APUSH Exam Review


Historic Time Periods

Time Period 1

1491 - 1607

Historical Context:

Time Period 2

1607 - 1754

Time Period 3

1754 - 1800

Time Period 4

1800 - 1848

Time Period 5

1848 - 1877



civil war compared to american revolution - considered "2nd american revolution"

SYNTHESIS: Western Railroads


Western Railroads comapared to building of Erie Canal:

Western Railroads helped in migration and transportation to western lands gained and helped expand Western role in the American Role

This is similar to Building of the Erie Canal as it allowed for the cost effective transportation of goods to the midwestern states and also allowed for agriculture to further expand in that area


1861 - 1865

The Confederacy wanted to secede from the Union like revolutionaries wanted to secede from Britain. Both wanted to be their own country.

SYNTHESIS: Reconstruction

1863 - 1877

Reconstruction was set up by Lincoln in 1863. The 10% plan was the backbone to this plan and ensured that when 10% of southern voters pledged an oath to the Union, then the south would be recognized in the Union. Later, the Union occupied the southern states and many steps were taken to guarantee the rights of African Americans.

During the Reconstruction era, the Union occupied the southern states in order to ensure that the Confederacy would not regain strength and to ensure new rights of African Americans. This is similar to the U.S. containment policy after WW2 when they took steps to ensure that the spread of communism be stopped.

Time Period 6

1865 - 1898

SYNTHESIS: Chinese Exclusion Act


Chinese Exclusion Act compared to The Emergency Quota Act 1924:

Chinese Exclusion Act that was passed in 1882 to restrict the immigration of Chinese to the United States is similar to The Emergency Quota Act of 1924 that restricted the immigration to the US by setting the percentage of immigrants accepted to the nation as they both limited the number of people being admitted to the nation and the public opinion played a significant role in the passing of the legislation. For example, growing economic competition and racial stereotypes against Asian immigrants among Americans during 1880s urged the Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act, and growing resentment and distrust towards immigrants among the American public after the turmoil of WWl resulted in the enactment of the Quota Act of 1924.

SYNTHESIS: Streetcar Cities


Development of Street Car Cities Overtime:

The increased use of streetcars in cities allowed people to live further from their work. This led to the growth and diffusion of cities and the creation of different neighborhoods defined by cultural and class divisions. This is similar to the expanded use of cars and the road network in later time periods, when people began using their cars to get to work. This allowed them to live much further from their work and eventually led to the creation of suburbs outside of the city.

SYNTHESIS: Panic of 1893


Panic of 1893 compared to Wall Street Crash of 1929:

The Panic of 1893 resulted in a stock market crash caused by over speculation and resulted in the bankruptcy of dozens of railroads that continued for four years impacting America's economic system drastically in a series of decline as compared to the Wall Street Market Crash of 1929; caused by unregulated financial speculation. Both the Panic of 1893 and the Wall Street Stock Market Crash led to a depression in American society and bank failure in America's economic system.

Time Period 7

1898 - 1945


Approx. 1901 - Approx. 1917

Chapter 21: The Progressive Era [1901-1917]

A political movement was underway within the United States since the end of the Spanish American war with Spain, up until the beginning of the first world war with the central powers. Americans at home were experiencing social and political changes with the onset of Progressivism that focused on reforms that influenced United States' government both on the federal and state levels. Progressive reforms drew inspiration from a new American philosophy called pragmatism, which was a significant shift in American thinking since the romantic transcendentalism era. With new ideas, groups such as the urban middle class, Protestant church leaders, feminists, and African Americans joined the Progressive movement in bringing about reforms that would correct society and urge the government to facilitate those changes.

SYNTHESIS: Booker T. Washington VS W.E.B. Du Bois compared to Martin Luther King Jr. VS Malcolm X

Approx. 1901 - Approx. 1917

TOPIC: African Americans during the Progressive Era: The era was bringing about new ideas that even influenced African Americans concerning their future prospects in a prevailing white American society. The prevailing views were split between Booker T. Washington, who promoted economic and educational standards for African Americans to achieve equality, and W.E.B. Du Bois, who advocated for the securing of civil rights by any means, even if militant.


African Americans during the Progressive Era dealt with social controversy between two leaders: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. Both approached the road to equality differently; whereas Washington promoted economic and educational advancement of African Americans as the first step to equality, Du Bois argued the opposite, claiming that African Americans must first secure civil rights through militant means as the first crucial step. Similarly, this social controversy over African American approaches to civil rights can be seen during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's between Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Whereas Martin Luther King Jr. promoted a passive, nonviolent method of protesting for civil rights, Malcolm X advocated for black violence to combat white violence in securing civil rights. Du Bois and Malcolm X shared very similar approaches to the securing of civil rights by advocating militant methods in hopes of empowering blacks to further assert themselves, whereas Martin Luther King Jr. and Washington chose non-invasive approaches to civil rights in hopes of an albeit gradual, but bloodless, attaining of African American equality.

SYNTHESIS: The Great Depression

1929 - 1933

Chapter 24

Similar to the depressions of 1837, 1873, and 1893 the Great Depression beginning in 1929 was characterized by bank failures and the collapse of credit systems which led to a longer period of economic recession.

SYNTHESIS: Neutrality to Involvement WWII

1941 - 1945

Chapter 25

Similar to US entry into WWI America entered WWII only after the its neutrality policy had be violated. One of the major causes during WWI was the impressment of American sailors which violated the United State's rights as a neutral nation. During WWII the violation occurred with the bombing of Pearl Harbor when Japanese forces attacked the US territory of Hawaii.

Time Period 8

1945 - 1980

SYNTHESIS: Postwar America (Truman Years)

1945 - 1952

Chapter 26

During both WWI and WWII women, immigrants, and African Americans took advantage of the wartime draft in order to find jobs in factories and other jobs traditionally held by white males. Similarly, after both wars, returning veterans had a difficult time adjusting to normal life and many struggled to find employment as the majority of jobs had been taken by those who worked throughout the war.

SYNTHESIS: Cold War (Eisenhower)

1952 - 1960

Chapter 27-
Esienhower Years- the Cold War w president Eisenhower 

The relation between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War and Eisenhower years was similar to the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union during the Cold War under President Ronald Reagan because they both used the threat of weapon build up fear and prevent communism.


Pre-Columbian Era

Approx. 1400 - 1491

all time in America prior to Columbus' arrival

Colonial Era

1607 - 1763

13 colonies under European rule

Revolutionary Era

1763 - 1783

Critical Era

1783 - 1789

Critical time in US history between fighting for independence and est a country

Antebellum Era

1793 - 1861

South prior to Civil War

POL - Politics & Power

Iroquois Confederation


the Iroquois Confederation, a political union of five independent tribes, were a powerful force from the 16th century through the American Revolution. When another nation joined (making it six), they became known as the Six Nations in 1722

new laws of 1542


Wanted the king to end Indian slavery, labor, and encomienda system

Virginia House of Burgesses

Approx. 1607 - 1754

first legislative assembly



Mayflower Compact

Mayflower Compact

Approx. 1620 - 1754

First governing document of Plymouth colony

Massachusetts Bay Colony


Started by Puritans who had dissented from England

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

1639 - Approx. 1754

It was a Constitution for the colonial government of Hartford and was similar to the government that Massachusetts had set up.



William Penn establishes the colony of Pennsylvania


Frame of Government


The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania was a constitution for the Province of Pennsylvania, a proprietary colony granted to William Penn by Charles II of England. The Frame of Government has lasting historical importance as an important step in the development of American and world democracy.

King William's War

Approx. 1689 - Approx. 1697

British launch unsuccessful expeditions to capture Quebec

Francisco Pizarro


Spanish conquistador that ended the Incas

Hernan Cortes


Spanish conquistador who caused fall of Aztecs



People that came to America in efforts for gold, god, and glory.


1700 - 1800

Attraction to European movement in literature and philosophy

Queen Anne's War

1702 - 1713

British launch another expedition to capture Quebec but failed. However, British forces prevailed in Queen Anne's War in gaining both Nova Scotia from France and trading rights in Spanish America.

Synthesis: Colonial wars

Approx. 1754 - Approx. 1774

The differing viewpoints on the seven years war by the colonists and by Britain were similar to the differing opinions between the North and South after the civil war because both, in essence, came out of the war with contempt for the other side. For example, Britain claimed that colonists had not tried hard enough to assist in the war and thus put duties on multiple colonial goods to pay off war debts from the seven years war. On the other hand, colonists widely felt that the British had not productively contributed to the wars. The viewpoints following the civil war were similar in that each side wanted more from the other (radical republicans in the north wanted complete equality for African Americans and Southern Democrats wanted control of their own region).

Seven Year's War

1754 - 1763

Also known as the French and Indian War, the British and French fought in North America over control of the Ohio River Valley. The French were successful the first half of the war, defending the British at Ft. Duquesne and French Canada. The British were then successful in retaking Louisbourg in 1758, and Montreal in 1760. The Peace of Paris was negotiated in 1763, and the British acquired both French Canada and Spanish Florida. France gave up their western territories to Spain, virtually ending French power in North America.

John Marshall

1755 - 1835

He was the chief supreme court justice and many of his rulings turned into important legal milestones.

Proclamation of 1763


British proclamation to colonists prohibiting settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Revenues and Regulations

1763 - 1774

British taxation of the colonists for the costs of protection:
Sugar Act (1764)- Placed duties on foreign sugars
Quartering Act (1765)- Required colonists to provide quarters for British soldiers
Stamp Act (1765)- Tax on most printed papers
Declaratory Act (1766)- Repealed Stamp Act, but asserted the right to tax
The Townshend Acts (1767)- duties on glass, tea, and paper

Coercive Acts


Also known as the interolable acts, these were kind of the straw that broke the camel's back in the colonies.

Intolerable Acts


Coercive Acts (after Boston Tea Party):
Port Act- closed port of Boston
Massachusetts Gov. Act- reduced power of Massachusetts legislature
Administration of Justice Act- royal officials to be tried in Great Britain
Quebec Act- Roman Catholicism as official religion of Quebec

Lexington andConcord

April 18, 1775

British commander sent large force to seize colonial military supplies. Paul Revere and William Dawes warned the militia. They had to retreat under heavy fire.

Articles of Confederation

November 15, 1777

The first constitution of the United States

Annapolis Convention


Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan


Synthesis: Political Parties

Approx. 1787

The Federalist and Democratic-Republican political parties and their difference differ from the Democrat and Republican parties that we have to day because while the first two were mostly concerned with the interpretation of the constitution and foreign policy involving favoring the british or french, the newer political parties are more concerned with domestic and foreign policies such as healthcare and terrorism

Creation of Electoral College


3/5 Compromise

1787 - 1788

The Federalist Papers

1787 - 1788

Constitutional Convention


Bill of Rights


Judiciary act


In the Judiciary Act of 1789, the First Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary that the Constitution had sketched only in general terms. Acting on its constitutional authority to establish inferior courts, the Congress instituted a three-part judiciary.

Whiskey Rebellion

1791 - 1794

The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government

Hamilton's Financial Plan - pay debts, protective tariffs, natl bank


Proclamation of Neutrality


The Whiskey Rebellion


Washington's Farewell Address


two term tradition

Approx. 1797 - Approx. 1941

This is where all the presidents have two terms and it was started by George Washington. FDR ended this tradition during WW2.

The Age Of Jefferson

1800 - 1816

Thomas Jefferson: 3rd president Democratic- Republican
Louisiana Purchase: Jefferson bought land between Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from Napoleon controlled France for $15 million.
War Hawks: Young Dem- Rep in congress eager for war with Britain
Henry Clay: One leader of War Hawks, present for the treaty ending the war with Britian, agaisnt slavery
John C. Calhoun: The other leader of War Hawks, helped establish the 2nd American Bank, for slavery

Revolution of 1800

Approx. 1800

In what is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800", Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System.

Daniel Webster

Approx. 1800

Referred to the North, South, and West by the 4 points on a compass in order to portray the dangers these divisions hold for the nation.

Synthesis: Marbury V. Madison


The case of Marbury vs Madison in 1803 set up the foundation for future court cases that would rule similarly such as the recent Obergefell vs Hodges's case that both ruled in favor of judicial review. In Marbury vs Madison, the court defined the relationship between the central government and the states. The more recent case ruled in favor of the right to same sex marriage and claimed it constitutional just as the 1803 case.

Fletcher vs Peck


Concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract. This was the first time that the Supreme Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional and invalid.

Fletcher vs Peck


Concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract. This was the first time that the Supreme Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional and invalid.

American Colonization society


created with the idea of transporting freed slaves to an African colony

Tallmadge Amendment


This amendment called for prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be at the age of 25. This would help with the gradual elimination of slavery, but was defeated by the Senate.

Asylum movement

1820 - 1830

reformers aim to set up new public institutions and alleviate the suffering of patients

Jacksonian democracy

Approx. 1820 - 1829

The changing politics of the Jacksonian years paralled complex and economic changes.


1820 - 1870

Reform movement that tried to persuade drinkers to take a pledge of total abstinence by using moral exhortation.

