Paris Peace Conference,
- the aim: countries have to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other states and not to resort to force to resolve disputes but to submit them to arbitration by the League
- it failed to prevent war
- but managed to establish many special agencies
Winston Churchill calls for a "kind of United States of Europe" in a speech he gives at the University of Zurich, he states that Britain will remain separate from it nevertheless – Britain (along with USSR and US) would be friends and sponsors of the new Europe
Churchill mentions “the iron curtain” in Europe, his approach against USSR
The Treaty of Brussels is signed by Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, creating a defensive alliance against possible future German aggression.
The European Congress takes place (kind of a plan of EUF) in the Hague. The Congress is launched with the aim of developing economic and political union in Europe to guarantee its future security. While it does not result in the development of European organization along federal lines, it does lead to the eventual creation of the Council of Europe (intergovernmental cooperation, not federation in the end, but still some progress). Still EUF hoped for much more than that.
Following the Petersberg Agreement of November 1949, West Germany becomes a federal republic. France opposed to this because they did not want Germany to regain power.
French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman presents a plan to integrate coal and steel production in France, Germany, Benelux and Italy. The Schuman Plan proposes pooling coal and steel resources under the management of a supranational body, the High Authority. In addition to managing production, the High Authority will also coordinate the modernization of the coal and steel industries. It is intended that the plan will lead to further co-operation in economic development. It was coordinated by Jean Monnet (the French civil servant and the head of the French Economic Planning Commission).
Germany balks (hesitating) at provisions in the Treaty of Paris that would prevent the re- emergence of coal and steel cartels. The French are unwilling to negotiate on this point because they see decartelization as essential to preventing the development of a centralized and militaristic regime in Germany, which would be threatening to French security. The Germans finally agree to these terms after the Americans give Germany to either accept the Schuman Plan to create the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) or to face American attempts to break up German coal cartels.
The European Community of Coal and Steal is created by the Treaty of Paris. Jean Monnet becomes President of the High Authority of the ECSC. He does not believe in the free market system, but rather wants to develop a supranational institution thereby creating a common economic community. Coal and steel was only a start – but they had to start only with it as extending it to more aspects of the market would not have gained acceptance at the time. Two issues to resolve:
- Franco-German relations – common production would make war between them 'not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible'.
- how to ensure continuing adequate supplies of coking coal from the Ruhr for the French steel industry
Why did countries want to join ECSC?
→ Germany – acceptance of the international community, getting rid of IAR
→ France – access to the coal
→ Benelux – too weak to act alone
→ Italy – acceptance of the international community, clear commitment to the capitalist West
→ / Britain – did not want to join because it already considered itself a world power, far economically stronger than the rest of Europe, they had enough supplies of coal more page 97
→ / United States – were not a part of the negotiations but closely followed the procedure through US Embassy committee in Paris
The Treaty establishes a common market for coal and steel, administered by the High Authority, a supranational body. The Treaty also creates an intergovernmental Council of Ministers, an advisory European Parliamentary Assembly and a Court of Justice. The ECSC seeks to remove barriers to the internal market for coal and steel, manage the modernization of production, and prevent the re-emergence of cartels. It is anticipated that the ECSC will lead to further economic integration among its member states.
EDC is signed but not ratified.
The French National Assembly fails to ratify the European Defence Community Treaty leading to the fail of the European Political Community (EPC). Nevertheless the Western European Union was created and the idea of federalists kept alive.
The Treaties of Rome (establishing the European Economic Community ((EEC) and Euratom) are signed. The six countries of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) set up the EEC and the Euratom. The EEC aims to create a custom union and in a long-term common market among the member states, while Euratom is to promote joint development of nuclear energy. The treaty was ratified easily in all countries except for France.
