The Al Qaeda terrorist group is responsible for the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York City. Afghanistan gives residence to the people responsible. President George W. Bush starts the War on Terror.
As a response to the 9/11 attacks, President Bush authorizes an invasion of Middle Eastern countries where terrorist bases are located. This results in the Taliban being largely removed from power.
Between 2011 and 2012 the U.S. had over 100,000 troops in Afghanistan to combat terrorist organizations.
After more than 10 years, President Obama decides to remove troops from Afghanistan, concluding the War on Terror.
The Afghanistan Conflict proved to be a costly war for the Soviet Union. The combined effects of unrest in Europe, subsiding control of the Communist Party, and diminishing optimism about Communism, forced the USSR to relinquish its control over Eastern Europe and split up into many smaller nations. This ended the Cold War.
After the Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan, the Afghan government does not have a legitimate force to protect themselves. Since the Soviets kept the Afghan army weak, there was no effective control over the region. This resulted in a power vacuum that created a war between various Afghan tribes who were using Russian and American weapons.
After a nearly 10 year long conflict the Soviets admit defeat and pulls out of Afghanistan. What was presumed to be an easy victory that would allow the Soviets a foothold in the Middle East turned out to be a disaster. With 15,000 Soviets dead and 1-2 million Afghans dead, many are comparing it to the Vietnam war. These catastrophes are accredited with helping to bring down the Soviet Union and also creating more conflict in the Middle East. After the war, fighting continues and the Mujahideen (armed with US and Soviet weapons) continue to fight for control of the country.
A faction of the Mujahideen forms the Taliban in combination with many Pashtun (an ethnic group belonging to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border region).
The UN provides an emergency relief program for Afghanistan in order to stop Tribal Wars.
The Taliban is a group of Muslim militants that formed from the Mujahideen. They attempt to establish a country according to Sharia Law (a strict and often cruel interpretation of Islam).
The only condition of the agreement states that Al-Qaeda would not antagonize the United States.
Power is taken from the corrupt, anti-Pashtun President Rabbani. Pashtuns were Pashto-speaking people from Southern Afghanistan and North West Pakistan.
Under his rule, Afghan women struggle under strict Sharia law. Anti-Taliban resolutions are passed condemning his actions. Afghanistan was also heavily sanctioned for providing refuge to Al-Qaeda Terrorists.
Al-Qaeda breaches its agreement with the Taliban to not antagonize the US in exchange for being provided asylum in Taliban-held area . They bomb the U.S. Embassies in East Africa, which is a violation of their agreement with the Taliban. Nonetheless, the Taliban continued to harbor members of Al-Qaeda.
The terrorist group ISIS froms together and spreads anti-western propaganda. It remains relatively weak due to the Taliban being in control however it is still an existing terror group.
Ethnic groups from Northern Afghanistan opposed to the Taliban form a coalition to aid the US in the War on Terror
With another power vacuum formed by the US leaving Afghanistan and a surplus of military materials, the Islamic State terrorist group gains presence in Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan. Like the Taliban, they want to establish a country under Sharia Law. They also engage in world-wide terror operations in what they perceive to be a war between Western civilization and themselves.