AP European History Timeline

Large Scale Events

Renaissance in Italy

1300 - 1527

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Series of conflicts by the House of Plantagenet (Kingdom of England) and House of Valois (Kingdom of France) over the succession of the French Throne

The Plague

1346 - 1400

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe's population

Northern Renaisssance

1450 - 1648

Until 1450, Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the 30 years war.

Fall of Constantinople

1453

Commercial Revolution

1488 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 when the first European sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the 30 Years War (Treaty of Westphalia)

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1789

Period of Scientific growth where many "natural philosophers" studied and learned a lot about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually led to the industrial Revolution.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Calvinists vs Anglicans "Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan military leader, led his New Model Army to victory in 1649" Cromwell allowed Jews back into England but denied toleration to Cath. and Ang.

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosophers debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

Industrial Revolutions

1750 - 1900

A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion resulting from an increasing life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural Revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Period of French revolt which led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government.

Small Scale Events

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Considered the Father of Humanism, famous for his works

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

A time when the Popes (7 total) went to Avignon in France and not in Rome. The conflict arose between the Papacy and the French crown (Ecclesiastical and Secular Powers)

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Humanist who agreed with the ideas of Petrach

Jacquerie

March 1358 - July 1358

Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France. Part of the Hundreds Year War

John Hus and the Hussites

1403 - 1431

The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups of the Reformation

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope. (after the Avignon Papacy)

Medici Family in power in Florence

1434 - 1494

Invention of Printing Press

1440

Portuguese establish first African trading post

1443

Erasmus

1466 - 1534

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon

1469

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1776

Vast exchange of goods culture diseases and diseases and ideas between Europe and the New World. Caused by the the Commercial Revolution

Invasion of Italy by Charles III of France

1494

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1750

Period of "hunting witches" in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things. (scapegoats)

Rule of King Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England (so he can divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon)

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1527

German peasants were inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt. (HRE)

King William of Orange the Silent

1544 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch Revolt, excellent politique.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomer who was known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

Rule of Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of the Huguenots, and was involved in the 30 Years War against the Hapsburg.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants. So really it was a war over religion rather than territory.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Natural Philosopher who studied math and physics.

Mississippi Bubble

1684 - 1720

An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper notes, destroying their economy.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Cynical (believing that people are motivated by self interest, selfish etc) enlightened thinker, he wrote much about the evils of church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War of Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with the decision that Phillip II could be the king of Spain but not of France.

Rousseau

1712 - 1779

Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution.

Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Brilliant military strategist who led Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign.

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British dominance outside of Europe.

The Great Fear

July 17, 1789 - August 5, 1789

A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the revolution.

National Convention

1792 - 1794

French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.

Reign of Terror

September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794

A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they thought didn't support the French Revolution (about 25,000 people)

The Directory

1795 - 1799

France's revolutionary govt.