American Temperance Society

1820 - 1840

society that tried ti persuade drinkers to take a pledge of total abstinence and ban alcohol consumption

spoils system

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1840

putting people in government positions that support the current party and firing those opposed

American Antislavery Society

1820 - 1829

opponents of slavery who demanded immediate abolition without compensating their owners

temperance movement

1820 - 1840

the movement to ban alcohol consumption

anti-masonic party

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1840

3rd party, attack the masons- accusations of being in a privileged, anti-democratic elite


1820 - 1829

A prison, correctional facility, detention center, jail, penitentiary or remand centre is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

The Missouri Compromise


When Missouri applied to become a slave state, threatening the balance of power in the Senate, the Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state to maintain balance.

john Quincy Adams

1824 - 1828

focused on internal improvement, disliked by jacksonians

Henry Clay

1824 - 1828

advocated for Adams as president and became vice president under him. Jacksonians referred to this as the corrupt bargain

American Peace Society


objective of abolishing war, which actively protested the war with Mexico in 1846

Revolution of 1828


Jackson and Adams campaign tactics involve slandering the other party. Jackson won due to southern and western support

Tariff of 1828


tariff supporting northern manufacturers but alienating southern farmers

Anti-Mason Party


Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

President that advocated for the common man, was supported primarily by southern and western citizens

Spoils System, 1829


Federal Treaty Policies

1830 - 1900

Dawes Act (1887) and reservations forced Indians out of the way of the american manifest dream


1830 - 1839

a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.

McGuffey Readers

1830 - 1839

Pennsylvania teacher who created a series of elementary textbooks that became widely used to teach reading and morality

William Lloyd Garrison


began the publication of an abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator

Samuel Gridley Howe

1840 - 1850

reformer who founded special institutions to help people with physical disabilities

Thomas Gallaudet

1840 - 1850

reformer who founded special institutions to help people with physical disabilities



a group of recovering alcoholics who argued that alcoholism was a disease and needed practical, helpful treatment

public school movement

1840 - 1849

push for compulsory attendance for all children to an open, or public, school system

Dorothea Dix

1840 - 1849

launched a cross-country crusade, publicizing the awful treatment of mentally ill people

Public School Movement


Focused on the need for establishing free public schools for children of all classes.

John Tyler

1841 - 1845

The second president of Texas, southern Whig who tried to get Texas annexed to United States.

James K. Polk

1844 - 1847

President of United States during the War with Mexico.

Ostend Manifesto


Polk's attempt to purchase Cuba from Spain.

Oregon Territory


A vast territory on the Pacific Coast that originally stretched as far as the Alaskan Border.

Popular Sovereignty

1848 - 1861

Lewis Cass, a senator form Michigan, proposed a compromise to allow people in the territory to vote whether to have slavery or not in their western territory/state.

Compromise of 1850


-Admit California as a free state
-Divide Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico
-Give land between Texas and New Mexico to the new territories in return for the federal government assuming Texas's public debt of $10 million
-Ban slave trade in District of Columbia but allow whites to keep their slaves
-Adopt a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforce it rigoroulsy

Henry Clay


Proposed Compromise of 1850

Horace Mann

1850 - 1859

leading advocate for of the common (public) school movement

Auburn system

1850 - 1859

prison reform which enforced rigid rules of discipline while also providing moral instruction and workprograms

William Seward

1850 - 1860

a leading republican as secretary of state under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson

The Kansas-Nebraska Act


Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill to divide the Nebraska Territory and the Kansas Territory and allow the settlers whether to allow slavery or not. This was the first time a territory could have slavery above the 36, 60 line since the Missouri Compromise of 1820. However, Senator Douglas only did this to build a transcontinental railroad with a terminus at Chicago, which would increase the value of his real estate holdings.

Fugitive Slave Law

Approx. 1854

Tracked down run away slaves in the North

Sumner-Brooks incident


The violence in Kansas caused Massachusetts Senator Sumner to verbally attack South Carolina Senator Butler. Then Butler's nephew Brooks got mad and beat Sumner's head with a cane in the Senate chamber. It was a sign of growing passions on both sides.

Dred Scott v. Stanford


Af. Am.s had no right to sue in a federal court
Congress did not have the power to deprive any person of property without due process of law
Missouri compromise was unconstitutional

John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry

October 1859

John Brown tried to start a slave uprising in Virginia arming them with guns.

Crittenden Compromise


Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed for a constitutional amendment that would guarantee the right to hold slaves in all territories south of 36, 30 boundary line. Lincoln would not accept this compromise because it went against the Republican stance to stop the extension of slavery into the western territories

Robert E. Lee

1861 - 1865

Commanding General for the Confederate States of America.

Ulyssies S. Grant


Commanding General of the Union Army during the Civil War. Later became the 18th president of the United States in 1869.

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865

Confiscation Acts


Authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property (including slaves)


1861 - 1865

Opposed the Civil War and wanted a negotiated peace

Fort Sumter

April 12, 1861 - April 14, 1861

The first shots of the Civil War.

Bull Run

July 1861

Also known as Battle of First Manassas. First major battle of the Civil War.

Monitor vs Merrimack

March 8, 1862 - March 9, 1862

naval engagement at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbour at the mouth of the James River, notable as history's first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare.

Battle of Shiloh

April 6, 1862 - April 7, 1862

a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War


September 1862

Bloodiest single day in entire war. Confederacy retreats. McClellan removed as Union commander for not pursuing the weakened Confederacy.


December 11, 1862 - December 15, 1862

First battle commanded by new Union General, Ambrose Burnside.

Emancipation Proclamation


Released slaves in rebellious (Confederate) states


May 18, 1863 - July 4, 1863

The Siege of Vicksburg was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War, resulting in a Union victory.


July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863

The battle of Gettysburg was a Union victory that stopped Confederate General Robert E. Lee's second invasion of the North. Known as the bloodiest battle in the war because of all of the casualties.

election of 1864


Democratic nominee: George McClellan
Republican nominee: Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln wins

13th Amendment


officially abolished slavery in the United States

Appomattox Court House

April 9, 1865

one of the last battles of the American Civil War, resulting in a Union victory.

Charles Summer


Leading Radial Republican in the senate.


Approx. 1867 - Approx. 1870

A nickname given to Southern Republicans by Democrats.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson


Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which prohibited the president from removing a federal official without approval from the Senate. Johnson challenged this by firing Stanton and was thus impeached. However, Johnson was not removed from office because the vote fell short.

Reconstruction Acts

1867 - 1877

Placed the South under military occupation. The acts divided the former Confederate States into five military districts, each under the control of the Union army. The acts also increased requirements to gain readmission to the Union, including ratifying the 14th amendment.


Approx. 1867 - Approx. 1870

Nickname for Northern newcomer Republicans

National Grange Movement


Active in economics and politics to defend members against middleman, trusts, and railroads.

Patronage Issue

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1880

Stalwarts- For Patronage, Halfbreeds- Against Patronage, Mugwumps- in between

Election of 1880- James Garfield assasination, Chester Arthur

Pendleton Act of 1881- Commission and created a system by which applicants for classified federal jobs would be selected on the basis of their scores on a competitive examination. The law also prohibited civil servants from making political contributions.

Landscape Architecture

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1900

The practice and art of designing outdoor environments , such as designing parks and buildings with cities and roads.

Crop Price Deflation

1870 - 1900

Productivity increased and this hurt farmers more than it did help them. As there was a surplus in cotton and other crops, the price decreased. The price was halved and many lost their land. Farmers began to grow other crops to help end the problem.


Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1877

Southern conservatives who came to power through the fallout of the post-Civil War Reconstruction. They had taken back control of the South by 1877 and supported states' rights, small government, and white supremacy.


1870 - 1879

Giving jobs and government favors to their supporters; the corruption occurred mainly in the Republican party during Reconstruction in the North.

Women's Christian Temperance Movement

1870 - 1879

movement who supported the abolition of alcohol; One of the first organizations of women that implemented Christianity into a social concern of alcoholism; supported the 18th amendment (prohibition of alcohol).

Indian Appropriation Act of 1871


It ended recognition of tribes as independent nations by the federal government and nullified previous treaties made with the tribes.

Corrupt politicians

1875 - Present

Politicians were corrupt. Basically the job description. No.

Munn vs. Illinois


Supreme Court upheld right of a state to regulate business of a public nature.

close elections

1877 - 1900

Presidential and congressional victories were often by very close margins during this time period.

divided electorate

1877 - 1900

Both the Republicans and Democrats avoided taking stands on political issues and nothing ever got done.

identity politics

1877 - 1900

People with similar goals or beliefs began gathering to form political alliances.

laissez-faire economics

1877 - 1900

Economic belief system proposed by Adam Smith that involves little government interference in the economy to allow competition between private businesses

patronage politics

1877 - 1900

Politicians rewarded supporters with jobs.

Bloody Shirt


The reminder by the Republicans that the Southern Democrats who caused the wounds of veterans from the Civil War.

Compromise of 1877


The solution to the election of 1876: Rutherford B. Hayes would become president of the United States if federal support of Republicans in the South ended and Hayes supported a transcontinental railroad in the South.

big-city political machines


A powerful boss that control both business and politics, corrupt

reformers vs racism in South

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1900

reformers aimed to secure black voting rights, but tensions remained after the civil war.

Jeffersonian Tradition


Following Jefferson traits, the democrat president limited government power

Immigrant Vote


Many Immigrants voted causing a the democrats to win the election of 1884

Wabash vs. Illinois


Individual states could not regulate interstate commerce.

Dawes Act


Broke up tribal organizations and divided the tribal lands into plots. US citizenship was granted to those who stayed for 25 years and adopted the habits of civilized life.

Interstate Commerce Commission


Had power to investigate and prosecute pools, rebates, and other discriminatory practices.

"Billion Dollar Congress"

1888 - 1890

Passed McKinley Tariff, increased pensions to veterans, passed Sherman Antitrust Act and Silver Purchase Act

Election of 1888, Harrison


Cleveland (democrat) supported lower tariffs, Harrison(republican) wanted higher tariffs, said lower tariffs would damage business prosperity, got huge support from north. Very close election

McKinley Tariff of 1890


Raised tax on foreign goods.

Rise of the populists

1890 - 1896

agrarian discontent led to the populist party, which attacked laissez-faire capitalism and called for many political and economic reforms

Ocala Demands


Direct senator elections, lower tariff rates, graduated income tax, and new banking system.


1890 - Present

American Nationalist belief that america should have an aggressive foreign policy



Tariffs more then half federal revenue tariff was raised during the civil war to protect us industry.

Farmer's Alliances in South and West

Approx. 1890

Farmers joined groups to advance their interests in politics with things such as loans and federal warehouses

Alliance of whites and blacks in South

Approx. 1890

blacks and whites were sort of brought together by their economic grievances as they joined the People's party

Omaha Platform


Populist political platform: direct popular election of senators, intitiatives + referendums, unlimited silver, graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, loans and federal warehouses for farmers, 8 hour day, gov-owned telegraph + telephone systems

Panic of 1893

1893 - 1897

stock market crashed b/c of overspeculation, railroads went into bankruptcy

Rise of Modern urban-industrial

Approx. 1896

The election of 1896 was a clear victory for big business, urban centers, conservative economics, and moderate, middle-class values.

Fusion of Democrats and Populists

Approx. 1896

Important because it helped the Democratic Party gain popularity among blue collar workers and farmers

Initiative, referendum, and recall


Process that enables citizens to propose amendments and statutes on the voting ballot.

Anti Imperialistic League


Was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as the insular cases.

Guam and Philippines

December 10, 1898

Part of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, it stated the U.S acquisition of Guam in the Pacific and the U.S acquisition of the Philippines in return for payment of spain of 20 million dollars.

Markets and Farmers


America was known for raw materials like coal, iron ore, copper, lead, timber, and oil. Needed many workers so immigrants came into play, so many individuals moved to America for jobs. More technologies to accommodate farming

Eugene V. Debs

Approx. 1900 - Approx. 1920

Socialist party's founder; third party candidate for president in five elections since 1900.

Muncipal Reform

1901 - 1909

Free kindergarten,night schools, and public playgrounds

Voter Participation


regulate voting by direct primaries, and initiative, referendum and recall

National Consumers League


spending of products

Insular Cases

1901 - 1903

One question concerned the constitutional rights of the Philippine people, did the constitution follow the flag? The issue was resolved in favor of the imperialists in a series of Supreme Court cases known as the insular cases. The court ruled that constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions and that power to decide whether or not to grant such rights belonged to Congress.

National Child Labor Commitee


laws that put an end to child labor and promote compulsory school

Municipal Reform

1901 - 1909

public playgrounds, free kindergarten, night schools

Platt Amendment


The congress made withdrawal of troops conditional upon Cuba's acceptance of terms included in an amendment to an army appropriations bill- the platt amendment of 1901. It said for Cuba to never sign a treaty with a foreign power that impaired its independence, to permit the U.S to intervene in Cuba's affairs to preserve its independence and maintain law and order and to allow the U.S to maintain naval bases in Cuba, including one permanent base in Cuba

Square Deal


Roosevelt tried to mediate the labor dispute by calling a union leader and coal mine workers to the White house , he then granted a 10 percent wage increase and a nine hour workday to the miners during the crisis in 1902. which helped him get elected in 1904.

