in charge because they are superior) by 1942, empire is vast; overly confident because of early successes in Manchuria, Korea send a message to coward America via pearl harbor

Boer Wars

1880 - 1902

Between Dutch and British; 2 wars first (1880-81) boers win, 2nd (1899-1902)boers lose(solid resistance) in S. Africa; Boers(Dutch farmers) take land from Zulu(run into after going after diamonds; really brutal in Anglo-Zulu war and they win early on but lose later; hold off the Europeans for a while) /Xhosa (fight British and Dutch for 100 years); Britain takes Cape Town from Boers and the Boers go up to Transvaal

French colonize Tunisia

1881 - 1956

France's excuse was that they need Tunisia so that Algeria is not lost

First period of Egypt under British control

1882 - 1914

Egypt was an autonomous province under the Ottoman Empire, but the British had a de facto protectorate over the country.
French and English scared of nationalists send more troops and take control then France eventually goes out while British takes complete control; Egypt starts making a few cash crops

Berlin Conference/ Scramble for Africa

1884 - 1885

Fear war in Europe (of what they are doing in Africa)
Called by Bismarck (so they don’t fight each other; agree that if you have colony need access to sea; cartographers, etc. draw up the lines (no care for the ethnic groups; ban drinking and gun sales to natives
Europeans – unspeakable cruelty to natives; slavery gone but treat them like slaves; use Labor / intimidation (into the logic that they are slaves)

Congo Free State

1885 - 1908

Leopold II (Belgium) takes Congo (Congo Free State) (his colony the king owns it; African brutality; begins the scramble for Africa; civilizing mission (in the 23 years though) 10 million in 20 million die (the Africans))(spends half of the Congo capital on the Force Publique that basically makes sure that the people give them their rubber) (punish not only one person but punish everyone; cuts off one hand as punishment often) (Gets pushed after Belgium buys it from him 1908(the state) (rubber plants); Instant conflict with France (him being there access to the sea is needed)

Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

between China and Japan (both claim control over Korea and Japan seriously embarrass China and take Korea)

First Italo-Ethipian War

1895 - 1896

Ethiopia resists Italy thanks to guerrilla fighters who know the landscape

Anglo-Egyptian Invasion of Sudan

1896 - 1899

Lord Horatio Kitchener goes and puts down the Sudanese forces with 8,000 troops, 4,000 egypt allies and destroy the 15,000 Sudanese forces thanks to the breech-loading rifle and maxim gun) (started when someone in the Sudanese killed a british general)

Spanish American War


Spain has 4 colonies (Cuba, Philippines, etc.) ad Cubans are being oppressed in concentration camps by Spanish rulers so as big brothers, the Americans, should fight for them (shown through journalism (called yellow-journalism cause its sensational; exaggerated the claims of violence in order to rally the people))
Send the US Maine to Cuban waters to show the Spanish that they are watching, the US Maine blows up and the America blame the Spanish
Puerto Ricans and Cubans very happy that they have America, and America destroys the Spanish and shows Spain is not a global power anymore and America is seen in a new light
The ending treaty gave the Philippines and Puerto Rico to America and did not take Cuba because they started the war for Cuba and that would seem hypocritical to take it but sort of stalk it (big brother)

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

Occurs as a reaction to Western Influence (people starving feeling they are a conquered people so they need to fight back because the Qing dynasty isn’t doing anything)
The Society of the Righteous and harmonious fists (secret society (that is nationalist China for Chinese) and practices karate (called boxers because closest to karate in west)) attack and kill anything “western”, especially Christians (anyone converted, any westerns like western officials, etc.) (cuts off heads) and Empress Dowager Cixi encourages them
They are defeated by 7 Western nations (including USA) and completely massacre them (Italy, Russia, Germany, Britain(really the British empire), USA, France, Austria-Hungary and Japan))(called eight-nation alliance
Shows that the Qing dynasty is not in control and they are puppets for the Westerns

European Imperialism

Approx. 1900

By 1900, almost all of Africa and Asia were under European control and laces that weren’t China, the Ottoman Empire (were on the edge of collapsing), while Japan (through a strategy of political and economic reform), Ethiopia, Afghanistan (through mountainous terrain), and Thailand (more use as a buffer state) escaped from European rule
Conquered people usually accepted being ruled by the Europeans because they were already used to being ruled by a small elite but many wanted to keep their culture the same while others wished to embrace Western traditions so they may one day challenge them
A new class of educated Africans came about who spoke and wrote the language of their colonizers and while they looked up to their Western masters and disliked many aspects fo their country they soon grew to dislike the Europeans hypocritical and arrogant attitude towards native people

