1850-1900

Events

1851

1851

Great Exhibition- Grand display of the products of the Industrial Revolution, especially the British innovations [3.1]

1854

1854

Start of the Crimean War, military conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France and Sardinia

1856

1856

Development of the Bessemer Process for manufacturing steel.

1859

1859

France and Piedmont-Sardinia go to war against Austria.

1859

1859

Darwin’s Origins of Species was considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

1861

1861

Alexander the 2nd, the emperor of Russia, emancipates the Serfs

1861

1861

Victor Emmanuel II becomes the first King of Italy.

1863

1863

Opening of the Salons.

1864

1864

Louis Pasteur- Germ Theory- Increased medical advances in fighting diseases allowed for Europeans to further cement their control of areas which were inaccessible due to the danger of diseases in the region. [3.5]

1866

1866

Italians seize Venetia from Austria.

1866

1866

Austro-Prussian War was fought between the German confederation under the leadership of Austria and Germany.

1869

1869

Suez Canal, which took 10 years to complete, completed

1870

1870

Franco- Prussian War was a conflict between the 2nd French empire and the German states.

1871

1871

German Unification- After the Franco-Prussian war and careful diplomacy by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany united under Kaiser Wilhelm I. [SP #5]

1874

1874

Claude Monet paints Impression: Sunrise

1877

1877

Queen Victoria becomes the Empress of India

1878

1878

Congress of Berlin, meeting of the representatives of the Great Powers and the 4 Balkan states.

1879

1879

A Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary formed.

1881

1881

Assassination of Alexander the Second

1884

1884

German Unification- After the Franco-Prussian war and careful diplomacy by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany united under Kaiser Wilhelm I. [SP #5]

1885

1885

Friedrich Nietzsche and his ideas exerted am influence on Western philosophy. .

1885

1885

Internal Combustion Engine generated power by the burning of fuels.

1894

1894

Beginning of the Dreyfus Affair, a scandal that involved the accusing of Dreyfus.

1897

1897

The First meeting of the Zionists in Switzerland occurred.

1898

1898

Marie and Pierre Curie Discover Radium- New views and discoveries in science were challenging the objective view of nature as Newton had described it. [3.6]

1899

1899

Rudyard Kipling - White Man’s Burden- A poem expressing the idea of Social Darwinism and the idea that Europeans should conquer the rest of the world because they were a naturally superior people [IS #4]

1900

1900

Sigmud Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams