Gun Control Research

Illinois Governors, Reps, Senators

List of Governors of Illinois

Adlai Stephenson II- Governor

January 10, 1949 - January 12, 1953

William G. Stratton- Governor R

Jan 13, 1953 - January 9, 1961

Republican, defeated running for third term by Kerner, Ignleside born dies in Chicago, political family

Otto Kerner Jr.- R Gov D

Jan 10, 1961 - May 21, 1968

Democrat, Kerner Commisson, Chicagoan, Vetoes stop and frisk in 67 and 68, fights for equal housing, leaves to be a judge in may of 1968, Kerner Commission, imprisoned for taking bribe.

Sam H. Shapiro- Governor D

May 22, 1968 - January 13, 1969

Democrat, childhood immigrant from russia, takes over for Kerner, vetoes stop and frisk again, but proposes "watered-down version," loses to Olgivie in re-election, retires to private life, 2nd jewish governor

Abner J. Mivka, 2nd District (Hyde Park) State Rep

January 3, 1969 - January 3, 1973

State Rep. Abner J. Mivka, D. 2nd district (Hyde Park) "Kosher Nostra" later repped 10th district, U.S. House later, Appellate Judge D.C. (Carter), Clinton counsel, Supports Gun Control in Hyde Park

Richard Buell Ogilvie

Jan 14, 1969 - January 8, 1973

Republican, "mafia fighting sheriff of Cook County" before governor, Lt. Gov= Paul Simon, first state income tax, succeeds in push for constitutional convention, pushes for new stop and frisk,

Chicago Mayors and Politicians

Mayors of Chicago

Leon Despers- Alderman Hyde Park

1955 - 1975

integrates Hyde Park, liberal voice to Daley's "conservative" voice as seen by some, supports registry of guns like Daley though,

Daley elected

April 20, 1955 - December 20, 1976

Bridgeport, dies in office,

Ed Burke becomes Alderman on Chicago City Council

1969 - Present

14th ward SW Chicago, Burke proposes Gun Control Law, supports Byrne, leads opposition to Washington, "Chicago's most powerful Alderman"

Michael Bellandic- Mayor

Dec 21, 1976 - April 16, 1979

succeeds Daley. Democrat, Alderman 1969, SW side, 11th Ward, Bridgeport

Jane Byrne

Apr 17, 1979 - April 29, 1983

North side, Kennedy campaign stafffirst female mayor of major city, first female mayor of Chicago, Commissioner of Consumers Affairs Dept, city cabinet, Daley hire, reformers, endorses Ed Kennedy in 1980, exposes Bellandic, later battles Washington and Daley in electoral races,

Harold Washington elected Mayor- Dies in office

Apr 30, 1983 - November 25, 1987

Dies in office, Former U.S. House of Rep, U.S. state sen., Centralia, Northwestern University, wins south and west sides in 1983,

Supreme Court Cases

SCOTUS cases on related to Gun Control and 2nd Amendment

U.S. vs. Miller

1939

militia theory or collective right upheld, no final ruling, challenge to 1934 gun act

Heller vs. D.C.

2008

Enshrines individual right interpretation "standard model" as precedent, strikes down D.C. gun ban, overturns MIller vs. U.S.

McDonald vs. Chicago

2010

incorporates 2nd amendment through Due Process of 14th amendment, protects 2nd amendment from states and municipalities, strikes down Chicago gun ban

National Events and Legislation

National Firearms Act of 1934

June 26, 1934

requires firearms to be registered and taxed, defines types of weapons to be regulated

Federal Firearms Act of 1938

June 30, 1938

Creates FFL for manufacturers, importers, and sellers

Kennedy Assasination

November 22, 1963

Dallas

Texas University Shooting

June 1, 1966

"1000 windows and 1000 Black Panthers, revolution" - cop on netflix documentary Tower

Martin Luther King assasination

April 4, 1968

Memphis

Robert Kennedy assassinated

June 5 1968

LA

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968

6/19/68

bans interstate sales of handguns, increases age to 21 to buy handguns

Gun Control Act of 1968

October 22, 1968

Lyndon Johnson, bans mail-order sales, bans ownership from felons, drug users, and mentally handicapped, FFL (Federal Firearms Licensing), registry for gun dealers and makers

Attempted Assassination of George Wallace

January 13, 1972

Washington D.C. Bans Handguns

1975

Firearms Control Regulation Act

Harvey Milk assassinated

November 27, 1978

San Francisco

Lennon assassination

December 8, 1980

New York

Reagan's attempted assassination

March 30, 1981

Washington D.C.

