AP European History Timeline

Intellectual Movements

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1550

Northern Renaissance

1430 - 1550

Ideas from the Italian Renaissance spread, but Northern Renaissance art was more religious than in Italy, while literature tended to be more secular.

Commercial Revolution

1488 - 1776

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1715


1715 - 1789


1800 - 1890

Age of Reflection

1800 - 1880

Art Movements


1375 - 1550


1527 - 1580


1600 - 1750


1750 - 1850


1780 - 1850


1848 - 1900


1865 - 1885


1885 - 1910


1905 - 1920



The Great Schism

1309 - 1417

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

English king Edward III (grandson of Philip the Fair of France) asserted his claim to the French throne after French king Charles IV died without male heir.

French barons chose Charles IV's first cousin, Philip VI of Valois to rule instead.

Edward was a vassal of Philip VI, and owned some French land.

Tension over control of Flanders. A French fife that depended on imported English wool.

French struggled in wars against English as it was transitioning from feudal to modern state and was militarily weaker.

Black Death

1347 - 1351

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1648

English Reformation

1529 - 1553

Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Sickly Francis II succeeded his father Henry II. Powerful families saw this as an opportunity to control France.

Bourbons (Huguenot)

Montgomery-Chatillon (Huguenot)

Guise (Catholic)

Fighting began after Catherine de Medicis, fearing Guise, issued the January Edict granting Huguenots freedom to worship publicly. Guise massacred worshippers, forcing Catherine to cooperate with him.

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Dutch revolted against Philip II of Spain of the Habsburgs. William the Silent led the resistance.

Dutch Golden Age

1570 - 1650

The Netherlands prospered as a republic (other nations were central governments under a monarchy or parliamentary system). Religiously tolerant in mostly Protestant nation, the Calvinist Reformed Church was the official but unestablished church.

Urban areas prospered, with good trading systems and a seaborne empire.

Political influence declined after death of William III of Britain

Time of Troubles

1598 - 1613

Russia between death of Fyodor, son of Ivan the Terrible, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Newly elected Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II tried to impose unified Catholicism. Protestant states reacted, believing that the act was in violation of Peace of Augsburg, forming the Protestant Union.

Bohemian Period:
Bohemians deposed Ferdinand II and replaced him with Frederick V, Calvinist Elector Palatine. Ferdinand, along with Maximilian of Bavaria and George I of Saxony, crushed the rebellion.

Danish Period:
Lutheran king Christian IV of Denmark wanted to expand Danish influence and joined the Protestant cause. Maximilian of Bavaria quickly crushed the opposition, scaring Ferdinand II with his example of military might.

Swedish Period:
Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden became Protestant leader. Adolphus was successful in leading the league until he was assassinated by Wallenstein.

Swedish-French Period:
The French, under direction of Cardinal Richelieu, wanted to keep Habsburg influence at bay, and continued efforts against Ferdinand II.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Fought between Roundheads, supporters of Parliament, and Cavaliers, supporters of Charles I

Commonwealth of England

1649 - 1660

England under Oliver Cromwell

War of Devolution

1667 - 1668

Louis XIV claimed Spanish Netherlands as dowry for marriage to Marie Therese, daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Dutch formed Triple Alliance with England and Sweden. Louis forced to return land.

Agricultural Revolution

1674 - 1795

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Fought between Sweden’s Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great. By the end of the war, Sweden had lost her supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great’s Russia.

Mississippi Bubble

1718 - 1720

Age of Walpole

1721 - 1742

England under Sir Robert Walpole, who maintained peace abroad and promoted status quo at home.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1850

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Age of Napoleon

1804 - 1814

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Italian Unification

1815 - 1871

Specific Dates

Printing Press


Fall of Constantinople


Columbus and New World


95 Theses

October 31, 1517

Sack of Rome


Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Condemned Protestant teaching and provided execution of reform

Dutch Independence


Revolutions of 1848


Crimean War

1853 - 1856