WHAP period 6 timeline

Events

Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand

1914

German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

1914

Japan makes Twenty-one Demands on China

1915

Gallipoli Campaign

1915

Bolshevik Revolution

Approx. 1917

This started as an uprising against shortages and mounting deaths in the war in 1917 in Russia. Nicholas facing mutinies abdicated the throne and a provisional government was established which brought a struggle for power and instability in the government. This was important because it allowed Lenin to step in and head the radical Bolshevik Party that would exit the War and completely turn Russian society around.

Treaty of Bret-Litovsk

1918

The Bolshevik rulers were able to end Russia's involvement in WWI when they signed this with Germany. It's important because it gave the Germans possession/control of a lot of Russian territory and 1/3 of it's population and the terms were harsh and humiliating but it gave the Russian government a chance to deal with their internal problems.

Paris Peace Conference

1919

This settlement in Paris was dominated by Britain, France, and the US but included 27 nations all having conflicting goals and the leaders of the Central Powers or Soviet Union were not included. It was important because it was here that Woodrow Wilson introduced his 14 points but no one really listened to them and instead what happened was the Central Powers had to accept guilt and pay reparations for the cost of war. Austria and Hungary were also separated and reduced with the new states being added to eastern Europe. It was important because the peace settlement just made everyone bitter and would also bankrupt a lot of the nations involved.

May Fourth Movement in China

1919

Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement in Italy

1919

First Meeting of the League of Nations

Approx. 1920

The league of nations was created to maintain world peace and included 42 nations. It was important because it was theoretically a great idea but had no real power to solve international disputes or enforce decisions and in order to ensure collective security it needed all major powers and the US never joined.

Lenin's New Economic Policy

1921 - 1928

Ataturk Proclaims Republic of Turkey

1923

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

US Stock Market Crash

1929

Civil Disobedience Movement in India

1930

Hitler Rules Germany

1933 - 1945

Long March by Chinese Communists

1934 - 1935

Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua

21 February 1934

Stalin's Great Purge

1935 - 1938

Invasion of China by Japan

Approx. 1937

This global conflict began with Japans invasion of Manchuria in 1931 which drew criticism from the League of Nations at which point Japan withdrew from the League and launched a full-scale invasion of China. This was important because of the way that they invaded, known as the "Rape of Nanjing" they waged war against civilians--bombings, rape, slaughter. This was important because of the devastating affects it had on the Chinese population and because the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese brought them together and increased nationalist and communist ideals.

Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

1938

German Auschluss with Austria

1938

Invasion of Poland by Germany

Approx. 1939

Germany's invasion of Poland during World War II was important because it showed that the policy of appeasement was not going to work out causing Britain and France to guarantee the security of Poland. Then Germany made a treaty with the Soviet Union that said they wouldn't attack each other and a secret protocol that divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence (German control of western Poland and Soviet Union in eastern Poland)

Germany Invasion of the Soviet Union

Approx. 1941

Germany wanted to invade the Soviet Union because from their they could expel/exterminate the Jews, Slaves, and Bolsheviks and create more "living space" for resettled Germans, Hitler believed this would be easy because of their financial problems. They were able to capture the Russian heartland, put Leningrad under siege, and have troops outside of Moscow but Germany had underestimated the Russian troops. They had a lot more people than they realized, a better industrial capacity and the Russian winter was hard for the ill-prepared German troops. Although this did stall the troops in the spring the German forces regrouped and inflicted heavy loses to the Soviet forces. This was important because it brought the Soviet Unions much needed force for the Allies and allowed for German defeat at Stalingrad.

Soviet victory at Stalingrad

Approx. 1943

Because of German forces had lost much of their momentum the Soviets were able to regroup and take back territory. The battle of Stalingrad was important because it was the 1st large-scale victory for Soviet forces and they were able to effectively push the German invaders out of Russian territory.

D-Day, Allied invasion at Normandy

Approx. 1944

British and US troops land on French coast of Normandy, the fighting was deadly on all sides but the Germans were overwhelmed having both fronts collapsing around them and round-the-clock strategic bombing by the US and Britain invading/bombing German cities. Important because it brought the unconditional surrender of Germany in 1945.

Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1945

Capture of Berlin by Soviet Forces

1945

A brutal street-by-street battle in order to capture Berlin. Important because it gave Berlin to the Soviets.