Agriculture ministers, national experts and farm lobby groups meet at a conference in Stresa, Italy, to discuss the details of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The Stresa Conference agrees on a principle of price supports for agricultural products. This means that when prices within the Community fall below an agreed price for agricultural products, the Community will intervene to raise the price by buying the commodity. When the price of imported goods falls below the agreed price, tariffs will be levied to make up the difference. The Stresa Conference also leads to the formation of a European agricultural lobby group, the Committee of Professional Agricultural Organisations (COPA)
The Treaties of Rome come into force, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and Euratom. The EEC consists of the European Commission, the Council of Ministers, an advisory Parliamentary Assembly (later the European Parliament), and the European Court of Justice. Walter Hallstein becomes the first President of the EEC Commission, and Louis Armand the first President of the Euratom Commission. A committee of permanent representatives (COREPER) is created to prepare the work of the Council of Ministers.
- Customs duties within the EEC are cut by 10%, as part of a time frame that proposes an annual 10% reduction in tariffs and annual reductions in quotas. The deadline for the removal of all quotas is 1961. A Common External Tariff is introduced. Negotiations begin with Greece and Turkey to the EEC agreement.
Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK set up the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Like the European Economic Community (EEC), the EFTA aims to establish free trade area, but it does not resort to common external tariffs and supranational institutions.
De Gaulle announces his veto of British membership of the European Economic Community (EEC), arguing that Britain's political and economic interests are incompatible with those of the EEC and that it lacks a commitment to European integration
The Luxemburg compromise represents a move toward increased intergovernmentalism in order to resolve the Empty Chair Crisis—the French boycott of Council of Minister meetings which arose out of French objection to increasing supranationalism in the European Economic Community (EEC).
The Merger Treaty is signed, agreeing to merge the institutions of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Economic Community (EEC), and Euratom into a single organization. The High Authority of the ECSC, the Commission of the EEC and the Commission of Euratom are merged into a single Commission, and the Merger Treaty creates a single Council of Ministers. The Community is now known as the European Community or 'EC' rather than the 'EEC'. The Treaty, which comes into force on 1 July 1967, signifies the eclipse of limited, sectoral integration, represented by the ECSC and Euratom, by the broader, multi-sectoral form of integration represented by the EEC.
1969: French President, Charles de Gaulle, resigns after being defeated in a referendum on government reforms. Three main objectives of the eu: Deepening, widening and completion.
1970: After agreement on re-launching, widening of the Community is reached at the Hague Summit. Membership negotiations begin with Britain, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway.
1972: Completion of membership negotiations with Britain, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway; Accession Treaties are signed.
Member States agree to the 'snake in the tunnel' system of EC monetary coordination. This introduces a system where the EC currencies are allowed to fluctuate within a band of 2.25% against each other (the snake), within a 4.5% margin of fluctuation against the US dollar (the tunnel).
A French referendum on the EC enlargement results in a yes vote of 68.28% with a turnout of 60.27%.
1974: Leadership of chancellor in Germany and president in france
The Paris summit agrees to direct elections to the European Parliament (EP) to be held in or after 1978, the creation of the European Council, and the creation of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The latter is an important concession for British membership of the EC. Germany had been opposed to the creation of the ERDF, but Ireland and Italy threatened to boycott the summit unless the regional fund was established.
1975: British Prime Minister Harold Wilson holds a referendum on continued British membership of the EC.
Greece enters EC because of political reasons – they had dictatorship and other members agreed that they would help them to introduce democracy
President Truman asks Congress for 400 million dollars of economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey, because Britain was no longer financially able to help them – thereby making it clear that they wish to remain involved in the European affairs
US Secretary of State George Marshall announces the European Recovery Programme, better known as the Marshall Plan. The Plan allocates $13 billion in financial and food aid to assist the reconstruction of Europe, combat the threat of communism, and promote trade with the US. USSR – suspicious of the offer – rejects it along with all the countries controlled by it.
The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington DC, setting up NATO. The signatories – Britain, Belgium, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the US, and Canada – commit themselves to their collective defence. (That happened due to Truman Doctrine)