Russo- Japanese War

1904 - 1905

spheres of influence in Russia; Japan wants Korea and Russia wants Manchuria but the Tsar does not want to sit down with the subhuman Japan so the Japanese decide lets go to war; make a modern navy using Britain as a model and Germany as a military model and model an economy after US to make them super strong
Start it after they eradicate the Russian naval forces in the Port of Arthur and Japan wins; Russia has to actually go and talk through it and Russia has to acknowledge Japan gets Korea in return they don’t have to pay war indemnity; Japan learns that Europeans won’t listen to them, they will underestimate them (so use it to advantage), take what you want by yourself with as little regard to Europe as Europe has to them, take by deceiving and lying
China- Foreign Interest peaks; Europe and Japan split apart China; China no longer has a say in what happens to China

Maji Maji Revolution

1905 - 1906

Germany had raised taxes on the Tanzania area; made a special elixir (Maji Maji) that will make them impervious to the German bullets but so wrong and 25,000 to 300,000 Tanzanians die

Muslim League


India, group that british sponsor, give money, trade deals to make sure that they stay loyal to British. More elites turning against british rule, Indian National Congress less cooperative. Split Indian National Congress And stir religious divisions in India so people fight against each other instead of british, make sure there's tension, extend british rule

Young Turk Revolution


Ottoman Empire sultan realizes the Ottoman Empire is falling apart so let’s push Islam (pan-Islam)
The Young Turks very upset of this and overthrow the sultanate and take control of Turkey (violently put down anyone who pops their head up hoping for a country; a lot of people want their own state and country)

Republic of China

1911 - 1949

Sun Yat Sen, leader of revolutionaries in china, Qing dynasty is overthrown after the Boxer Rebellion by the establishment of a republic based off of 3 principles (nationalism, democracy, socialism (everybody deserves food)

Second Period of Egypt under British control

1914 - 1956

After the Ottoman Empire is dissolved in WWI, the British institute a protectorate over Egypt until the Egyptian Revolution in 1952, after which the last British troops were out of Egypt in 1956

World War I

1914 - 1918

Colonies- Want rights (FOUGHT IN WAR); Rebel against Mandate System; Put down harshly



Colonies are needed for raw materials but it leads to food drops for the indigenous population this leads to strikes / independence movements up (India (textile company is good), Japan(non-European doing good) are doing good and fine)they are getting more and more upset because only option is independence, and their point is making cash crops which means a failure for your country
Some non-European countries make gains such as Turkey – Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) westernizes and leads Turkey to independence movement (ashes of Ottoman Empire; hold onto your independence to Europe doesn’t take them) (Constantinople is Istanbul, women get right to vote 1936, state is more secular)
• France is worried about birthrates and trying to hold onto French-Indo China more leads to resistance in places like Vietnam- Ho Chi Minh (I will create a communist nation for my own people and democracy only care about themselves, leads a rebellion and French crush it but he’s not dead and in 50’s they get rid of France and a Communist Vietnam)
Surge in Imperialism as imperial control increases (TAXES) (Dutch Republic, etc.)

Amritsar Massacre


the Sikhs have the holy site and it’s a holy day but the site is also for a peaceful unarmed protest conscription (but the British general Dire made it illegal to meet in large groups even if it was for religious sakes and fires into the crowd after surrounding them injuring thousands and killing a lot more people
Gandhi (uses this first moment to forever fight for full independence (used to be self-governing dominion that he wanted) since they won’t give what they want)

Peace of Paris


a cluster of treaties that Redistribute land, A-H (Habsburg Empire) (devastated, breaks up their empire and makes a bunch of new states), Ottomans split up (Turkey, iran, etc. but also mandates (colonies under advanced countries (French Mandate of Syria, British Mandate of Mesopotamia (very insulting to a lot of Arabians)

Washington Conference

1921 - 1922

Japanese power grows in East (due to democracy, industrialization, the great war (got German colonies)) (however the game is geared against Japan because they are not white or European since they get 3 battleships and not 5 like the others and also when Japan asked for a non-racial clause in the Washington Conference and the others rejected it (so Japan learns f they want something they might have to do it on their own)

Salt March


In India, Mohandas Gandhi is a independence leader; Civil Disobedience (use nonviolence looks to suffragette movements, Buddha etc.); Satyagraha- peaceful disobedience (like boycotts)
Boycotts are orchestrated such as weaving your own cloth, not buying British cloth
The Salt March (March 12th, 1930 (for 24 days) a lot of Indians get salt from sea but then British make it illegal and this salt march is basically go to the coast and get salt and disobey the British (Gandhi and 80,000 Indians go to jail and others die and get beaten via the police) (don’t get anything but shows that the Indians are the winners because the news will show them as good and the British will look the worst (Britain, France, and US are looking bad and hypocritical and are holding on to a system that is not working so maybe democracy is a failure)