Establishment of United Nation

Approx. 1945

This was a supranational organization dedicated to keeping world peace and security and was met with cooperation with the Allies during the war. It was important because it succeeded in areas where the League of Nations had failed--they created a powerful security council responsible for maintaining international peace, they also made certain that the Security Council consists of 5 permanent members and 6 rotating elected members. (The US, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China) And the decisions of the Council are binding on all members.

Partition of India

1947

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1989

Creation of Israel

1948

Unable to solve conflict between Arab-Palestinians and Jewish settles the Britain turned to the UN who proposed dividing the two states (Palestine and Israel), Arabs opposed the idea. In 1947 when Britain withdrew a civil war broke out and the Jews proclaimed the state of Israel which caused Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq to declare war on them. This was important because when Israel achieved victory they took more land than was originally given to them and the dispute over land has caused problems ever since.

Establishment of the People's Republic of China

1949

Establishment of NATO

Approx. 1949

Arab-Israeli War

1949 - 1982

This conflict was between Arab Palestinians and Jewish settles. The Arab Palestinians were violently resisting British rule and Jewish settlement, Egyptian military leaders under Gamal Abdel Nasser opposed Israel and wanted to take command of the Arab world. Nassar became prime minister and leader of pan-Arab nationalism, this put Egypt--basically just a mess

Division of Berlin and Germany

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

This conflict began with North Korea's (communist) invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (mostly led by the US) allying with South Korea and People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. Important because although it ended in a stalemate the division of Korea.

Algerian War of Liberation

1954 - 1962

The war began under the command of the Front de Liberation Nationale, a group of nationalists, and used guerilla warfare to get the French out of Algeria. At first France did not realize the seriousness of the Algerian forces but when they sent thousands of forces. By 1958 they had sent 1/2-million soldiers resulting in atrocities on both sides and heavy civilian casualties. This was important because although it did also bring about Algerian Independence hundreds of thousands had died and a new ideological legacy stemmed from it--the work of Frantz Fanon. His writings gave support for African nationalism and revolutions and influenced independence struggles throughout Africa.

French Defeat at Dienbienphu

1954

France had lost power in Vietnam when Japan invaded but reasserted colonial rule in 1945, Ho Chi Minh and followers were able to defeat them using guerrilla warfare and getting help from Communist China. This was important because in order to achieve peace they had to have a conference where Vietnam was divided (North and South) at the 17th parallel.

Establishment of Warsaw Pact

Approx. 1955

Suez Crisis

1956

Uprising in Hungary

1956

Great Leap Forward in China

1958 - 1961

Castro Comes to power in Cuba

1959

Construction of Berlin Wall

1961

US Troops in Vietnam

1965 - 1973

Revolution in Iran

Approx. 1979

In 1953 the CIA helped bring anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi gain power. His repressive rule was overthrown by Islamist followers of Ayatollah Khomeini who also attacked the US for supporting the shah. The revolution had a strong anti-US presence and they took sixty-nine American hostages for 444 days, shut US military bases, and confiscated US-owned economic ventures. This was important because it shows the power of Islam as a means of fighting off foreign influences and the influence Iran's actions had on other Muslims to take terrorist action.

Iran - Iraq War

1980 - 1988

The Iraqi president Saddam Hussein launched an attack on Iran hoping for a quick victory it started out successfully but faced determined Iranian forces and the war dragged on until 1988. Important because of the amount of soldiers killed and the destruction it has brought to both countries.

Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

1986 - 1989

The Soviets had been fighting long and hard against the Islamic warriors in Afghanistan who were being supported by Saudi Arabia, Iran, the US, Pakistan, and China. Finally in 1986 the Kremlin decided to pull its troops out of the war because it cost too much, had little support, and wasn't likely to be won. This was important because the Taliban emerged out of the disorder and devastation of the Afghan-Soviet war and the later civil war in Afghanistan.

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

This was a conflict between Iraq and a group of countries led by the US to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded to control their oil supply. The war ended when the US crushed Iraqi resistance and liberated Kuwait. Important because it was a bit of a one-sided war and brought about continued conflict with Iraq.

Reunification of Germany

1990

Collapse of the Soviet Union

Approx. 1991

When industrial and agricultural production continued to go down with increasing inflation the Soviet economy suffered dramatically. This led to many of the Baltic peoples wanting to secede and ultimately declare their independence. Soviet Leaders would either threaten to repress their uprisings or promise better conditions but neither stopped the move towards independence. Led by Boris Yeltsin a group of conspirators decided to take power while Gorbachev was on vacation. Yeltsin dismantled Communist party and led market oriented economic reforms. This was important because it ended the Soviet Union.

Transfer of British Hong Kong to People's Republic of China

1997