Anthracite coal miners' strike


strike for better working conditions



Roosevelt did make a distinction between breaking up bad trust which harmed and stifled competition and regulating good trusts which through efficiency and low prices dominated the market. This mostly started with the Standard Oil Company.

Pure food and drug act


forbade the manufacture, sale and transportation of adulterated or mislabeled foods and drugs.

National Consumers League


pushed for laws that protected women from working long hours that involved court cases such as Lochner v. New York

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

Approx. 1908 - Approx. 1909

Republicans in congress passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff in 1909, which raised tariff on imports and angered the public.

Mann-Elkins act(1910)

Approx. 1910

The act extended power to the Interstate Commerce Commission(ICC) to regulate telecommunications industry and designated telephone, telegraph companies.

"Bull Moose Party"

Approx. 1912

The new Progressive Party's nickname; came from when Theodore Roosevelt claimed that he was "as strong as a bull moose," who was the candidate for the Progressive Republicans, who were formed out of the Republican party.

Seventeenth Amendment


Direct voting of US Senators.

Socialist Party of America

Approx. 1912

Originally called the Socialist Labor Party in 1897, later renamed in 1901 as Socialist Party of America.
This is a 3rd party that called for more radical reforms than the Progressives favored.

New Freedom

Approx. 1912

Woodrow Wilson's campaign that called for a limit on big business and big government, bring about reform by ending corruption, and revive competition by supporting small businesses.

New Nationalism

Approx. 1912

Theodore Roosevelt's campaign that called for increased government regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, and increased social welfare programs.

Federal Reserve Act


Woodrow Wilson persuaded Congress to pass this law reforming the bank system into 12 different bank districts supervised by a federal reserve board and it also switched US citizens to using paper money for currency.

Underwood Tariff Act


The first substantial lowering of national tariffs in 50 years from its day passed. The law was passed by Woodrow Wilson.

Sixteenth Amendment(1913)

Approx. 1913 - Approx. 1945

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Service of African Americans

1914 - 1918

400,000 African Americans served, segregated units, hoped for equal rights after the war

Federal Trade Commission


Passed by president Wilson the FTC act gave the new regulatory agency the authority to investigate any industry ,besides transportation and banking, and call out "unfair trade practice".

Clayton Antitrust Act


This act passed by President Wilson strengthened the Sherman Antitrust act and organised the unions while excepting them(the unions) from being considered a trust,

State Prohibition laws and State regulation of education and safety


shut down of saloons, bootlegging. rebellion,

Federal Farm Loan Act


President Wilson established 12 regional farm loan banks that provided loans to farmers with low interest rates.

Food Administration


Hoover encouraged Americans to eat less meat and bread to ship more food to French and British troops

Selective Service Act


All men 21-30 (later 18-45). 2.8 million called by lottery, 2 million volunteered

Civil Liberties - WW1


The Espionage and Sedition acts were enforced by the United States government, and they put people who spoke out against the US war policy at risk of being imprisoned. The government felt as if those who endangered the country with words or actions that may limit their impact on the war should not be tolerated, and many citizens took this as a violation to their given right of free-speech. There were also hostile feelings towards Germans during the time period because of the crimes that they commite during war, so a lot of these rules in the espionage and sedition acts applied to them. The Schenck v. United States court case upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage act; free speech could be limited when it presented danger to public safety.
The committee on Public Commerce was also present within the time period and it called on the voluntary service of artists to depict propoganda that idolized the US soldiers in an effort to encourage support for the US in war.

National War Labor Board


Taft won labor increased wages, more 8 hr workdays, and increased union membership

Henry Cabot Lodge

1918 - 1919

The leading Senate Republican

Red Scare

1919 - 1920

Following the communist takeover of Russia, the US suffered a widespread panic that communism would come to America.

Strikes of 1919


60,000 shipyard workers join peaceful strike for higher pay. Troops called out, but no violence. Strikes in Boston Police and US Steel Corporation.



Could not accept U.S. membership in the League.

Palmer Raids

1919 - 1920

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer ordered the arrests of anarchists, socialists, and labor agitators.

Rejection of the treaty


The senate defeated the treaty without reservations. Wilson directed his Senate to reject the compromise and defeated it a second time



A large group led by Senator Lodge accepted the League if certain reservations were added to the covenant

Era of republican leadership,nationalistic, and fundamentalist movement

Approx. 1920

Quota Laws

1921 - 1924

The first of these acts greatly limited immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 census. The second of these passed by Congress ensured the discrimination against Southern and Eastern European Immigrants by setting the quotas of 2 percent based on the Census of 1890.

Teapot dome scandal


Sacco & Vanzetti


Two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs

Herbert Hoover

1928 - 1933

urged businesses not to cut wages, unions not to strike, and private charities to increase their efforts for the needy and jobless.

Federal Farm Board


help farmers stabilize prices by temporarily holding surplus grain and cotton in storage

Rosie the Riveter

1929 - 1944

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in industrial jobs in the shipyards and defense plants during WWII

Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933
  • start of stock market crash
  • "The Great Humanitarian"
  • thought that the depression was just a passing recession (didn't really help the country recover that much)

Hawley-Smoot Tariff


set tax increases ranging from 31% to 49% on foreign imports

Dr. Francis E. Townsend


led to Social Security system

Father Charles E. Coughlin


Catholic priest, attracted large following through weekly radio broadcasts

Debt Moratorium

1930 - 1931

European countries were in such debt that Hoover decided to suspend the payment of debts in order to help relieve the stress of paying off the war debts.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

  • highest tariff rates in history
  • Herbert Hoover's policy
  • ended up reducing trade for all nations and all economies sank further into depression

Bonus March


a thousand unemployed World War 1 veterans marched to Washington D.C., to demand immediate payment of the bonuses promised them at a later date

Twentieth Amendment

1933 - Present

"Lame duck amendment" shortened the period between presidential election and inauguration. Start of each president's term for January 20th

The first 100 Days

Approx. 1933

During this time Congress passed every law that Roosevelt proposed. He began to increase confidence in banks by forcing them to close on march 6 1933 in order to allow them to reconstruct. He also repealed prohibition along with creating many financial recovery acts that all served the purpose of allowing the federal government to intervene with businesses, and trade.

Twentieth Amendment


eliminated the "lame duck" period where presidents would be elected, but the old president would still be in office doing nothing (Hoover --> FDR)

Eleanor Roosevelt

1933 - 1945
  • FDR's wife
  • most active first lady
  • served as the president's social conscience and influenced him to support minorities and the less fortunate

New Deal

1933 - 1945
  • reform (American economic institutions), recovery (business and economy), relief (people out of work)
  • wanted to help people get jobs and recover economically
  • Brain Trust: helped advise him on economic matters

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - 1945
  • New Deal
  • helped bring America out of the Great Depression
  • big government

Roosevelt Admin Start

March 4, 1933 - April 12, 1945

Franklin Delano Roosevelt's (FDR) Inauguration as president began with him essentially pledging that he will do everything in his power to assist the common man and work for the recovery of businesses and American economic institutions. This was labeled his new deal.

indian Reorgnization Act of 1934


Allowed Indians more control over their lands

Huey Long


proposed "Share Our Wealth" program

Court Reorganization Plan


critics called it the "court-packing" bill

House un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)


Originally established to seek out Nazis, was re purposed in postwar years to find Communists. Investigated government officials as well as for Communist influence in organizations like the Boy Scouts and Hollywood industry.

Smith Act


Made it illegal to advocate or teach the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization with this objective.

Casablanca Conference

January 14, 1943

Roosevelt and Churchill, two of the Big Three (United States and Great Britain), met to coordinate their strategies and win the war. This grand strategy included invading Sicily and Italy, and to demand "unconditional surrender" from the Axis powers.

Korematsu v. United States


A 1944 Supreme Court case which upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay financial compensation to each survivor

Smith v. Allwright


The Supreme Court case in 1944 ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries

Election of 1944


In this presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt replaced his vice president with Harry S. Truman, as they ran against Republican Thomas Dewey. Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term, but he died within three months

Harry S. Truman


He became president on April 12, 1945, when President Franklin Roosevelt died suddenly. In August 1945, he ordered an atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima, then on Nagasaki to end the war with Japan. Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945

Loyalty Review Board

1947 - 1951

The Truman administration set up this board to investigate the backgrounds of many federal employees. Many resigned or lost their jobs. This was in an effort to end communism in the USA.

Election of 1948


Truman won

McCarran International Security Act


Made it unlawful to advocate or support the establishment of a totalitarian government, restricted the employment and travel of those joining Communist-front organizations, and authorized the creation of detention camps for subversives.

Black Power

1952 - Approx. 1965

Black Power was a step away from the peaceful attitudes of Martin Luther King Jr. The most influencial representative of this was Malcom X, an African American creator of a new Muslim/African identity who critiqued King for being too subservient to whites.

Rosenberg Case


An FBI investigation led to the discovery of a spy ring run by Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. After a controversial trial, they were found guilty of treason and executed.

Warren Court

1953 - 1969
  • Improved the rights of American citizens and promoted greater equality
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - desegregation 2.Mapp v. Ohio - emphasis on rights of accused 3.Escobedo v. Illinois
  • Gideon v. Wainwright
  • Miranda v. Arizona

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

The president during the Cold War. He was responsible for the Eisenhower Doctrine.

Highway Act (1956)


Built a series of highways connecting the U.S. from coast to coast. They where first used for military purposes during the cold war but then where opened to the public. Passed by Eisenhower

Yates v. United States


-Ruled that the 1st Amendment protected the radical and revolutionary speech

Space Race

1957 - 1975

New Frontier Programs

1960 - 1963

1960s Domestic Issues

1960 - 1969

In the election of 1960, Kennedy defeated Nixon by a little more than 100,000 in one of the closest elections in history. Kennedy and his wife Jacqueline promised to lead the nation to a "New Frontier." Kennedy proposed aid to education, federal aid to health care, urban renewal, and civil rights, but Congress refused. Kennedy stimulated the economy by increasing defense and space exploration spending; he also promised to land on the moon before the 70s. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 and Lyndon B Johnson was sworn in. Earl Warren majorly impacted the nation and the Brown vs. Board of Edu of Topeka initiated the change in race relations going forward.

Mapp v. Ohio


Ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused

Baker v. Carr


"one man, one vote"
election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representation for all citizens

Engel v. Vitale


-Ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the 1st Amendment's provision for separation of church and state

Gideon v. Wainwright


required that state courts provide counsel for indigent defendants

Escobedo v. Illinois


required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent

Griswold v. Connecticut


-ruled that, in recognition of a citizen's privacy, a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults

Miranda v. Arizona


extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police

Roe v Wade


Allowed states to impose restrictions on abortion, and requiring minors to notify parents before abortion.

Gerald Ford

1974 - 1977

Served in congress before presidency, many were skeptical of his abilities

Pardon of Nixon


Ford pardoned Nixon for the Watergate Scanadl

Cold War with Carter

1976 - 1980

Jimmy Carter continued the policy of détente with the USSR and China and began reducing arms until the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and the United States placed an embargo on the USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow

Regents of UC v. Bakke


ruled that racial quotas were unconstitutional


1979 - 1980

Despite efforts to curb inflation, the federal government continued to see inflation rates climb as workers were laid off and the US standard of living began to decline.


Approx. 1980 - Approx. 2000

Christian ministers that did a majority of their teaching on the television

Role of Cities

Approx. 1991

Historian, William Cronon argued that the frontier and cities grew together and supported each other in the beginning.

Bush Policies

2000 - 2008

Bush's policies included tax cuts as well educational and health reform through the No Child Left Behind Act and additions to Medicaire.

Election of 2000


This election was the closest since 1876 and George H. W. Bush won the presidential run as the representative of the Republican Party.

Political Polarization

Approx. 2000

In the 21st century, the nation was closely divided between a conservative South, Great Plains and Liberal northeast. While rural areas supported the Republican ,people living in Urban areas voted for Democrats.

Bush v, Gore

Approx. 2000

Majority ruled that the varying standard used in Florida's recount violated the Equal-Protection Clause of the 14th amendment. Thus made Bush the winner of the election of 2000.

Roberts Court


The supreme court of the United States since 2005 established by John G Roberts and is known to carry out more conservative ideologies.

Obama Presidency

2008 - 2016

In the election of 2008, Barack Obama and Joe Biden defeated John McCain and Sarah Palin for the presidency. The democrats focused on equal pay, job saving, tax cut and health care bills. Obamacare provided affordable aid to an additional 25-30 million Americans. The opposition to Obamacare, growing deficits, and national debt was the Tea Party movement. They focused on limited government and economic issues. In the election of 2012 Obama beat Mitt Romney. Obama's second term focused on Partisan Budget Conflicts, gun violence, and terrorism (Boston Marathon)

Obama's Pivot to Asia

2008 - 2016

Obama wanted to focus on Asian countries because they understood that the future of the global economy would be tied to them. This was difficult because of terrorism and Congressional gridlock.

Obama Policy in Iraq

2009 - 2011

Obama reduced the number of troops in Iraq and by 2011 all US troops had pulled out. After the US left, insurgent groups continued to terrorize the government.

Obama Policy in Afghanistan

2009 - Present

Obama fought the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, increasing the number of troops and drones.