World War II

1939 - 1945

Axis = Germany, Italy, Japan
Japanese Internment; US Ex. Order 9066; Reflects anti-Japanese sentiments, distrust
Japanese Americans relocated (unappealing places and after the war is done they are sent back but everything is gone (shows xenophobism and racism) Unit 442nd (most decorated group in America’s army (Japanese people but sent to Italy and stuff not to Japan because you are afraid they may turn on you and African americans are truck drivers but some were pilots) (only 5 Japanese spies and they were all white)
Surprise attack by Japan Japan plans to take out the Pearl Harbor; try to decimate naval forces (navy fleet with bombers and sink a bunch of bombings because great recon)
US enters War (great tactical victory but a horrible strategical plan since it created the US as a enemy which is rage-filled and revengeful; the Japanese destroy a lot of bombers but not the aircraft carriers and all the repair depots and oil reserves are safe too)
Japanese mentality differs from West (mentality shapes what war turns into. Japanese mentality (western revolution leads to democracy and industrialization, depression leads to no democracy and racial superiority
Bushido- way of the warrior/samurai (the Japanese soldiers think of themselves as samurai (men (fight or die; no surrender))) (Japanese mentality in colonies is that they are dogs or less, mentality shifts when US gains upper hand leads to kamikaze pilots)
Kamikaze Pilots (pilots come ready to die and fly the plane full of fuel straight onto the American ships and sinks that ship; sacrifice) (kamikaze comes from the term divine wind (ex: Mongol invasion was evaded due to typhoons (so god’s wind helps them))
US response to the Kamikaze pilots is the firebombing Tokyo (kill 100,000 people and the Japanese still do not surrender, ex: when Pearl Harbor happened Japan got a enemy who would rather cause Japan to go extinct rather than let Americans die) (the two sides misunderstood each other a lot) (still Japan does not surrender
The war in the Pacific Theater wages on and the US strategy is island hopping (take island after island until we get close enough to Japan that we bomb or invade them; (bunch of “D-days” in the pacific)
Midway June- (naval battle) this is the point when the tide turned against the Japanese Midway the Japanese think they are doing a sneak attack on them but US cracks their code with Magic and destroy their depstroyers which Japan cannot rebiuld; turns the tide in the Pacific like Stalingrad in Europe – 1942
Coral Sea May (naval battles not on the islands; Coral sea stop the Japanese from going to Austrialia stop their advance
Guadalcanal – 1942 August (first island hopping)= shows how fanatically that the Japanese fight (bonzai fighting; straight up charge the enemy with their swords)
Iwo Jima – (Feb to March) 1945= 27,000 Japanese trying to make it a death trap for the Americans (they have been making the island a subterranean bunker (first take the mountain (6,000 marines die and only 200 Japanese men survive (only get them if they are knocked unconscious or they could not kill themselves) (bloodfeud between the Americans and Japanese as you lose the fact that they are human)
Okinawa – 1945= 7600 marines die; significant because Japan feels this island is actually part of Japan not just an imperial territory so there are Japanese civilians there (110,000 Japanese die) (women kill themselves on the other side of the island with their children (how do you defeat an enemy that is not afraid to die) (estimate that is we invaded Japan we would end up with almost 1 million dead American/British soldiers and 10 million Japanese soldiers (is this worth it and is there another option)
Manhattan Project- US to develop atomic bomb (because supposedly the Germans were supposed to but America blew up their plants) (build three but not fast enough for the Germans so they test it out in New Mexico with the Trinity Test July 16, 1945); Robert Oppenheimer directs; then condemns (super dangerous and will kill a bunch of people)
“The Decision” falls to Harry S Truman (do we drop it off the coast but they won’t surrender)
Victory in -Japan Day- Hiroshima bombed Aug 6, 1945 (gave a warning via flyers before hand but the Japanese do not leave and the only reason was for the Americans to feel better); Enola Gay drops “Little boy” U-235; death toll around 140,000
Nagasaki bombed Aug 9, 1945 (since they did not surrender and can’t bomb Hiroshima due to the cloud); “fat man” plutonium, death toll around 80,000 (another 80,000 later due to radiation)
Japan surrenders Aug 14 1945 (one of the reasons they surrender is that US blowed up 2 entire cities and did not lose a single person)
US Occupies after war, writes constitution (the US is still the only country to use a nuclear bomb)

