Batista ran his country through puppet presidents.
U.S. Navy ships took up stations off the Cuban coast; old style intervention seemed near so the Batista ousted Grau and the radicals on the signal of the United States. In 1934, the U.S. agreed to abrogating the Platt Amendment that wouldn’t affect the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo.
He ruled directly from 1940-1944, then went back to a behind-the-scenes role as the one time radical Grau San Martin returned to the presidency (1944-48)
Castro’s ‘History will absolve me’ speech later became the manifesto of his movement and contained the ‘five revolutionary laws’ that would have been published if his attack had been successful.
The attack was the provincial army barracks at Moncada in the Southeastern city of Santiago. Fidel led a band of 165 youths who stormed the garrison. The government reaction was swift and ruthless and led to the police slaughtering suspects and the capture of Fidel and his brother Raul where they were tried and sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Castro’s History Will Absolve Me was a summary of arguments Castro made in the trial of the Moncada Barracks attack.
By February 1956, Castro had begun to train his ‘army,’ however the Mexican authorities discovered their plans and Castro, Che Guevara and some others were arrested. Once released, planning was renewed in greater secrecy. Following more raids by the Mexican police, Castro decided it was time to take his band of revolutionaries to Cuba - on the Granma, an old motor yacht. They left Mexico.
Until, February 1957, most people thought Castro had been killed, as this was what Batista and the Cuban press reported. The reports of Herbert Matthews, reported Castro’s successes, which encouraged Batista’s opponents and brought extra recruits. Throughout 1957 and early 1958, the size of Castro’s rebel army increased and the area of military operations expanded. The sympathy and respect they showed for the poor peasants gave them valuable support among the local population.
Castro formed the Office of the Revolutionary Plans and Coordination, an unofficial committee composed of his closest advisers, including his brother Raul and Guevara. This soon created a situation of dual power between the ORPC and the cabinet, as the former began to push forward the revolution Castro wanted.
From the mid 1960s, waves of Cuban emigrants went into exile in the US. The first wave were supporters of Batista, and especially those who had tortured or killed his opponents.
His Proclamation against discrimination speech, called a campaign against racial discrimination and making it clear that differences in skin color were of no significance.
This was the first major act of revolutionary policy to be established by the new government under the control of Fidel Castro. This act alled for profit sharing among farmers and the division of unused lands. The Agrarian reform included the following measures: limited landholdings to 993 acres, expropriated latifundia, distributed expropriated land to peasants, and nationalized cattle ranches.
The immediate trigger was the refusal by US owned oil refineries to refine the crude received from the USSR. Faced with the prospect of no oil, Cuba nationalized the three American refineries. This action escalated the US embargo on Cuba, which responded by nationalizing all American owned property.
This was a year long effort to abolish illiteracy in Cuba after the Cuban Revolution.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower closes the American embassy in Havana and severs diplomatic relations. The action signaled that the United States was prepared to take extreme measures to oppose Castro’s regime, which U.S. officials worried was beachhead of communism in the western hemisphere. The immediate reason cited for the break was Castro’s demand that the U.S. embassy staff be reduced, which followed heated accusations from the Cuban government that America was using the embassy as a base for spies.
8 bombers left Nicaragua to bomb Cuban airfields. The bomber missed many of their targets and left most of Castro’s air force intact. As news broke of the attack, photos of the repainted U.S. planes became public and revealed American support for the invasion.
The embargo was a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba. An embargo was first imposed by the United States on sale of arms to Cuba on March 14, 1958. Again on October 19, 1960 the U.S. placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalizes American-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation. On February 7, 1962 the embargo was extended to include almost all imports.
Castro asserted his authority and launched an attack on the PSP’S leading member, Anibal Escalante, who was accused of packing the party with his own family and supporters, and of trying to undermine the government’s authority.
The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and was the moment when the two superpowers came closest to nuclear conflict.
Castro and Khrushchev negotiated new sugar export deals and agricultural methods to solve the main problem in increasing the output of sugar.
In 1966, a new deal with the Soviet Union saw Cuba agree to provide 5 million tonnes in 1968 and 1969, with a guaranteed price. But, despite Soviet investment funds to modernise the sugar industry, the harvests of 1968 and 1969 each only yielded 3.7 million tonnes. Hence Castro launched a spectacular plan to rise the sugar harvest for 1970 to 10 million tonnes.
Castro took on his own shoulders the responsibility for the quixotic crusade for the super harvest. He offered to resign, but the crowds cried no.
Castro went to Moscow, where he signed a 15 year economic agreement with Leonid Brezhnev that substantially increased the Soviet subsidy to the Cuban economy. This included increasing the price paid for sugar, deferring all debt payments for 15 years, and new investment credits.
The Family Code covers marriage, divorce, paternity, adoption and parental responsibilities.