Arab Spring

2011 - Present

Wave of protests across Middle East and North Africa, leaders in Libya, Syria, and Egypt overthrown. Obama sympathy for pro-democracy upset some US allies in Persian Gulf states. Obama was also criticized for not intervening in some failed states e.g. Libya.

Death of Osama Bin Laden

May 2, 2011

Navy SEAL operation

Obama FP - Sanctioning Russia for Invading Crimea


Normalization of Relations with Cuba


Iran Nuclear Accords


WOR - America in the World

Royal Colonies

1600 - 1700

administered by a royal governor and council appointed by the British crown, and having a representative assembly elected by the people.


Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1775

Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies received manufactured goods in return.

Joint Stock Companies

Approx. 1607 - Approx. 1754

is a business entity in which different stocks can be bought and owned by shareholders

Proprietary Colony

1629 - 1729

A proprietary colony was a type of British colony mostly in North America and the Caribbean in the 17th century. In the British Empire, all land belonged to the ruler, and it was his prerogative to divide.

Navigation Acts

1651 - 1673

Passed under the mercantilist system, the Navigation Acts (1651-1673) regulated trade in order to benefit the British economy. The acts restricted trade between England and its colonies to English or colonial ships, required certain colonial goods to pass through England before export, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned colonial competition in large-scale manufacturing.

Dominion of New England

1686 - 1689

The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

Bloodless overthrow of King James II. established William and Mary as the new leaders.. Ended most of what Britain had put in place to control the colonies

Sugar Act


To help pay for the french and Indian war, England decides to put a duty on imports of sugar and other luxury items to the colonies which angers the colonists.

Quartering Act


English government creates a law declaring that every colonist must be able to provide free housing and food for British soldiers that are occupying the colonies

Stamp Act


England puts a duty on all paper goods in the colonies that involves them like stamping all pieces of paper products, that the colonists have to pay extra for. Really infuriates the colonists.

Townshend Acts


New duties on tea, glass, and paper. Also provides the ability to search homes for smuggled goods with just a writ of assistance,

Treaty of Paris(1783)

September 3, 1783

It ended the American War for independence.

Proclamation of Neutrality


Proclamation of US neutrality in European conflict by Washington.

Creation of Cotton Gin


The Creation of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney led to the massive increase in productivity and profitability of the Cotton industry, and had the inverse effect of increasing the need of slaves in the south.

Jay Treaty


Treaty after the Whiskey rebellion that gave the federal government control of vast tracts of land.

PInckney Treaty


Treaty between America and Spain that Florida's northern boundary should be at the 31st parallel.

Barbary Pirates

1801 - 1805

Jefferson first foreign affair. Pirates defeat gave US navy respect gain access to protected trade routes in Mediterranean.

Louisiana purchase


More than doubles size of US. Helps fund Napoleon's french war. Jefferson receives a lot of trouble as buying land wasn't written in constitution Jefferson was a strict constructionist.

Macon's Bill No.2


Macon's Bill No.2 is a bill that was proposed by congress member Nathaniel Macon to restore US trade with Britain and France. However, it provided that if Britain or France formally agreed to respect US neutral rights at sea, then the US would prohibit trade with that nation's foe.

War or 1812

1812 - 1815

The War of 1812 was a military conflict that lasted from June 1812 to February 1815, fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.

Stephen Decatur

1812 - 1815

During Madison's presidency, when problems with the Barbary pirates, again developed, a fleet under Stephen Decatur was sent in 1815 to force the rulers of North Africa to allow American shipping the free use of the Mediterranean.

Andrew Jackson


Famous war general during the War of 1812. President of the United States 1829-1837.

Treaty of Ghent


The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Both sides signed it on December 24, 1814, in the city of Ghent, Belgium.

Monroe Doctrine


The restoration of a number of monarchies in Europe had produced a backlash against republican movements. The restored monarchies worked together to suppress liberal elements and in addition to Spain, Russian presence in Alaska had brought the United States and Britain together as they shared a common interest in protecting themselves against possible aggression from European powers.

Rush- Bagot Agreement


The Rush- Bagot Agreement strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes, which was extended to place limits on border fortifications.

Florida Purchase Treaty


Spain turned over all of its possessions in Florida and its own claims in the Oregon Territory to the United States in exchange for the United States agreement to to assume $5 million in claims against Spain.

Monroe Doctrine


The monroe doctrine was an isolationist policy that stated the U.S wouldnt mess with Europe and Europe wouldnt mess with us

Asylum Movement


Humanitarian reformers that were concerned with the conditions of criminals. Petitioned for state-supported prisons, mental hospitals, and other new public institutions.

Dorothea Dix


Launched a cross-country campaign to expose the treatment of ill persons incarcerated.

Horace Mann


Leading advocate for the Public School Movement, also worked towards compulsory attendance for all students, a longer school year, and increased teacher preparation.

John C Fremont


He overthrew the Mexican Army in California and declared California an independent republic

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo


Mexico recognized the Rio Grande as the border and the united states took possession of California and New Mexico

Mexican Cession


The US Seceded California and New Mexico from the Mexican government

Clayton Bulwer Treaty


Said that neither the US or Great Britain could attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal in central america

Gadsden Purchase


Expanded US territory by acquiring the present day southern lands of Arizona and New Mexico

Henry Hobson Richardson

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1900

American architecture, changed american architecture greatly. Focused on massive stone walls and arches, different than almost everybody at the time.

William Seward

1861 - 1869
  • Influential secretary of state
  • Used Monroe Doctrine to force French out of Mexico
  • Purchase of Alaska ("Seward's Folly"/"Seward's Icebox")

Trent Affair

September, 1861

James Mason and John Slidell on a mission to gain recognition for their government upon a British steamer called the Trent. Union warship stopped the Trent and took Slidell and Mason as prisoners of war. Britain threatened war, Lincoln released them, and failed to obtain full recognition of the Confederacy from Britain or France.

French in Mexico


Napoleon lll sent troops to mexico during the civil war and when it ended seward williams threatened us action if he didnt take back the troops

purchase of alaska


Seeward bought alaska from russia

william seward


lobbied for the purchase of Alaska from Russia to support them. this purchase of Alaska to the united states is known known as "seward's folly" and " sewards icebox" due to the lack of support for this purchase as it was seen as a waste of money.

Alaska purchase

March 30, 1867 - Present

United sates bought Alaska due to Sewards lobbying and bought Alaska from Russia to support them trough civil war for the low price of 7.2 million

Cuban Revolt

1868 - 1895

Cuban Nationalists attempted to overthrow Spanish Government by sabotage. Spain sends troops who killed 10s of 1000s of civilians through starvation and disease.

Pan-American conference


tried to create closer ties with the other countries in north america

Yellow Journalism

1890 - Present

Exaggerated description of events leading to promotion of war

Spheres of influence

Approx. 1890 - Approx. 1930

Russia, Japan, Great Britain, France, and Germany established spheres of influence in china, meaning they could dominate trade and investment in their "sphere", or a particular region of china, and shut out all competitors.

Cleveland blocks annexation


Pres Cleveland oppose imperialism and block Republican efforts annex Hawaii

Valerino Wyler

Approx. 1895

General in charge of ending cuban revolt. Earned the nickname "butcher" in american press for forcing civilians into armed camps where they late died of disease and starvation.

Venezuela boundary dispute

1895 - 1896
  • use of Monroe Doctrine in Venezuela relations w/ British colony Guiana
  • marked turning point in US-British relations: discontinue former rivalry


  • Cleveland oppose efforts annex Hawaii
  • outbreak of war in Philippines gave Congress and Pres McKinley pretext complete annexation

De Lôme Letter

February 9, 1898

Letter that was leaked to American press that revealed a Spanish minister who was highly critical of President McKinley. Many Americans viewed the letter as a attack on U.S National Honor.

Open Door Policy

1899 - Approx. 1930

All nations would have equal trading priveleges in china. proposed by john hay.

Hays Second Round of Notes

1900 - Approx. 1915

Hay wrote a second note to imperialistic powers stating us commitment to preserving chinas territorial integrity and safeguard partial trade with the chinese empire.

Boxer Rebellion

1900 - Approx. January 3, 1900

chinese nationalists angry about the open door policy attacked foreign settlements and christian missionaries in china.

big-stick policy

1901 - 1909

President Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy; "speak softly and carry a big stick"

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty


signed by new government of an independent Panama granting the U.S. all rights over the canal zone for the Panama canal

Roosevelt Corollary


U.S. would intervene in Latin America whenever necessary

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

imperialist rivalry between Russia and Japan. Theodore Roosevelt ended the conflict by arranging a diplomatic conference

Treaty of Portsmouth


agreed by Japan and Russia to end the Russo Japanese war

Taft Dollar Diplomacy

1909 - 1913

President Taft adopted a foreign policy that promoted U.S. trade by supporting American enterprises abroad. He believed American financial investment would establish greater stability.

intervention in nicaragua

1911 - 1933

The U.S. intervened in Nicaragua's financial affairs and sent marines when a civil war broke out.

lodge corollary


Stated that non european powers would be excluded from owning territory in the western hemisphere

Panama Canal


A canal through Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. President Theodore Roosevelt orchestrated a revolt for Panama's independence from Columbia, who was refusing to allow the U.S. to dig a canal through its territory.

Causes of WW1

June 28, 1914 - November 11,1918

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by Serbian nationalists led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, as an immediate response Russia aligned with Serbia, along with other countries taking sides, because of mutual relationships. The US entered war after numerous merchant ships were sunk by German forces,as well as the Zimmerman Telegraph in which Germany to Mexico to retake territories lost in the Mexican-American War.

Latin America Policy


Mandated Government ownership of all that nation's minerals and oil resources

Five-Power Naval Treaty

1920 - 1929

Nations with five largest navies agreed to maintain a ratio with respect to their largest warships, or battleships and the United States also agreed not to fortify their possessions in the Pacific, while no limit was placed on the Japanese


1920 - 1929

Promote peace and also scale back expenditures on defense by arranging treaties of disarmament.

Nine-Power China Treaty

1920 - 1929

All nine nations represented at the conference agreed to respect the Open Door policy by guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China

Washington Conference


Initiated talks on naval disarmament hoping to stabilize the size of the U.S. Navy relative to other powers and to resolve conflicts in the Pacific. Resulted in Five-Power Treaty, Four-Power Treaty and Nine-Power Treaty

Dawes Plan


Established a cycle of payments flowing from the United States to Germany and from Germany to the Allies

Charles Lindbergh

May 20, 1927 - Approx. May 21, 1927 09:00am

Flew "Spirit of St. Lewis" across the Atlantic Ocean to Le Bourguet Field near Paris.

Kellogg-Briand Pact


Renounced the aggressive use of force yo achieve national ends--proved ineffective because it permitted defensive wars and failed to provide for taking action against violators of the agreement

Militarist/Fascist Aggression

Approx. 1929 - Approx. 1945

The German Nazi Party comes into power with Adolf Hitler in command and creates the axis powers (Nazi Germany, Italy, Japan).


Approx. 1929 - Approx. 1940

"A policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries."

Good Neighbor Policy

1933 - 1938

Pan-American Conference


Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act


Neutrality Acts

Approx. 1935 - Approx. 1939

"The Neutrality Acts were laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in future wars."

Selective Training and Service Act (1940)


Was an act that increased the people going into the military by means of a draft, it boosted the common defense of America and provided for it's training.

FDR, Third Term

Jul 18th, 1940 - 1944

FDR broke the traditional two term system left by George Washington, and was elected into a third term, and eventually elected into a fourth term, but was cut short due to his death.

America First Committee

September 4, 1940 - December 10, 1941

Created as an attempt to mobilize American public opinion against war.

Lend-Lease Act (1941)


Act allowed the U.S military to aid foreign countries during WWII. It allowed for the transfer of arms and defensive equipment to other countries in need, that in turn helped support America's safety. It allowed US to provide support for the war, without actually overextending into battle.

Atlantic Charter

August 14, 1941

The carter established the goals and purpose of war for U.S and the United Kingdom. It stated that no territorial gains were to be made during war.

Pearl Harbor

December 7th, 1941

Pearl Harbor was a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor during WWII. The significance of Pearl Harbor was that it gave the US a reason to enter the war, and in turn change the fate of the world by defeating Japan and Germany.

Teheran Conference

November 1943

The Big Three, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all met to plan their attack on Nazi Germany

Yalta Conference

February 1945

The Big Three, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all met again. They agreed on several things. Germany would be divided into occupation zones, free election in liberated countries of Eastern Europe, Soviets would enter the war on Japan, and a new world peach organization, the UN, will be formed later.

Potsdam Conference

July 1945

Truman, Clement Attleem, and Stalin met to demand Japan surrenders unconditionally, and to hold war-crime trials of Nazi leaders

Origins of the Cold War Start @ communist satellites

1946 - 1948

The distrust in the nations started to become hostile. Apologists for the Soviets argued that Russia needed buffer states or satellites as a protection against another Hitler-like invasion from the west.

Cold War in Asia

1946 - 1953

-US-Japanese security treaty caused japan to give up Korea and other islands for the protection from US
-Philippines and indeendent republic had important naval and air bases during the cold war


1947 - 1962

The collapse of colonial empires after World War 2

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947 - January 20, 1953

Doctrine to give economic aid to help countries resist communism.

