Peace of Augsburg- The end of the bloodiest religious conflict in European history, the Thirty Years’ War, and resulted in religious freedom throughout the Holy Roman Empire [1.2]
Death of Queen Mary of England, the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth Tudor.
The beginning of the French Wars of religion. This was primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants.
French Wars of Religion- Wars between French Roman Catholics and French Protestants, called Huguenots, over rights for the Huguenots which would eventually become the second deadliest religious conflict in European history with 3 million deaths. [SP #2]
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre during the French Wars of religion. This directed against Huguenots.
The execution of Mary Queen of Scots, and she was one of the most controversial monarchs.
Henry the 4th converts to Catholicism. The church maintains that the doctrine on morals declared as definitive.
Edict of Nantes- Edict by Henry IV of France which gave religious freedom to the Protestant minority and ended the French Wars of Religion [OS #1]
British East India Company Founded- This company would run all British dealings in the East Indies and Qing China for the next two centuries and would become one of the most powerful company in the world. [1.5]
The Dutch East India Company was established, which granted it a monopoly on Dutch spice trade.
Cervantes publishes Don Quixote.
Jamestown- The first permanent English settlement in the Americas is established, a full thirteen years before the pilgrims arrived. [INT #3]
Harvey announces his discovery of the circulatory system.
Johannes Kepler reveals the final law of planetary motion.
Beginning of the 30 years war, which was fought between the Protestants and the Catholics.
Francis Bacon publishes the Scientific method.
Cardinal Richelieu becomes Louie the 13th’s chief minister.
Gustavus Adolphus dies at the battle of Lutzen.
Rene Descartes Writes Discourse on the Method- Descartes creates a new theory on the scientific method based on skepticism and that basis is still seen in the modern scientific method. [OS #2]
English Civil War- War between the forces loyal to King Charles I against forces loyal to Parliament when Charles tried to become an absolute monarch. Parliament won and the monarchy was temporarily abolished. [1.2]
5 year old Louie the 14th becomes King of France.
The Peace of Westphalia was established, which ended the 30 years war.
The execution of Charles the first and the establishment of the English Republic.