1550-1650

Events

1555

1555

Peace of Augsburg- The end of the bloodiest religious conflict in European history, the Thirty Years’ War, and resulted in religious freedom throughout the Holy Roman Empire [1.2]

1558

1558

Death of Queen Mary of England, the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth Tudor.

1562

1562

The beginning of the French Wars of religion. This was primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants.

1562-1598

1562 - 1598

French Wars of Religion- Wars between French Roman Catholics and French Protestants, called Huguenots, over rights for the Huguenots which would eventually become the second deadliest religious conflict in European history with 3 million deaths. [SP #2]

1572

1572

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre during the French Wars of religion. This directed against Huguenots.

1587

1587

The execution of Mary Queen of Scots, and she was one of the most controversial monarchs.

1593

1593

Henry the 4th converts to Catholicism. The church maintains that the doctrine on morals declared as definitive.

1598

1598

Edict of Nantes- Edict by Henry IV of France which gave religious freedom to the Protestant minority and ended the French Wars of Religion [OS #1]

1600

1600

British East India Company Founded- This company would run all British dealings in the East Indies and Qing China for the next two centuries and would become one of the most powerful company in the world. [1.5]

1602

1602

The Dutch East India Company was established, which granted it a monopoly on Dutch spice trade.

1605

1605

Cervantes publishes Don Quixote.

1607

1607

Jamestown- The first permanent English settlement in the Americas is established, a full thirteen years before the pilgrims arrived. [INT #3]

1616

1616

Harvey announces his discovery of the circulatory system.

1618

1618

Johannes Kepler reveals the final law of planetary motion.

1618

1618

Beginning of the 30 years war, which was fought between the Protestants and the Catholics.

1620

1620

Francis Bacon publishes the Scientific method.

1624

1624

Cardinal Richelieu becomes Louie the 13th’s chief minister.

1632

1632

Gustavus Adolphus dies at the battle of Lutzen.

1637

1637

Rene Descartes Writes Discourse on the Method- Descartes creates a new theory on the scientific method based on skepticism and that basis is still seen in the modern scientific method. [OS #2]

1642-1651

1642 - 1651

English Civil War- War between the forces loyal to King Charles I against forces loyal to Parliament when Charles tried to become an absolute monarch. Parliament won and the monarchy was temporarily abolished. [1.2]

1643

1643

5 year old Louie the 14th becomes King of France.

1648

1648

The Peace of Westphalia was established, which ended the 30 years war.

1649

1649

The execution of Charles the first and the establishment of the English Republic.