Marshall Plan

June 1947

Plan by the US to rebuild Western Europe to resist communist influence.

State of Israel

Approx. 1948

Arab nationalism


North Atlantic Treaty Organization

1949 - Present

Military alliance to defend against the Soviet Union.

Domino Theory

1950 - 1980

The domino theory was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s, that speculated that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.

Iranian overthrow


The CIA helped overthrow a government in Iran that had tried to nationalize the holding of foreign oil companies

Geneva Conference


The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina

South East Asia Treaty Organization


The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines

Vietnam War

1955 - 1969

Fall of Diem
-Ngo Dinh Diem assassinated following overthrow of government by South Vietnamese military
-United States became more involved in Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
-granted President Lyndon B. Johnson authority to intervene in any SE Asian country threatened by communism
General Westmoreland
-commanded U.S. forces in Vietnam War
-perceived as corrupt and people questioned his interests
Tet Offensive
-series of major attacks by communists launched of Vietnamese New Year
Hawks and Doves
-hawks: people who supported war's goal
-doves: people who were opposed to the war


1956 - 1960

If the United States pushed Communist powers to the brink of war, they would back down because of American nuclear superiority. This hard line was known as "brinkmanship"

Suez Canal Crisis

1956 - 1957

Crisis that involved Egypt, Britain and France over control of the suez canal that led to a suprise attack on Egypt by the EU nations excluding the United States

Eisenhower Doctrine


Stated the United States would provide military aid to countries that are threatened by communism



Nixon Doctrine


Future Asian allies would receive US support with no extensive use of US ground forces.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)

Approx. 1970 - 1979

Step towards ending Cold War, freezing the number of ballistic missiles carrying nuclear warheads from the Soviet Union.

Kent State Shooting


Killing of 4 youths by National Guard Troops at Kent State in Ohio because of Vietnam protests.


Approx. 1970 - 1979

Deliberate reduction of cold war tensions.

Antiballistic Missiles

Approx. 1970 - 1979

US secured the Soviet Union to a freeze on the missiles carrying nuclear warheads (SALT treaties).

Pentagon Papers


Secret government history documenting mistakes of government policy makers dealing with Vietnam.



Gradually withdraw US troops from Vietnam and give South Vietnam resources to fight.

Henry Kissinger


Nixon had Kissinger conduct secret meetings with North Vietnam, but could not reach a deal and Nixon ordered bombing of North Korea.

China Visit


Nixon visited Chinese leaders to improve relations with Red China (Mao Zedong's Communist regime). His exchanges led to US recognition of the communist government in 1979.

OPEC; Oil Embargo


US supported Israel during Syrian and Egyptian attack, so OPEC placed an embargo on oil sold to Israel's supporters. This caused a worldwide oil shortage and long lines at US gas stations.

Genocide in Cambodia


Cambodia fell to Communist faction which killed its own people

Fall of Saigon


Saigon fell to Communist Vietnam

Human Rights Diplomacy

1976 - 1980

Jimmy Carter tried to help with human rights' crises around the world such as apartheid in South Africa and Rhodesia and cutting off aid to military governments in Argentina and Chile.

Panama Canal treaty

1978 - Approx. 2000

The Senate, under Jimmy Carter, ratified a treaty that would begin transferring control of the Panama Canal to Panama—the process would end in 2000.

Camp David Accords


Jimmy Carter was an intermediary during peace talks between Egypt and Israel at Camp David in Maryland.

Iranian Hostage Crisis

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981

Iranian militants seized the US embassy in Teheran and held more than 50 American staffers until the end of Carter's presidency.

Reagan Foreign Policy

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989

Reagan's approach was to completely exterminate communism by any means neccessary which included a large military buildup of the 'Strategic Defense Initiative." as well as supported right wing dictators to keep out communism. This mindset eventually led to the Iran-Contra affair supplying iran's government to release American's held hostage.

End of Cold War


After Gorbachev and Reagan ended the Cold War, the Soviet Union was dissolved and separated into many different countries letting America become the strongest nation. America also became more involved around the globe due to globalization and civil wars.

Humanitarian Missions


Foreign Policy during the Clinton Administration which involved peace keeping. In order to prevent wars such as civil wars in European nations from sprouting, U.S. soldiers were deployed to act as safety measures.

Balkan Wars

1995 - 1999

Brutal conflicts in Europe which involved the killing of many Muslims. It was the worst conflict in Europe after World War II.

Nuclear Proliferation


Many Asian countries such as North Korea and China got their hands on nuclear reactors and missile programs in the 1990s. This became a growing concern for the U.S.

Bush Policies

2000 - 2008

Bush's foreign policies included working on the expansion of the EU and NATo as well as interactions with the Middle East after 9/11 in counterterrorism through Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Iraq War.


Approx. 2000 - Approx. Present

Terrorist group responsible for the 9/11 attacks

Homeland Security Department

Approx. 2001

Department of the government created by George W. Bush to protect the country from terrorism after 9/11.

September 11, 2001

September 11, 2001

day when terrorists flew planes into the twin towers, and Pentagon and crashed the third plane

Bush Doctrine

Approx. 2002

President Bush's plan for foreign policy as a response to protecting the country against terrorism

Saddam Hussein


Iraqi dictator responsible for the invasion of Kuwait and then US intervention in Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom

Approx. 2003

US intervention in Iraq to restore a proper government and overthrow Saddam Hussein

asymmetric warfare

Approx. 2003

warfare between two different nations of vastly different military strengths

Osama bin Laden

Approx. 2003

Leader of the terrorist group al-qaeda

Abu Gharib prison


US troops and CIA committed human rights violations on Iraqi prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison (tortured them)

WXT - Work, Exchange & Technology

Triangular Trade

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1750

The exportation of manufactured goods from Europe to the Americas in return for Tobacco, indigo, furs, fish, rice, meat and the exportation of rum from the Americas to Africa in return for Gold and Slaves (The Middle Passage)

The Colombian Exchange

1450 - 1750

Trade connecting the "old world' to the 'new world".

Middle Passage

1500 - 1509

Part of the Triangle Trade
Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco.

Middle Passage

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1850

Slaves were captured and brought to the US in overcrowded slave ships, had to experience disease, starvation, and high mortality rates

Spanish Encomienda System

1512 - 1720

Spanish colonies used native labor for agriculture and to extract resources.

Headright System

Approx. 1600 - 1609

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Indentured Servants

Approx. 1600 - 1609

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

Triangular Trade

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1800

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.


Approx. 1619 - Approx. 1865

The actual ownership of a human. Indian slaves became a major export in Carolina and over time more and more African slaves arrived in the colonies to work on the plantations.

George III

1754 - 1774

king of England. Responsible for forcing the United States to bear the cost of maintaining the British Empire. Added many more taxes on the American people such as the sugar act, quartering act, stamp act, and declaratory act. He was a primary reason the colonies wanted independence.



Enforced taxes and unfair laws on the colonies. This was the governing power of England. The colonial people were mostly upset because they did not have any representation in Parliament.

Proclamation of 1763


This was created by the British government in order to prevent hostilities in the Western frontier. It stated that the American people couldn't colonize past the Appalachian mountains, and this angered americans who wanted to expand after winning the 7 years war. The Americans expanded westward anyways.


1786 - 1787

Annapolis Convention:
-called by Alexander Hamilton
-discussed lowering of taxes and tariffs to increase trade between states

Slave Trade

1787 - 1800

Three fifths compromise:
-counted each slave as 3/5 for population
-no slaves imported for 20 years, Congress could vote to abolish slave trade

National Bank

1791 - 1811

proposed by Alexander Hamilton:
-strong/stable national currency
-Jefferson opposed b/c he believed it was unconstitutional

King Cotton

1793 - 1861

Expression used by southerners before the Civil War. As agriculture was the foundation of the South's economy, the South's chief economic activity: the production and sale of cotton. Eli Whitney's cotton gin made cotton cloth affordable throughout the world. South was like a cotton empire.

Slave Codes

Approx. 1800 - 1809

In the Deep South, slaves made up around 75% of the population. Fearing slave revolts, southern legislators increased the severity of their "slave codes" that restricted African American movement and education.


Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1916

Construction of mills, manufactures, and factories began to take place and new innovative technologies to increase productivity sprung up all across the nation or brought over from England.

Eli Whitney-interchangeable parts

1812 - 1816

created the first interchangeable parts during the war of 1812 for guns and riffles. this improved the factory system tremendously

Market Revolution

Approx. 1815 - Approx. 1840

The market revolution was noted as the significant rise of the capitalist system in America, and marked the shift into competitive big business over small business and collective use of resources in mass.

Henry Clay's American System

1816 - 1820

1) protective tarrifs
2) national bank
3) internal improvement

Tariff of 1816


first protective tariff for US manufactures

Panic of 1819

1819 - 1820

banks closed, strong opposition to debtors prison and federal bank

Slave Codes


State laws that were established to determine the status of slaves and the rights of their owners. The codes placed harsh restrictions on the slaves' already limited freedoms (often in order to preempt rebellion or escape) and gave slave owners absolute power over their slaves.


1820 - 1850

Rapid expansion in railroad from the Northeast and Midwest eventually connecting to the west. Gives the North an advantage in the civil war.

"Peculiar Institution"

1820 - 1860

Whites who were sensitive about how they treated other humans referred to slavery as "that peculiar institution" as slaves were treated as property. In the colonial times, slavery was justified as an economic necessity and was later justified using historical and religious arguments.

Lowell System Implementation

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1845

System in Which mostly textile industries would use cheap domestic labor of Women and Children from local urban centers to work in their factories. It eventually proved to be unprofitable and unethical.

Nicholas Biddle


President of the Bank of the United States

Roger Taney

1832 - 1836

Secretary of Treasury

Bank of the United states


Rechartering the bank

"pet banks"


various state banks referred to as
'pet banks" by Jackson's critics

Species Circular


Presidential order to control inflation rates

Panic of 1837


A financial crisis where the nation's economy plunged into depression.

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

President during the economic depression (1837)

Industrial Technology

1840 - 1849

Industrialization spread rapidly. significant inventions include the sewing machine by Elias Howe and the electric telegraph invented by Samuel F. B. Morse


1840 - 1849

Long hours, unsafe work conditions, and low wages contributed to the formation of unions. Unions were intended to help bring improvements to the workplace by grouping workers together and protesting unfair conditions.

Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1840 - 1849

The increase in Northern factories caused a shift from farmers and artisans to factory workers dependent on wages. Was largely the reason the North economically won the war,and why Unions would begin to form.

Commonwealth vs. Hunt


The Supreme Court ruled that peaceful unions had the right to negotiate labor contracts with employers.

Samuel Morse


Samuel Morse creates the telegraph which speeds up transportation and communication

Changes in the nature of cities

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1950

Mass transportation such as trains and trolleys allowed the rich to move to streetcar suburbs, leaving older sections of the city to to the working poor, many of whom were immigrants.

Bessemer Process

Approx. 1850 - Present

process where blast air through molten iron to produce high-quality steel

Eli Whitney

1850 - 1859

Invented Cotton Gin that made cotton more affordable and caused a massive increase in slavery in the United States.

Eugene Debs

1855 - 1926

Labor organizer and socialist leader Eugene V. Debs began his rise to prominence in Indiana’s Terre Haute lodge of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen. Debs organized the American Railway Union, which waged a strike against the Pullman Company of Chicago in 1894.

Panic of 1857


Prices for farmers dropped sharply and unemployment in the North increased.

mining frontier / boomtowns

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1880

increased revenue and immigration

Morrill Tariff Act


Raised tariffs to increase revenue & protect American manufacturers


1861 - 1865

US Treasury issued paper currency called Greenbacks

Morrill Land Grant Act


Encouraged states to sell federal land grants to help maintain agricultural & technical colleges

Pacific Railway Act


Allowed for the construction of a transcontinental railroad over a northern route to link California with western and eastern states

Mail-Order Companies

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

Utilized railroad system to transport goods
Ex) Sears


Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

-method used by companies to promote consumer products
-promoted consumer economy and culture alongside new marketing techniques

White-collar Workers

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1890

Workers who work in administrative roles. Non-manual laborers needed for growing American businesses.

Women and Children Factory Workers

1865 - 1900

One in five women worked for wages in Industrial America, though there was still a stigma against married women working. Because wages were kept relatively stagnant, families had to pool money from women and children to get by.

Nation's first big business

1865 - 1890

Railroads, Steel, Oil

Transcontinental Railroad

1865 - 1900

First Transcontinental railroad. Helped settle west

Second Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1914

introduced electric powered technologies, petroleum energy, and industrial laboratories

Large Department Store

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

A result from increased output of US factories.
Where consumer goods were sold.

Refrigeration; canning

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

changed eating habits of Americans with massed-produced meat and vegetable products

Consumer Economy

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

Economy with focus on the exchange of consumer goods (which are manufactured by factories)

Foreign Railway Workers

Approx. 1865 - 1890

Irish, Chinese, and many veterans worked on railroads and provided an abundant source of labor.

Expanding Middle Class

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

New white-collar workers and forms of business saw the rise of a middle class who could afford commodities with their surplus income.

