Ideas from the Italian Renaissance spread, but Northern Renaissance art was more religious than in Italy, while literature tended to be more secular.
English king Edward III (grandson of Philip the Fair of France) asserted his claim to the French throne after French king Charles IV died without male heir.
French barons chose Charles IV's first cousin, Philip VI of Valois to rule instead.
Edward was a vassal of Philip VI, and owned some French land.
Tension over control of Flanders. A French fife that depended on imported English wool.
French struggled in wars against English as it was transitioning from feudal to modern state and was militarily weaker.
Sickly Francis II succeeded his father Henry II. Powerful families saw this as an opportunity to control France.
Fighting began after Catherine de Medicis, fearing Guise, issued the January Edict granting Huguenots freedom to worship publicly. Guise massacred worshippers, forcing Catherine to cooperate with him.
Dutch revolted against Philip II of Spain of the Habsburgs. William the Silent led the resistance.
The Netherlands prospered as a republic (other nations were central governments under a monarchy or parliamentary system). Religiously tolerant in mostly Protestant nation, the Calvinist Reformed Church was the official but unestablished church.
Urban areas prospered, with good trading systems and a seaborne empire.
Political influence declined after death of William III of Britain
Russia between death of Fyodor, son of Ivan the Terrible, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty
Newly elected Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II tried to impose unified Catholicism. Protestant states reacted, believing that the act was in violation of Peace of Augsburg, forming the Protestant Union.
Bohemians deposed Ferdinand II and replaced him with Frederick V, Calvinist Elector Palatine. Ferdinand, along with Maximilian of Bavaria and George I of Saxony, crushed the rebellion.
Lutheran king Christian IV of Denmark wanted to expand Danish influence and joined the Protestant cause. Maximilian of Bavaria quickly crushed the opposition, scaring Ferdinand II with his example of military might.
Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden became Protestant leader. Adolphus was successful in leading the league until he was assassinated by Wallenstein.
The French, under direction of Cardinal Richelieu, wanted to keep Habsburg influence at bay, and continued efforts against Ferdinand II.
Fought between Roundheads, supporters of Parliament, and Cavaliers, supporters of Charles I
England under Oliver Cromwell
Louis XIV claimed Spanish Netherlands as dowry for marriage to Marie Therese, daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Dutch formed Triple Alliance with England and Sweden. Louis forced to return land.
Fought between Sweden’s Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great. By the end of the war, Sweden had lost her supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great’s Russia.
England under Sir Robert Walpole, who maintained peace abroad and promoted status quo at home.
Condemned Protestant teaching and provided execution of reform