international security developments

Events

peace of westphalia

1648
  • after the 30 year war
  • the starting point for realism
  • established the modern state system
  • helped europe manage power and security
  • emphasized a balance of power

french national assembly

1792
  • france said it would support popular revolution ANYWHERE

the terror

1793 - 1794
  • french revolutionaries used terrorism tactics
  • positive connotation

congress of vienna

1814
  • after napoleonic wars
  • discussed how to create a peaceful order
  • set up the concert of europe
  • metternich of austria

concert of europe

1815 - 1914
  • after the napoleonic war
  • alliance system to maintain balance of power btwn sovereign states
  • led to the 19th century being relatively peaceful

hague conference

1899
  • 1st multilateral peace conference of "civilized" nations"
  • called for disarmament and established rules of war

wwi

1914 - 1918

wilson's "safe for democracy" speech

1917
  • wilsonian idealism
  • a speech to ask congress for the US to enter wwi
  • make the world "safe for democracy"

treaty of sevres

1920
  • a treaty between western europe and the ottoman empire
  • established the modern conception of the middle east

league of nations

1920
  • the 1st major internat/l attempt to solve security/commerce/law
  • states voluntarily gave up some sovereignty for world order
  • failed to prevent wwii

japan's pan-asian internationalism

Approx. 1930 - 1939
  • japan begins expanding and building its own empire
  • overruns western colonizers in singapore, burma, indochina, philipiines -pormoted asian unity
  • propaganda for japanese imperialism
  • collapses in wwii

wwii

1939 - 1945

the eternal jew

1940
  • nazi propaganda
  • depicted ewish people as greedy and stealing all the german wealth
  • proof that idealism is not always good

fdr's four freedoms

1941
  • american idealism
  • freedom of speech/worship, freedom from want/fear
  • projected US ideals onto the rest of the world

united nations

1945
  • created to try to keep collective peace
  • allowed UN to enforce rules
  • obligates members to supply troops

cold war

1947 - 1991

universal declaration of human rights

1948
  • a response to wwii
  • we need to protect and promote human rights
  • the first time we see human-rights based idealism in policy-making

nato

1949
  • north atlantic treaty organization
  • US will serve as a security umbrella for western europe
  • article 5: an attack on 1 nato country is an attack on all
  • germany's membership sparked the rival warsaw pact

schuman plan

1950
  • germany and france gave up a bit of their sovereignty
  • created a coal and steel industry
  • protect the materials from being used for war
  • led to creation of the EU

nsc 68

1950
  • national security council report on the US strategy in the cold war
  • idealism: sought to "destroy" communism
  • realism: emphasized containment strategies
  • liberalism: advocated for cooperation with "free" countries v USSR

seato

1954
  • south east asian treaty organization
  • us, uk, and france to protect SE asia from communism
  • disbanded after vietnam war in '77

cento

1955
  • central treaty organization
  • uk-led anti-communist pact w/ middle eastern/central asian states
  • disbanded in late 70's

bandung declaration

1955
  • a non-western international conference
  • african and asian nations
  • declared respect for sovereignty of all nations, equality of all races
  • emphasized peaceful means and cooperation
  • similar to western documents but the west doesn't follow through

non-alignment movement

1961
  • small non-western states
  • wanted to dictate their own security interests
  • didn't align w US or USSR during cold war

asean

1967
  • association of the southeast asian nations
  • wanted distinct identities
  • defied westphalian norms
    • used informal agreements, diplomacy, and consensus dcm
    • emphasized non-interference in member states' affairs
    • wanted an internationalism that didn't compromise sovereignty

non-nuclear proliferation treaty

1968
  • armed nations limit nuclear proliferation
  • unarmed nations to not develop nuclear weapons
  • article 6: disarmament and declaration of nwfz
  • non-signers: pakistan, israel, india
  • noko withdrew
  • we've cut deals for some nations

the terror nework

1981
  • a book saying communists used terrorism to achieve their goals

convention on the elimination of discrimination against women

1981
  • US did not ratify

convention on the rights of the chid

1990
  • US is the only one to have not ratify

global war on terror

2001
  • reaction to 9/11
  • combined realism, idealism, and liberalism like nsc 68
  • but much more aggressive

shanghai cooperation organization

2001
  • russia, china, smaller central asian states
  • against terrorism, extremism, separatism

national security strategy

2002
  • offensive rather than defensive, took preemptive action
  • emphasized unilateral action if needed
  • realism: disrupt and destroy terrorism
  • idealism: focus on freedom and human rights

bolivarian alliance of the americas

2004
  • nations should band together against western dominance
  • led by hugo chavez
  • not very strong, very few members

responsibility to protect

2005
  • states have the responsibility to protect their citizens
  • if they can't or won't, intervention is justified
  • first intervention in libya 2011