Transatlantic Cable

1866 - Present

made possible to send messages across the seas in minutes

William (Boss) Tweed


Tweed was New York City's local Democratic party boss; through multiple schemes, Tweed and his men stole about $200 million from taxpayers until his arrest.

Credit Mobilier Scandal


Insiders gave stock to Congressmen to avoid investigations into their profits from government subsidies.

Menlo Park research laboratory

1876 - Approx. 1885

world's first modern research laboratory, introduced concept of mechanics and engineers working on project as a team rather than individuals

Railroad Strike of 1877


The strike began on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and spread across 11 states and shut down 2/3rds of the country's railroad trackage. Hayes used federal troops to end the strike

Electric power

Approx. 1879 - Present

possible lighting of cities and operation of electrically powered machinery and appliances


Approx. 1880 - Approx. Present

Worker's unions sprung up in industrial America to protect American Workers from unfair business practices, and regulate or demand good. working conditions

Chinese Exclusion Act

Approx. 1882

as a result of increased immigration bc of gold rush

Haymarket Bombing

May 4, 1886

The Knights of Labor were having a public meeting in Haymarket Square and were confronted by police and at some point, a person threw a bomb into the crowd and killed 7 cops

Speculation and overbuilding

1890 - 1899

Caused the panic of 1893

Sherman Anti-Trust Act


Prohibited any contract and combination, in the form of trusts, in restraint of trade or commerce.

Panic of 1893


Forced a quarter of all railroads into bankruptcy

Pullman Strike


Lead by Eugene Webbs lead the American Railroad union to strike against Pullman Railroad Pullman Strike ended by the collaborative effort made by railroad owners to pull Pullman's cars as well as federal action by President Cleveland which lead to imprisonment of non-compliers

United States v. E.C. Knight Co


Ruled that Sherman Antitrust Act only applies to commerce, not manufacturing

Electric Appliances

1910 - 1940

Automobiles, assembly line, Henry Ford

Gaining Support for Suffrage

Approx. 1914 - Approx. 1920

Because of their work and volunteer efforts during WW1 women gained increasing support for the19th amendment from Presidents such as Woodrow Wilson.

Men returning from war were not as agreeable to the suffrage movement as they felt that women, African Americans, and immigrants had taken their jobs.

More Jobs for Women

Approx. 1914 - Approx. 1920

Because men were drafted into the military, job positions in factories were available to women who were eager to fill the role. This allowed women to enter into male dominated industries and their role in manufacturing during the war would earn them the 19th amendment in the later years.

Postwar Europe

1919 - 1940

Europe had never recovered from WWI, not helped by U.S.

Business Prosperity

1919 - 1929

Increased productivity, increased oil and electricity usage, federal government minimal contribution

Consumer Economy

1919 - 1929

Increased consumer rates because higher manufacturing output

Standard of Living


Standard of living increased. More income because more jobs due to manufacturing

Uneven Income Distribution

1924 - 1942

Stock Market Crash

1928 - 1929


1929 - 1939

To solve the problem of unemployment during the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt created a number of job-related programs as part of his New Deal,

poverty and homeless

1929 - 1933

. Mass unemployment, debt and homelessness all were featured in Great Depression Poverty.

Henry Ford


Mass produced automobiles on the assembly lines

gross national product

1929 - 1939

The overall size of the American economy, measured by gross domestic product, sharply declined following the crash on Wall Street

bank failure

1930 - 1933

A bank run is the sudden withdrawal of deposits of just one bank. A banking panic or bank panic is a financial crisis that occurs when many banks suffer runs at the same time, as a cascading failure.

Rise of Unions

Approx. 1933 - Approx. 1941

Two New Deal measures--the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner Act of 1935--both increased the amount of Union membership. Labor unions became legal, and membership shot from 3 million to over 10 million from the early 1930s to 1941.

great depression dust bowl


Farmers who had lost their land and homes to foreclosure as a result of the Dust Bowl made up a large part of the idle workforce. “Hoovervilles” (named after Herbert Hoover, the American president many blamed for the Great Depression) and shantytowns sprung up all across America, areas in which people gathered and constructed makeshift homes out of boxes, packing crates, abandoned cars, and scraps of wood.

National Labor Relations Act


Guaranteed a worker's right to join a union and a union's right to bargain collectively. A new agency, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) was empowered to enforce the law and make sure that the worker's rights were protected.

Formation of the Congress of Industrial Organization

1935 - 1936

As many different unions made up the American Federation of Labor, many unions wanted member ship to be extended regardless of race and sex. In 1935, the industrial unions joined together as the Committee of Industrial Organizations, with Leader John L. Lewis, the president of the United Mine Workers union. In 1936, the A.F. of L. suspended the C.I.O. unions. Renamed the Congress of Industrial Organizations, the C.I.O. broke away from the A.F. of L. and became its chief rival.



Automobiles: At General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan, workers participated in a sit-down strike. The company yielded to the striker demands by recognizing the United Auto Workers union (U.A.W.).

Steel: On Memorial Day, a demonstration by union picketers at Republic Steel in Chicago ended in four deaths, as the police fired into the crowd. However, eventually almost all the smaller steel companies agreed to deal with the C.I.O. by 1941.

Fair Labor Standards Act


Established several regulations on business and commerce:
1. Minimum wage, initially fixed at 40 cents an hour
2. Maximum standard workweek of 40 hours, with extra pay for overtime
3. Child-Labor restrictions on hiring people under 16 years old

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1945

Development of the first Atomic bomb, lead by J. Robert Oppenheimer. Resulted in the destructive weapon that was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

GI Bill


Veterans coming home from WWll could find education and work

Atomic Weaponry


Arms race toward weapons of mass destruction

  • Atom Bomb
  • Hydrogen Bomb

defense budget rose as a result of the emphasis in the arms race.

Post-War Inflation Scare


inflation rose 25% during first 1 1/2 years of peace. Resulted in strikes and anger over wage control.

Taft-Hartley Act

  • outlawed "closed shop" establishments.
  • "right to work" laws
  • outlaw secondary boycotts
  • 80-day cooling period before a strike endangered national safety.

Was a huge hit toward the power of Unions at the time.

New South

1965 - 1990


1981 - 1989

Similar to trickle down economics as they believed that helping the wealthy would in turn help every one

Federal Tax Reduction


Cuts in corporate income tax, capital gains tax, and gift and inheritance taxes



Due to Reaganomics, banks failed and unemployment reached 11%, though slowed inflation and later rebounded and started recovery

Trade Deficit


Due to the high amounts of military spending, the U.S tripled national debt, and for the first time became a debtor nation

election of 1992


-President George H.W. Bush ran for a second term
-Democrats nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas
-Businessman H. Ross Perot ran as an independent third party candidate
-The key issue was the economy plagued by high unemployment and the large deficit

"don't ask, don't tell"

1994 - 2011

allowed LGBTQ people into military service by allowing them to keep quiet about their identities



North American Free Trade Agreement; opened up trade between Canada, America, and Mexico

Oklahoma City Bombing


Truck-bomb sent by an anti-government that killed 168 people in federal office building

election of 1996


-President Clinton was nominated for a second term; Republicans chose Senator Rober Dole of Kansas
-H. Ross Perot ran as the Reform Party candidate, but was not a factor
-Clinton offered no major programs, while Dole called for a large tax cut
-Clinton was easily reelected, but Republicans kept control of Congress

clinton impeachment


In December of 1998, the full House approved two counts of impeachment: lying to the grand jury and obstructing justice. The issue then went to the Senate, where a trial was held for the presidents. The president was acquitted.

Liquidity Crisis

2007 - 2009

banks either lacked funds or were afraid to make the loans to businesses and consumers necessary for the day-to-day functioning of the economy.

Troubled Assests Relief Program (TARP)


$700 billion program that purchased failing assets that included mortgages and mortgage related securities from financial institutions.

GEO - Geography & Environment

Woodland mound builders


900 -1450 AD

John Cabot


Cabot was an Italian sea captain who sailed under contract of English King Henry VII. He explored the coast of Newfoundland.

Jacques Carter

1534 - 1542

Established French claims based on his exploration of the St. Lawrence River territory.





The first permanent settlement in the New World

Samuel de Champlain


Established the first permanent settlement in America at Quebec. Near the St. Lawrence River, and he earned the nickname of "Father of France."

Henry Hudson


Hired by the Dutch. Sailed through Hudson river while searching for a westward passage to Asia through north America. Established area of New Amsterdam.


1620 - 1691

Started by English Protestants who had dissented from the Church of England

The Land


Primarily subsistence farming in New England and Southern Colonies, large farms in Middle Colonies, some plantations in Southern Colonies


Approx. 1800

Over crowding and over population caused an extinction of resources.

Synthesis: Lewis and Clark

Approx. 1803

Lewis and Clark expeditions were sparked after the Louisianan purchase in 1803 these expeditions led to a vast increase in scientific knowledge and understanding of Eco systems. Similar to this, The cold war space race between the united states and Russia. Both nations rushed to develop superior aircraft that could explore space with the race to land on the moon. Although cold war brought alternative motives with the idea of launching nuclear missiles from space became a reason for space exploration. Both of these are examples of the state funding scientific exploration of new frontiers for the betterment of society.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

1804 - 1806

After the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson and Congress sent Lewis and Clark to explore the newly gained territory. They went all the way to the Pacific Coast and mapped out the regions. The maps would help future fur trappers and settlers.

Environmental Damage

Approx. 1820

Crowded housing, poor sanitation, infectious diseases, and high rates of crime were factors to the environmental damage.

Environmental Damage

Approx. 1820

Crowded housing, poor sanitation, infectious diseases, and high rates of crime were factors to the environmental damage.

Maine boundary dispute

1840 - 1842

The battle of the maps split territory between Canada and Maine

Annexation of Texas


The greatest state america had ever known was finally annexed into the united states

Treaty of Guadaulpe Hidalgo


The US gained California and New Mexico after easily defeating Mexico in a short war

Mining frontier and boomtowns

1848 - Approx. 1890

-discovery of gold and other precious metals attracted immigrants within and outside the US
-short term economic prosperity in the region (boomtowns)

-California, Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Arizona, and South Dakota

Cattle Frontier

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1880

-Regions like Texas and Kansas
-vaqueros: Mexican cowboysi
-facilitated by railroad construction
-declline due to lack of fertile lands caused by overgrazing, droughts, etc

Use of barbed wire

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 2000

-Invented by Joseph Glidden
-Established finite boundaries among adjacent farming lands

Homestead Act


-encouraged settlement in the west by offering lands free

Last west settlement

1865 - 1900

-settlements in the arid regions like Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau
-Harmed environment and Native Americans

Western Environment

1865 - 1900

-Great American Desert - dry plains in middle USA
-Great Plains Indians relied heavily on buffalo herds
-Mineral frontier caused thousands to migrate west

Purchase of Alaska


William Seward bought Alaska from Russia

Dry farming

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1900

-agricultural technique used in arid regions like Great Plains

Chinese Exclusion Act


-CAUSES: 1) competition for jobs (mining industry in particular)
2) ethnic conflicts

Conservation of public lands

1891 - 1908

Roosevelt used the Forest Reserve Act to set aside lands as a national reserve. He also set aside money to use land for irrigation techniques as well as coordinating conservation planning where a National Conservation Commission was established under Gifford Pinchot who was appointed earlier as the first director of the U.S Forest Service.

earth day


In 1970, a senator from Wisconsin, USA, Gaylord Nelson first conceived of this day. The senator was worried about the rate of industrialisation and the careless attitude of everyone towards our environment.

clean air act


The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.

environmental protection agency


an agency of the Federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment

clean water act


The 1972 amendments: Established the basic structure for regulating pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States.

endangered species act


It provides for the conservation of species that are endangered or threatened throughout all or a significant portion of their range, and the conservation of the ecosystems on which they depend.

three mile island


The Three Mile Island accident was a partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County,

environmental superfund


EPA's Superfund program has helped protect human health and the environment by managing the cleanup of the nation's worst hazardous waste sites

chernobyl meltdown


The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

exxon valdez accident


The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989,

MIG - Migration

Christopher Columbus


Sailed towards the destination of finding a western route to Asia, however ended up on an island in the Bahamas. Columbus's interactions with the Native Americans in the "New World" changed history forever.

slave trade

1500 - 1850

The demand for slaves increased as large plantations grew and needed more cheap labor in order to do the work. As the number of slaves increased, there were also increasing laws to make sure slaves would always be kept in bondage. Slave trading had monopolized as many slaves were being transported in the Triangular Trade route. Hundreds of captive Africans were traded and brought through the horrendous middle passage.


1595 - 1617

Saved John Smith from his captors.



1st permanent English settlement in the colony of Virginia

Later Settlements

1607 - 1754

In the Carolinas the South was most known for rice plantations while the north has tobacco farms. In 1664 the duke of york dispatched a dutch colony in New York and took control. New Jersey was formed by splitting up the lands of New York because they were too big. In 1681 William Penn got a land grant and named his colony Pennsylvania, his colony was mostly quakers and later on he split up three lower counties into a separate colony of delaware. Georgia was the last british colony and the only one that recieved support from britain.


Approx. 1620

group of puritans who left the church of england

Mayflower Compact


first governing document of Plymouth colony


1675 - 1676

in a war between the native american tribes of wampanoag whose chief was metacom and the english settlers thousands were killed on both sides and dozens of villages burned down. it was caused by settlers encroaching on indian territory.