Post WWII Era

1940 - 1959

after WWII Europe is war ravaged and cold war makes the countries uneasy, the colonial powers see that the West is not as powerful as before)
Independence movements after WWII try to “undo” imperialism
Problems ensue as people fight for independence; Religion, language, power = tension (Africa has a lot of dialects and ethnicity,

Iran Independence


Iran gains independence from Iran

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Middle East; World needs oil, small countries play superpowers against each other; Controversy over Israel (1951-1955 (Churchill back) when Churchill goes to negotiate he insists on cigars which there is a ban against and thus no working with GB because so mad)
Egypt is Free of GB, but GB company owns Suez Canal; Gamal Abdel Nasser (wants to economically advance his state and wants pan-Arabism and independence (mostly take back the Suez Canal)); Nationalizes Suez Canal (now Egypt’s, becomes a national hero because he is challenging the West and it is working); Looks to US and SU for $
Africa; Countries gaining independence (if a country is predominantly black less violence for independence and if more white than larger struggle Ex: East Africa has rich British population and this leads to a very violent affair with Africans(Maumau (fighting against the British) (100 thousand in concentration camps) 1958 the 4th French Republic collapses due to their fight with Algeria because of the large French population in it (shows that a 3rd world country can topple a superpower if they fight hard enough)
European Legacy = problems; Who rules new nations; Boundaries don’t reflect language, religion, ethnicity; Rival groups form & commit atrocities
Immigration to Europe from 3rd world guest workers at first; no welfare state benefits; Do unpleasant jobs (temporary)
Many stay and apply for citizenship (better than their own country)
Multinationals transform business, global economy (cheaper to put factories in other countries, first in Eastern Europe where labor cheaper, but they started to unionize so now in 3rd world country cheaper)
International firms, factories abroad
Cheap foreign labor
Merge with other businesses, gov’ts
Good à collaboration (commodity items are available for a large group of people, bad à exploitative; basically IR because there are workers who cannot unionize because otherwise the company moves elsewhere and ecological problems are there) (most money from these companies do not go to the country, but rather to the shareholders)
Manufacturing- Automated or moving overseas (does not ruin the economy because the working class can now move to different types of jobs)
Cultural homogenization thanks to information age

Indian Partition


India = Hindu, Pakistan = Muslim and both are independent; Population shift, violence (Gandhi Killed 1948) (as the Hindus tried to go to India and Muslims to Pakistan, hundreds of thousands dead in the riots as the people are trying to shift) (Gandhi assassinated when he tries to advocate for reconciliation between the Muslims and Hindus)


May 14, 1948

Israel is founded

Communist takeover in China


Mao Zedong (1893-1976 a Communist fighting Chiang Kai-Shek since before WWII (civil war) 1949 finally beats Chiang Kai-Shek) (China mainland (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (with Chiang Kai-Shek is the Republic of China) US only wants to talk to Taiwan since it is not communist); Welfare of agricultural peasants (rural) is major more than benefiting the industrial proletariat (workers in the factories), collectivization (similarities (women equal, collectivize farms, rapidly industrialize, use oppression)

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Split at 38th parallel after WWII (because China was a failure of containment); North (Communist) invades South to unify and S pushed back to Pusan
US/UN “police action” aids South (have to somehow show the UN has power and sanction the fight against North but Soviet can veto so US provokes them and they walk out allowing the rest to vote yes to fight the North)
Invasion at Inch’on (McArthur and UN go above 38th parallel); Push N all the way to Yalu River but Chinese army joins North Korea leads to a Stalemate, armistice, 38th parallel remains (technically North Korea is still at war with the UN)


1954 - 1975

1954 Cien Bien Phu (important fort for France) falls so now France has to go and negotiate because they can not win so Geneva Conference 1954 decide that Vietnam divided at 17th parallel; Ho Chi Minh in North (SU backs); Ngo Din Diem in South (US backs) (not democratic or republic but not communist so US backs but he is not a good person)
Whether or not Vietnam will be communist and united there is a election and many south wanted to unite cause they hated Ngo Din Diem but US rigs the election so that Ngo wins and Ho Chi Minh feels like this is colonialism so he sent the Vietcong to win over the hearts of the peasants, so the South is starting to agree with the North (US sending “advisors” to help train the South’s troops with US weapons and have them be ready to fight a war)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 (’54 French out ’60 supposed to unite but no ’63 No Dien Diem dead) (LBJ sends in troops without declaration of war_
Vietcong = difficult enemy (supported by N. Vietnam and N. W supported by Russia and China; get supplies from train lines and they are guerrilla fighters) (America can’t finish the job so it has to . . .
By 1967, US institutes draft (problem because 1. Lends itself to the belief that in African American man you can be drafted (fought with pride) mand don’t like the idea of fighting in Vietnam 2. At 18 drafted, but not able to vote so you have to go before you can stop the war (old enough to die, but not enough to vote) (people start protesting)
1968 = Tet Offensive in Vietnam (Vietnamese new year North Vietnam attacks over 1000 American bases and South Vietnam towns (forces; not just front line everyone (shows America is losing))) (Richard Nixon says he will pull them out of Vietnam (many protests in world against it like in Tokyo and Mexico City (America not above law)
Nixon starts pulling out of Vietnam, but must attack first so they first have to attack another country (train with supplies) (Cambodia)
1973 N. Vietnam talk and they are now at peace, so America leaves and then in 1975 N. Vietnam attacks and invades S. Vietnam and unites it)



