Euro Art


Arts of Later Middle Ages

Approx. 1200 - Approx. 1500

Large focus on death, pain for their art (art macabre/ars moriendi=art of dying)
people stopped supporting artists since they felt guilty about supporting happy art when they were supposed to be sad
Examples of famous Italian writers writing in the vernacular (Italian)= Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio
Dante- Divine comedy- poem about souls salvation
Petrarch-sonnets in Italian vernacular that praise women; reveal strong sense of individuality, called father of Humanism
Boccaccio- wrote Decameron about stories people tell to escape plague
Chaucer- Canterbury tales- criticizes church corruption and life
Christine de Pizan- women wrote in vernacular style and had strong view of men and women being same capability
Renaissance Humanism= intellectual movement based on the study of classical literary works of Greece and Rome
Hermeticism- Florentine intellectual environmental product, people believe that by observing nature they can control nature (magic--> sciencE)
Artistic Renaissance- more 3D paintings, more detail, perspective, and organization of space and light for shadows; more human form and nudity focusing on human achievement and realistic form
High Renaissance- increasing importance of Rome as new culture center with 3 renaissance men (Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo)
- during this artists have more respect and value= better profit earned
Northern Renaissance- less grand but still focus on human form and includes lots of detail
Music of Renaissance- Gregorian chants replaced by secular tunes with more emotions and in Vernacular; music ceased to be used chiefly by God

Mannerism/Baroque and others

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1700

Renaissance-->yearning for spiritual experience, anxiety, suffering, and uncertianty reflected in mannerism= broke down Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation--> elongated figures and more definitive emotion
-example of artist=El Greco
Baroque- replaced mannerisms and was supported by the Catholic Church/Reformation and royal catholic courts since art told religious stories
- had the renaissance balance but mannerism emotion and art was mainly powered base
Peter Paul Rubens- spread of Baroque art from Italy to EVERYWHERE
France became new cultural leader
Dutch Realism- wealthy people of Dutch urban commissioned works of art for their homes or guilds which mostly centered around own lives
Writing was written in vernacular and England was best at this because of Elizabethan era

Italian Renaissance

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1800

Individualism and secularism= 2 important characteristics of Italian Renaissance and ITaly= cultural leader of Europe
Mostly Renaissance product of wealthy, urban lay society and important literary movement associated with this is humanism=intellectual movement based on the study of classical literary works of Greece and Rome
Humanists examines humanity, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy (ethics) and history all based on Rome and Greece authors (these subjects=humanities)
most humanists held secular jobs and were laymen not clergy
Protestant (calvinist) churches removed relics=bare walls

Baroque Music Period

1600 - 1750

ex. of musicians- Johann Sebastian Bach; George Frederick Handel

Baroque, Classicism, &Dutch Art

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700

Baroque- faith based art where focus on religious intensity and being larger than life about religion, also slightly political; was mainly Habsburg Spain, Austria, and Italy; art=very detailed and emotional
Classicism- mainly in France with artists Lorrain and Poussin; focused mainly on ancient/mythological art and had geometric shapes, peaceful, harmonious, not emotionally intense\
Dutch Art- focused on ordinary life of dutch for middle class people, was important that art important to the person buying it= focus on regular life not rly history or religious; famous painters= Rembrandt and Vermeer

Novels start developing/ history

Approx. 1600

grew out of medieval romances and picaresque stories of the 16th century; English credited for establishing modern novel as chief vehicle for fiction writing
was especially attractive to women readers and women writers
History also began to be rewritten without God by focusing on economics, social, intellectual, and cultural devleopments (not just politics)


Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700

Rococo- emphasized grace and gentle action and reject strict geometrical patterns and fond of curves; light and charming that speak of purist of pleasure, happiness, and love; Baroque emphasize majesty, power and movement
Neoclassicism- continued to maintain strong appeal and in late 18th century it emerged in France as an established movement; wanted to recapture the dignity and simplicity of the classical style of Ancient Greece and Rome

Georgian Style & Romanticism

1685 - 1815

many noble houses built in Georgian style; greatly influenced by classical serenity and sedateness; allowed for more separation amongst the upper and lower floors
Romanticism- response to Enlightenments excessive dependence on reason and focused on individual genius, deep emotion, and love of nature
Neoclassical- art style based on classical art (Greek and Romans ) which focus on ordinary, ideal life with enlightenment influence (made as result of baroque and rococo)

Classical Music Era

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1830

represented by Haydn and Mozart; shifted musical center of Europe from Italy and Germany to Austrian Empire