1701 - 1800

The largest group of immigrants did not come to America by choice ((Africans), English, German, and Scotch-Irish immigrants also came to the U.S

Land Ordinance of 1785


Policy for surveying and selling western lands- land must be aside for educational usages

Northwest Ordinance of 1787


territory between Great Lakes and Ohio River- set rules for creating new states- no slavery and limited self-government

Public Land Act


Lands obtained by the Jay Treaty which established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices.



One of the Shawnee Brothers that tried to unite all the tribes east of the Mississippi River to stand against the encroaching settlers.

William Henry Harrison


The General during the Battle of Tippecanoe that destroyed the Shawnee Headquarters and put an end to any chance of the native american's alliance.



The second Shawnee Brother (the religious leader)that attempted to unite all the tribes east of the Mississippi River to stop the further encroachment of western settlers.

Battle of Tippecanoe


The battle in which the Shawnee headquarters were completely destroyed and stopped any chance of the American Indians from uniting and stopping the settlement of North America by the United States.

Indian Removal Act

1830 - Approx. 1839

Nat Turner


Held a major slave uprising in 1831. Although the revolts were quickly and violently suppressed, they had a lasting impact as they gave hope to enslaved African Americans, drove southern states to tighten stricter slave codes, and demonstrated the evils of slavery. These revolts polarized the country.

Worcester v. Georgia


High courts of Georgia had no rule over Cherokee territory, Jackson supported States', court couldn't enforce decision without Jackson's support

Oregon Trail

Approx. 1835 - Approx. 1845

Many Americans took the long deadly trip to oregon

Trail of Tears

1838 - 1839

Forced removal if eastern native tribes to move west, killed many natives.

Migrations west

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

Migrations like the California gold rush and similar rushed in Nevada and Colorado and the Dakotas meant many people moved west

Conscience Whigs and barnburners


The Free Soil party consisted of conscience Whigs (opposed slavery) and antislavery Democrats (nicknamed "barnburners" because their defection threatened the Democratic party)

Free Soil Movement/Free Soil Party


Northerners who opposed allowing slavery in new territories. The party adopted the slogan "free soil, free labor, and free men"

increases in immigration

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1910

Population more than tripled: 23 million in 1850, 85 million by 1910
Mostly due to immigration from European countries, especially impoverished eastern and southern European countries

change in nature of cities

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1950

Mass transportation such as trolleys and trains allowed the rich moved out of city centers into suburbs and left the poor working class in older areas of the city. This largely contributes to the huge wealth gap in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.

New England Emigrant Aid Compnay


A reaction by Northern Abolitionists and Free-Soilers after slaveholders from Missouri set up homesteads in Kansas to win control of the territory for the South. The Company paid for the transportation of antislavery settlers to Kansas.

Bleeding Kansas


Proslavery forces attacked the free-soil town of Lawrence. Two days later, John Brown, an abolitionist, attacked a proslavery farm settlement at Pottawatomie Creek

Lecompton Constitution


A proslavery state constitution for Kansas submitted by the Southern legislature at Lecompton. President Buchanan asked Congress to accept the constitution and admit Kansas as a slave slave. Congress did not because many Democrats joined with Republicans in rejecting it (the majority of settlers also did not support it)

Homestead Act of 1862


Provided Federal land grants to western settlers. The act was passed and signed into law following the secession of the southern states from the Union.

Southwest Tribes

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

Navajo and Apache

Great Plains Tribes

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

These include the Blackfoot, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kiowa, Lakota, Lipan, Plains Apache (or Kiowa Apache), Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi, Nakoda (Stoney), and Tonkawa. Later forced into reservations for the pursuit of manifest destany

Indian Wars

Approx. 1866 - Approx. 1890

Gold miners refused to stay off American Indians' lands. Conflict intensified between the US army and the American Indians.

Chinese Exclsuion Act


Prohibited further immigration to the United States by Chinese Laborers.

Immigartion Act of 1882


Contract Labor Act


restricted temporary workers to protect American Workers

American Protection Association


viewed new immigrants as biologically inferior to English and Germanic stocks

Migration of Mexicans and African Americans

Approx. 1914 - Approx. 1920

The drafting of white males into the military opened up job opportunities in America for Mexicans who were attempting to escape the upheavals of the revolution in Mexico and raise their standard of living and to African Americans who moved north to take advantage of the new job opportunities.

Wartime migration

Approx. 1929 - Approx. 1945

During World War II, over 1.5 million African-Americans migrated from the South to job opportunities in the North and the West

Japanese internment


In 1942, over 100,000 Japanese Americans living on the United States West coast were rounded up and put in internment camps

Korematsu v. United States


A 1944 Supreme Court case which upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay financial compensation to each survivor

Korematsu v. United States


A 1944 Supreme Court case which upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay financial compensation to each survivor

CUL - Culture & Society

Pre-Columbian Cultures

Approx. 1500


Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

encomienda system

1519 - 1542

a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.

Established Churches

1607 - 1830

Roger Williams

1631 - 1644

Ann Hutchinson

1634 - 1637

Rhode Island


Would eventually serve as a refuge for those who disagreed with restrictive Puritan authorities

Anne Hutchinson


Act of Toleration in Maryland


Act of Toleration`


Holy Experiment

1681 - 1701



William Penn


John Locke

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

Enlightenment philosopher - wrote Two Treatises of Government


Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

Human reason can solve humanity's problems - provided a basis for the Constitution

Charter of Liberties


Iroquois Confederacy


English culture domination

Approx. 1730 - Approx. 1776

European immigrants were coming to the thirteen colonies and spreading their culture.

The Great Awakening

1730 - 1750

English cultural domination

1730 - 1776

Jonathan Edwards


Abigail Adams

1744 - 1818

Abigail Adams was an advocate for women's rights. She especially was known for trying to influence her husband, John Adams (who had influence in the Articles, Constitution, and Declaration of Independence) for declaring women's rights for the US.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Approx. 1760 - 1770

Enlightenment philosopher

Thomas Paine, Common Sense

January 1776

Thomas Paine's Common Sense argued for independence from the British, putting it in clear language that it was "common sense" for the colonies to break ties from Britain. This swayed the public opinion and caused many colonists to fight for independence.

Synthesis: Revolutionary War

Approx. 1776

The effects that the Revolutionary war had on women was similar to the effects that world war two had on them because both wars inspired them to continue to fight for equality. For instance, the involvement of women in the Revolutionary War as nurses and aids gave them the empowerment that they needed to fight for sufferage, and female involvement in the homefront during World War II inspired women everywhere to find jobs and seek social equality.

Mary McCauley (Molly Pitcher)

June 28, 1778

Similar to Deborah Sampson, Molly Pitcher was also able to fight in the war, despite being a woman. She took her husband's spot and fought, becoming a symbol for women's rights.

Deborah Sampson

1781 - 1782

Deborah Sampson was a woman who was able to fight in the war for independence. Disguised as a man, Deborah was able to fight alongside the men, despite being a woman. She became famous for women's rights.

Shay's Rebellion

September 1786 - May 1787

Shay's Rebellion was a farmer-led uprising against high state taxes, debt imprisonment, and lack of money. They were able to stop the collection of taxes but when they tried to seize weapons from the armory, the militia put down the rebellion.

James Madison

1787 - 1800

Wrote the bill of rights, was a writer for the constitution, was the 4th president

Alexander Hamilton

1787 - 1800

He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution, as well as the founder of the nation's financial system, the Federalist Party, the United States Coast Guard, and The New York Post newspaper. As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration.

Federalist Party

1787 - 1800

The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France. The party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson.


1787 - 1800

a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy.

second great awakening

1790 - 1800

in this time religious rivals swept through the United states, it started from timothy Dwight and made it around where the young men of the generation would be motivated to be preachers. overall it was a spread of religious beliefs with a mix of the newer, evangelical sects and the older protestant churches.

Washington Farewell Address

Approx. September 19, 1796

It is a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers which they must avoid if they are to remain true to their values.



Transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau valued individualism & viewed institutions of power as unnecessary. The Movement challenged materialism and the pursuit of wealth.



The campaign for Women's rights began in retaliation for the secondary role men gave to women. Meetings such as the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) discussed the laws & customs that discriminated women.

Susan B. Anthony

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1906

American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.

Cult of Domesticity

Approx. 1820 - 1860

Prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States and Great Britain.

Streetcars in Cities

1826 - 1827

improved transportation
effect: segregation by income

Sensational Press


Journalism shifted to stories about crimes and disasters as well as political corruption to gain popularity


October 21, 1844

the enthusiasm was based from the belief that the world was going to end, A preacher by the name William Miller gained a big following with his strong belief that the world was going to end oct ,21, 1844 mostly from the protestant denominations.

Seneca Falls Convention

July 19th, 1848 - July 20th, 1848

First women's rights convention.

Suburban fever


Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin


Showed slave owners as evil

Hinton R. Helper, Impending Crisis of the South


Used statistics to demonstrate that slavery weakened the South's economy.


Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1900

Realism is a faithful or optimistic view in art while naturalism is more real, or often called pessimistic.

Organic Architecture

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1900

Frank Lloyd Wright used this to describe his architecture, Wright argued that form and function are one.


Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1900

late 1800's form of art, characterized by thin paint brush strokes, , an open composition, and an emphasis on light.

Woman in the Workplace

Approx. 1862

Woman entered the work force by filling jobs that men left absent when they entered the war.

Segregated Black Troops

July 1862

First All Black military regiment. 54th infantry regiment. Fought for Union in civil war.

Woman in Nursing

Approx. 1863

Woman in Nursing

Approx. 1863

4 Million Freedmen


After the emancipation proclamation all the slaves in the south were free

Gospel of Wealth


Religion more convincing than Social Darwinism to justify wealth of successful industrialists and bankers. Many rich people believed it was God- given money and wealth and it was their duty to carry out civic philanthropy for benefit of society.

Social Class and Discrimination

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1964

people were discriminated against for race, religion, social class. It was later ruled that minorities were to have separate but equal facilities. basically anyone who was not a rich, white, straight, christian, male was a minority

John Wilkes Booth


John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater.

Klu Klux Klan

1865 - Present

Founded by Nathaniel Bedford Forrest, the Klu Klux Klan is a white supremacy group that terrorizes African Americans and other groups.

Education and professions

Approx. 1865 - Approx. 1900

public schools become a major role to US where children were forced to go to school, colleges increased late 1800's and curriculum changed they added social activities and sports. scientific theory and methodology influenced the work of doctor,lawyers and educators.

Laissez Faire Beliefs

Approx. 1865 - 1900

Government regulation of business- changing society and government control

Social Darwinism

1865 - 1900

Belief that Darwin's ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest should be applied to the marketplace and society. Concentrating wealth in the hands of the "fit" benefited society- helping the poor and misguided.

Organized Labor Unions


Knights of Labor, National Labor Union, American Federation of Labor all formed to fight/strike for improved work conditions and wage increases. They aimed to get 8 hr work days, equal rights for men and women, increased pay and safer working conditions. Used strikes, boycotts, walk outs and more to show resistance.

Wage Earners and Expanding Middle Class and Urbanization

Approx. 1865

Growth of large corporations increased jobs and migration to cities for work, thus benefiting the economy and increasing the size of the middle class. Women and children also began to enter the work force and provide more than one income to families, with rising prices.

Ku Klux Klan

1866 - 2017

secret domestic militant organizations in the United States, originating in the southern states and eventually having national scope, that are best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as terrorists while hidden behind conical hats, masks and white robes. The KKK has a record of terrorism,[2] violence, and lynching to intimidate, murder, and oppress African Americans, Jews and other minorities and to intimidate and oppose Roman Catholics and labor unions.

Abstract Art

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1900

Art that does not take a shape or form and is often up to the reader to decide the meaning of the painting or picture.


Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1950

a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.

Social Criticism in Books

Approx. 1879 - Approx. 1890

Promoted criticism of laissez-faire economics
Shifted public opinion toward increased government regulation

Salvation Army

1879 - Approx. Present

came to America in 1879, provided basic necessities to the homeless and poor, while also preaching Christian gospel.

Social Gospel

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1910

importance of applying Christian principles to social problems. linked Christianity to the progressive reform movements. focused a lot on urban poor.

William Randolph Hearst


A New York Publisher who published scandal and sensationalism about political and economic corruption.

Henry Demarest Lloyd and the Origin of Muckraking

Approx. 1881 - Approx. 1910

Articles by Henry Demarest Lloyd published originally in the Atlantic Monthly in 1881 and then published in book form as Wealth Against Commonwealth, Lloyd exposed the corrupt practices of the Standard Oil Company while simultaneously failing to suggest a way to control it. This is regarded as the origin of muckraking.

Barnum and Bailey's "Greatest Show on Earth"


A traveling circus similar to Ringling Brothers that moved lots of acts and animals from town to town to perform.

Settlement Houses

Approx. 1889 - Approx. 1930

educated citizens went to poor area with many immigrants and taught them English, early education, arts and music. young reformers hoped to relieve the effects of poverty with the settlement houses.