San Francisco Bans Handguns

1982

Dianne Feinstein, in wake of Harvey Milk Assassination

1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act

1984

3 strikes laws, first comprehensive reform since early 1900's, maybe?, Reaganizes crime lol, Sentencing Commision, Fraud control, etc

Armed Career Criminals Act

1984

adds penalties to GCA for felons using guns, 10 year man. min. to 15 years, "serious drug crimes", "felons", etc, 3 strikes penalty

Firearms Owners Protection Act of 1986

May 19, 1986

rolls back GCA of 1968, mail order ammunition, "safe passage" laws, interstate sales, rolls back regulation registry, provides checks against ATF enforcement, bans sales of automatic weapons made after law is passed, ATF oversees automatic weapon transfers

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

February 24, 1994

Background checks before sales, NICS system instituted

Illinois State Laws

Daley urges Illinois House to pass Gun Law

1967

urges state legislature to pass gun registration law

1967 Illinois Gun Control Act Proposed (FOID)

1967

sponsored by W. Russel Arrington, R., Evanston, FOID system

FOID Law

1968

Requries Firearms owners identification and registry, compromise, doesn't register gun just people, not Daley's bill, Arrington's Bill, Richard Speck and assassinations spurn concern

1968 FOID Act goes into effect

1968

requrires firearm owner identification system, denies registry of every firearm, seen as "compromise", leaves room for "municipal regulation" and "home rule"

Illinois Stop and Frisk Law

July 15, 1968

Illinois Constitution of 1970 goes into effect

July 1, 1971

passed september 3, 1970, ratified Dec 15, 1970. municipal "home rule"

Chicago Events and Laws

Chicago Housing Authority Established

1938

established for poor and low-income residents

CHA slum clearance, project construction

1938 - 1968

intitially starts in white areas of North and West Chicago, bridgeport, then blocked by alderman in those areas, and shifts to predominantly black, low density apartments shift to skyrises

Hyde Park Integration and Urban Renewal Program

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

1950's inegration lead by Despers, White flight leads to downturn, Urban Renewal led by U of C created integrated Middle class, poor leave South East Planning Board

Cicero Riots

1951

Hyde Park rapes, Creation of Police force

1952

"Jungle" Jim Rivera- Manual James Rivera, White Sox player, prior conviction, accused of rape, still plays ball, race unknown,

South East Chicago Commission-Hyde Park

1952

University of Chicago run, plans integration of Hyde Park

Hyde Park Herald becomes liberal

1952

shifts after being bought out,

Charles Gross Murder in Austin

February 6, 1952

Republican Alderman nominee, no calls for gun control in tribune or Herald afterwards, said to be about gambling crime syndicate moving into local politics

CHA shifts to Project Model

1955 - Approx. 1975

Starts building high-density tower project housing on superblocks, mostly built in black areas or on margins, or in areas of blight/slum clearance by urban renewal programs

Austin Turnover (90% White to 90% Black)

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1980

110,000 stays constant, dense urban neighborhood since 1920's, mostly German, Scandinavian European then irish and itialian immigrants until 1960's, W of loop next to Oak Park

Hyde Park White Flight

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1980

45000 in 1960 to 2600 in 1990 black population remains steady, asian up to 8%, stays mostly upper working to middle class, some friction though, "semisuburbia"

Hyde Park restricts handgun sales

Approx. 1961

Hyde Park restricts handgun sales - need verification on years

100000 Handguns estimated in CHicago

1965

according to St. Rep in HPH article "Gun Nuts at it again"

Humboldt Park riots 1966

June 12, 1966 - June 15, 1966

blamed on Puerto Ricans, very little history on event,, Humboldt Park experiences large black and Puerto rican influx in 1950's onward, white flight, loses 20000 overall population still around 60000 now