South East Asian Trade Organization to stop the geographic expansion of communism



(nonaligned nations; 3rd world countries); How to modernize economies; How to deal with superpowers (challenge them and become something more; more ownership and how to be something without being aligned)

Israel invades Egypt


Israel invades Egypt and world condemns then France and Britain send paratroopers in. Find out that GB and FR are trying to get the Suez Canal back and give Israel some land); GB/FR attack and US forces them to stop (fear of USSR involvement) (forces Britain to stop by telling Britain they will economically ruin them if they do not)

6 Day War


(America) Israel vs (Soviet)Egypt, Jordan, Syria (Western meddling puts black mark on the situation (a lot of people to not like Israel because they pushed Palestinians out
6 Day War (Palestinians acting up and attacking more, Israelis say allow for preemptive strike against Egypt which is militarizing, huge victory for Israel even though America say we too busy, Egypt says war going great then Syria and Jordon joins but easily put down by Israelis
Israel gains Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, East Jerusalem, & Golan Heights
Anti-Israel/American sentiment grows

Visit to China


Nixon visits China
Opens relations, trade (better relations with China; huge step because no Western influence has been in China for a long time, so a move forward (US superpower president) pragmatists in China say we may be communists, but we should trade with them still (even if communist they can hang out with us (now Soviet left out
Slows harshness of Mao’s Cultural Revolution ) (helps the Chinese because this makes them less inclined to use violence)

Munich Massacre


Black September (Palestine) (terrorist group (2; raid sleeping quarters of Israeli wrestling team at Olympics and they want some people to be released; seizes the world’s attention (SAS (British Special Forces try to seize them leading to all athletes, Black September and some SAS death; why most world will associate terrorism with Islam and Arabians (this is what the world sees))

OPEC spike pices

Approx. 1973

OPEC (organization of petroleum exporting countries) spikes oil prices after Yom Kippur War (since they want more power via more money; if US or ally of US then no oil for you; leads US to oil crisis
Embargo on US
Leads to STAGFLATION in West (inflation goes up; SU losing money too because they were selling us stuff; unemployment up, loans harder to get)
inflation, interest rates, & unemployment UP (bad because US very reliant on oil; first time a raw resource country is dictating to US who is superpower; imperialism turned on its head; US and world surprised)

Yom Kippur War


Egypt and Syria (back up from Soviet) attack on Yom Kippur; Israel defends and better as war goes on due to American weapons which are better than Soviet; starves the Egyptian army to death; Soviet army says you need to let them go or we will send in troops and US says we will launch and SU says ok and US says ok and back off, Arabs seek other strategies
Shows that Western Culture trumps Islamic Culture to the Arabs, so animosity grows (do not believe US in Middle East for Cold War but because they support Israel)

Iranian Hostage Crisis

1979 - 1981

US supports Shah Muhammad Jan Palach (Pro US)(autocratic not good , so people do not support him)
1979 – Iranian Revolution ousts Shah
Ayatollah Khomeini in power
Iran becomes strict Islamic state (since he wanted to return Iran to its former state) Shah is dying of cancer so US says he can come to US and we will give him cancer treatment and Iranians super mad because he was supposed to be put on war crime trials and they want him back, but US says no so Iranians super mad leads to . . .
Blame / hate US
US embassy stormed, hostages taken (citizens) held for 444 days (Jimmy Carter the president is not doing good due to stagflation and US is shown being inept)

Tianamen Square


Gorbachev visits top communist leaders in Bejing, and a bunch of students go to protest, the Chinese government sends in tanks and 1000 are killed, the Chinese govt. oppresses the movement; shows that not everyone is pleased with the govt. (Maybe Eastern Bloc can throw off chains)