Jane Addams

Approx. 1889

Hull house in Chicago. a famous settlement house made with the aim of revealing poverty in the neighborhood. taught English to immigrants. foundation for job of a social worker.

spectator sports

1890 - Present

United the nation and also led to the first black athlete stars to play on professional teams.

Census of 1890


Data was tabulated by machine for the first time. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier

How the Other Half Lives


Jacob Riis wrote this book about tenement life.

Growth of Leisure time activities


Sports gained popularity


Both spectator and amateur sports became a national pastime due to increased time

McClure's Magazine


Ran a series of muckraking articles by Lincoln Steffies (Tweed Days in St. Louis) and Ida Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company). One of many magazines such as Cosmopolitan and Collier's who fought to outdo each other by releasing shocking information of political and economic corruption.

Frederick Jackson Turner


Frederick Jackson Turner wrote, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History". It argued that 300 years of frontier experience shaped American culture by promoting independence and individualism. (AMSCO Pg. 343)

McKinley Elected


Important because he started the Spanish American War setting precedents for future Republican presidents

Urban Middle Class

Approx. 1901 - Approx. 1917

The Shame of the Cities

Approx. 1904

A book by Lincoln Steffies that described the corrupt deals that characterized big-city politics from Philadelphia to Minneapolis.

Decline of Muckraking

Approx. 1910

Muckraking declined after writers found it more and more difficult to top the sensationalism of the last article. Also, publishers were expanding and continuously faced economic pressure to tone down their treatment of business.

Settlement Houses


American concern for immigrants and the poor sparked the installment of settlement houses to relieve the effects of poverty.

Marcus Garvey

1916 - 1925

Harlem Renaissance

Approx. 1918 - Approx. 1935

The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem

High School Education

1920 - Present

Universal high school education became the new American goal.

Northern Migration

Approx. 1920 - Approx. 1970

movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West


Approx. 1920

Modernists took a historical and critical view of the Bible and believed they could accept Darwin's theory of evolution without abandoning their religion.

fear of foreigners and Communists

Approx. 1920

Role of Women

1920 - 1935

Women in the workforce was about the same as it always was. However, there were widespread education movements and divorce movements that provided more liberalized divorce laws. Sexual taboos were also challenged by women during this time.

Jazz Age

1920 - 1940

Brought to the north by African American musicians, jazz became the symbol of modern culture in cities. Radios helped facilitate the spread.

Consumer Culture

1920 - Present

The homogeneous, consumer-type culture that is seen even today. It suggests that Americans consume more than most cultures around the world in terms of energy, food, products, utilities, and other various things.


1920 - Present

Movies became huge deal for suburban life. Huge movie palaces were built and over 80 million tickets were sold per week by 1929. Movie stars became idolized by millions.

Sigmund Freud

1920 - 1935

Stressed the role of suppressed sexual activity in the development of mental illness.

Lost Generation

1920 - 1930

Artistic movement expressing discontent with the lack of morality that characterized American culture during this time period. Artists include F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, Sinclair Lewis, etc.

Langston Hughes

Approx. 1920

an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist, He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry.

Duke Ellington


was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader of a jazz orchestra,

Countee Cullen

Approx. 1920

an African-American poet, author and scholar who was a leading figure in the Harlem Renaissance.

Claude McKay


was a Jamaican writer and poet, who was a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance.

Louis Armstrong



Approx. 1920

Those who condemned the modernists and taught that every word of the Bible must be accepted as literally true. God created the universe in seven days.


Approx. 1920

preached fundamentalist ideals for religious revival via radio (and new form of widespread communication); Radio revivalists; Billy Sunday attacked drinking, gambling, and dancing. Aimee McPherson condemned the evils of communism and jazz music.

organized crime

Approx. 1920

a business supplying illegal goods or services; prohibition spawned these crimes; organized crime of bootlegging alcohol and bribing public officials to keep quiet; also got involved in prostitution and gambling

James Weldon johnson


was an American author, educator, lawyer, diplomat, songwriter, and civil rights activist.

Quota Laws

1921 - 1924

The first of these acts greatly limited immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 census. The second of these passed by Congress ensured the discrimination against Southern and Eastern European Immigrants by setting the quotas of 2 percent based on the Census of 1890.

Scopes Trial


1925- a highly publicized trial where John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow; Scopes was convicted but the verdict was later. Displayed the fundamentalism prevalent in rural areas at the time

Clarence Darrow


1925- a highly publicized trial where John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow; Scopes was convicted but the verdict was later. Displayed the fundamentalism prevalent in rural areas at the time

Al Capone


United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

Sacco & Vanzetti


Two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs

21st Amendment


Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment; state and local prohibition no longer required by law.

Hollywood Blacklists

1947 - 1951

HUAC held members of the film industry in trial. Those accused of having Communist ties or sympathies were denied employment.

Joseph McCarthy/McCarthyism

1950 - 1954

McCarthy was a Republican senator who used the growing concern over communism in his reelection campaign. He claimed 205 Communists were still working for the State Department. A widespread "witch hunt" for communists began, led by McCarthy (McCarthyism). His cruelty was exposed on TV in 1954, leading to the end of this philosophy.


1950 - 1970

Counterculture came with the New Left movement. Led by the youth, new things such as rebellious dress styles, drug use, music, etc. emerged. People known as "hippies" or "flower children" came out and soon became part of the movement known as counterculture, which ultimately ended by 1970 due to drugs.

New Left

1960 - 1969

The Port Huron statement and the people surrounding it ultimately came up with certain ideals such as particpatory democracy and other ideas soon became part of the new movement known as the New Left.

Sexual Revolution

1960 - 1980

The sexual revolution was simply a change in attitude about sexual expression. Led by Kinsey's research, the data showed that controversial topics such as premarital sex, homosexuals, and marital infidelity were all more popular than people had thought. This led to a desensitization about sexual thought.

Equal Rights Amendment


The ERA sought to completely give equal rights to women and was campaigned hard for by other women. However, it was defeated due to the fear of conservatives that it would threaten the traditional role of women.

Roe vs. Wade


Legalized abortion and gave women the right the legally choose whether or not to have an abortion

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke


A court case that challenged a medical school's policies; Supreme Court ruled that while race could be considered, the school had created racial quotas, which were unconstitutional

Moral Majority

Approx. 1980 - Approx. 2000

Financed campaigns to unseat liberal members in congress

Reverse discrimination

Approx. 1980 - Approx. 2000

Belief that all the diminishing of racial quotas and immigration restrictions was discrimination against the previously prominent white majority

NAT - American & National Identity







Roanoke Island


People who lived on the island disappeared and there was "croatoan" carved into a tree. It is now believed they moved to a neighboring place and assimilated into the culture although it is still unsure.

plymouth colony


Ethnicity of Immigrants

Approx. 1701 - 1775

Besides the English, other European ethnicities immigrating to America included Germans, Scots-Irish, Huguenots (French Protestants), Dutch, Swedes, and Africans (through being taken captive to become slaves)

Samuel Adams

1722 - 1803

Founding Father of the united states and served as the leader of the Sons of Liberty.

Coming of Revolution, shift in ideal


After the colonists beat the French, many feel resentment towards the British that eventually results in the American Revolution.

Inolerable Acts


Set of laws passed by British Parliament as a way to punish the American Colonies. The laws further intensified want for independence from Britain.

First Continental Congress

September 5, 1774 - October 26, 1774

Meeting of delegates from the thirteen colonies to discuss how to respond to the Intolerable Acts.

Second Continental Congress


Meeting of colonial delegates to discuss the colonial war effort and independence. This meeting is where the Declaration of Independence was adopted.

Olive Branch Petition


Pledged loyalty to King George III in return for him interfering with parliament to protect the colonies' rights

Declaration of Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms


Called colonies to provide troops and appointed George Washington as supreme commander yeehaw

Thomas Jefferson

1776 - January 31, 1776

Wrote the Declaration of independence by listing grievances against George III's Monarchy

George Washington

1789 - 1797

General of the Colonial Army and 1st president of the United States

John Jay

1795 - 1829

One of the founding fathers of the United States and served as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

John Adams

1797 - 1801

A leader in the independence of the United States and served as the second US President.

Era of Good Feelings

1816 - 1819

Monroe years marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, and goodwill. Federalists faded into oblivion and the Democratic-Republicans adopted some of their policies and dominated politics.

James Monroe


Won the election of 1816-- Democratic Republican Party

Utopian Communities

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1860

Shakers, New Harmony, Oneida Community, Fourier Phalanxes

Mountain men

1820 - 1860

Disliked the slave owners of the South; allied with North during Civil War

Poor whites ("hillbillies")

1820 - 1860

Did not own slaves; defended slavery


1820 - 1860

Differing opinions on slavery, territory, etc. between the North and South


1820 - 1860

Distrust of Irish and German immigrants

The West (mining, farming frontier)

1820 - 1860

Movement West

American Party / Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner / Know-Nothing Party

1820 - 1860

Nativists against immigrants of Irish and German descent


1820 - 1860

Differences in the North, South, and West

Jackson Presidency

1829 - 1837

Jackson Presidency

1829 - 1837

Public Education

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1850

Increased emphasis on easy-access education (primary, secondary, and university)
Horace Mann: Father of Education

The Liberator


abolitionist newspaper created by William Lloyd Garrison

Manifest Destiny

1840 - 1860

Jefferson Davis

1847 - 1865

Confederate States of America

February 4, 1861 - May 5, 1865

54th Massachusetts Regiment

March 13, 1863 - August 4, 1865

First All Black regiment

War's Long Term Affects

1865 - Approx. 1877

Slavery was abolished. South was in shambles especially economically. Reconstruction began

Alexander H. Stephens

1882 - 1883

50th Governor of Georgia

Booker T. Washington & W.E.B.Du Bois

Approx. 1901 - Approx. 1917

Booker T. Washington supported education and economic progress to reach political and social equality. W.E.B.Du Bois demanded equal rights as a prerequisite for economic independence.


Approx. 1901 - Approx. 1917

Racial segregation laws and increased lynching


1908 - Approx. 1945

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People tried to abolish all forms of segregation and was the largest organization by 1920.

National Urban League

1911 - Approx. 1945

Help blacks move from South to Northern cities and emphasized self-reliance and economic advancement.

Marcus Garvey

1916 - 1925

Race Riots

1917 - 1919

Migration of African Americans to northern cities caused racial tensions. Riots occured all over the country, with the worst being in East St. Louis, Illinois and Chicago.

Margaret Sanger

1920 - 1935

Birth control advocate that argued in favor of contraceptives.

Quota Laws

1921 - 1924

The first of these acts greatly limited immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 census. The second of these passed by Congress ensured the discrimination against Southern and Eastern European Immigrants by setting the quotas of 2 percent based on the Census of 1890.

Sacco & Vanzetti


Two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs

Martin Luther King Jr.

1929 - 1968

MLK led the peace driven drive for black rights. An inspiration for many, MLK was often seen as the leading candidate for the black rights movement, and was all about peace.

Civil Rights

1954 - 1968

a surge in which basic human and American Citizenship rights were called into question. The most prominent advocate for this was Martin Luther King Jr, known for the "I Have A Dream" speech and for the historic marches on Washingston and Selma.

Hispanic Americans

1960 - 1969

Most Hispanic Americans before World War II lived in the Southwestern States, but in the postwar years new arrivals from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and South and central America increasingly settled in the East and Midwest.

Cesar Chavez

1960 - 1969

led a long series of boycotts for the Mexican Workers who were suffering with low paying agricultural jobs.

Black Muslims


The Black Muslims were a group that became famous during this time period for preaching black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. Their leader was Malcolm X.

March on Washington


The March on Washington demonstrated the power of peaceful protest. Led by MLK, over 200,000 people took part in the march for civil rights, highlighted by MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech.

1965 Immigration law


ended the quota acts of the 1920s favoring Europeans and thereby opened the United States to immigrants from all parts of the world.

Malcolm X


Malcolm X was the leader of the Black Muslims, and became a controversial figure. He called out MLK for being a "servant" to whites and advocated for self-defense.

Black Panthers


The Black Panthers were a group organized by Newton and other militants that was a revolutionary socialist movement that advocated for self-rule for blacks.

American Indian Movement


To achieve self-determination and revival of tribal traditions, the American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in 1968.

gay liberation movement

1969 - 1993

In 1969, a police raid on the stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City, sparked both a riot and the gay rights movement . gay activists urged homosexuals to be open about their identity and to work to end discrimination and violent abuse.

Cultural pluralism

1970 - 1979

Cultural pluralism was replacing the melting pot as the model for US society, as diverse ethnic and cultural groups strove not only to end discrimination and improve their lives, but also to celebrate their unique traditions.

Gaming Casinos

1970 - 1979

gambling casinos on reservations were built under the self determination legislation.

Indian Self-determination Act


gave reservations and tribal lands greater control over internal programs, education, and law enforcement.

Asian Americans

1980 - 1989

Americans of Asian descent had become the fastest growing ethnic minority by the 1980s. The largest group of Asian Americans were of Chinese ancestry, followed by Filipinos, Japanese, Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese.

Immigration Reform and Control Act


penalized employers for hiring immigrants who had entered the country illegally or had overstayed their visas, while also granting amnesty to undocumented immigrants arriving by 1982.