Series of conflicts by the House of Plantagenet (Kingdom of England) and House of Valois (Kingdom of France) over the succession of the French Throne
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe's population
Until 1450, Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the 30 years war.
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 when the first European sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the 30 Years War (Treaty of Westphalia)
Period of Scientific growth where many "natural philosophers" studied and learned a lot about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually led to the industrial Revolution.
Calvinists vs Anglicans "Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan military leader, led his New Model Army to victory in 1649" Cromwell allowed Jews back into England but denied toleration to Cath. and Ang.
A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosophers debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.
A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion resulting from an increasing life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural Revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.
Period of French revolt which led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government.
Considered the Father of Humanism, famous for his works
A time when the Popes (7 total) went to Avignon in France and not in Rome. The conflict arose between the Papacy and the French crown (Ecclesiastical and Secular Powers)
Humanist who agreed with the ideas of Petrach
Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France. Part of the Hundreds Year War
The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups of the Reformation
The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope. (after the Avignon Papacy)
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
Vast exchange of goods culture diseases and diseases and ideas between Europe and the New World. Caused by the the Commercial Revolution
Period of "hunting witches" in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things. (scapegoats)
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England (so he can divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon)
German peasants were inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt. (HRE)
Main leader of the Dutch Revolt, excellent politique.
Catholic attempt to stop Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
Astronomer who was known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of the Huguenots, and was involved in the 30 Years War against the Hapsburg.
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants. So really it was a war over religion rather than territory.
Natural Philosopher who studied math and physics.
An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper notes, destroying their economy.
Cynical (believing that people are motivated by self interest, selfish etc) enlightened thinker, he wrote much about the evils of church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.
War of Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with the decision that Phillip II could be the king of Spain but not of France.
Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution.
Brilliant military strategist who led Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign.
Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British dominance outside of Europe.
A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the revolution.
French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.
A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they thought didn't support the French Revolution (about 25,000 people)
France's revolutionary govt.