Speck Murders

July 13, 1966

Chicago Riots

1968

Chicago Firearm Registration

February 1, 1968

Daley orders city council to register all firearms in Chicago, City ordinance

Desperes Shot in Robbery Attempt

December 26, 1968

Survives after 2 week hospitalization, touts gun control and crime control thru development/renewal during stay, blames "street lights" January 10 1968 HPH "Desperes goes home from hospital"

Chicago Housing Authority "Freeze"

Approx. 1975 - Approx. 1995

after funding is cut due to corruption, racial discrimination, etc, projects freeze in geography for until late 90's

Tribune shifts from conservative to moderate

1975

Tribune seen as moderate after this point, although this variously means "center" or "diverse" at different times.

Humboldt Park Riots

June 4, 1977

blamed on Puerto Ricans

Chicago Handgun Freeze

April 16, 1982

freezes handgun sales and registration, effectively bans handguns in city except for those "Grandfathered in," other guns are still legal in city

Ben Wilson Murder

November 24, 1985

Calumet, Basketball Star, Jesse Jackson speaks at funeral, calls for gun control ensue

CHA demoiltion and Gentrification period

Approx. 1996 - Approx. Present

Destruction of Robert Taylor, Cabrini Green, other high rises, starts gentrification era

Oak Park Events and Laws

Oak Park Post War Boom and New White Residents

Approx. 1945 - Approx. 1960

W of loop, early township, Street-car suburb, upper middle class, Repuplican Wasp german, scandinavian sees jewish, catholic, ethnic immigration, Post War, then itialian and irish in 70's from other cities and Chicago

Oak Park Integration, White Flight, and "racial steering"

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1990

60000 to 50000, 10% black, White Flight leaves 10000 less, diverse and proud, upper middle class, cosmopolitan

Oak Park Community Relations Commission

1963

Oak Park Village Community Relations Commission Founded, heads integration and fair housing

Oak Park Fair Housing Act

1968

Oak Park Housing Center

1972

Spring, Bobbie Raymond, "racial steering", Restricted real estate agents

Oak Park restricts sales of Handguns

March 1975

Oak Park begins raises licensing fees for sellers

James Piszur and Henry Gentile assassinated in Oak Park courtroom

October, 1983

Oak Park bans handguns

April 16, 1984

Bans handgun ownership, goes into effect Oct 24 1984NRA comes in in effort to repeal in 1985 and is defeated, James Piscur and Henrg Gentille assassination

Oak Park Referendum Upholds Ban

November 5, 1985

defeats attempt to overturn gun ban, Oak Park Citizen Committee for Handgun Control vs. Oak Park Freedom Committee, national donors NRA, etc

Morton Grove Events and Laws

Morton Grove boom new white immigrants

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

N of Loop, English then German since 19th cent, 1950s boom 15000, 20000 by 1960

Morton Grove Asian Immigration

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1990

Population remains steady, 23000 in 1990, No Black Residents on census, Large ASian population, light industrial and research plants

Morton Grove Bans handguns

June, 1981

outright ban of handgun ownership, sales, and transport

Illinois Appellate Court Upholds Morton Grove Ban

February 9, 1983

upholds circuit court decision, 3 judge court, "model" for other municipal laws, upheld, 7th circuit

Supreme Court refuses to hear challenge to Morton Grove Ban

October 3, 1983

SCOTUS upholds municipal autonomy of Morton Grove

Evanston Events and Legislation

Evanston segregates slightly

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1970

N of Loop, Diverse Middle to Upper class w/ some working, always integrated.
Blacks concentrate on South and West sides, Jamaican immigrants, and Hyde Park migrants, some racial tension, but headed off by planning
long time black population, Northwestern

Evanston Bans Handguns

September, 1982

Illinois Committe for Handgun Control

Events

Skokie Boom

Approx. 1930 - Approx. 1960

N of Loop 1930's depression, 1940's zoning and commercial redevelopment, 1952 Edens Expressway, 5000 in 1930 to 58000 in 1960, no black, 20% asian by 2000 w/ 5% black

Highand Park Boom

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

Lake County 23 miles N of loop, boom in 20's to 12000, boom in 50's to 24000, always 90% white, 10 % hispanic starting in 90's

East Chicago Indusrialization

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

early suburb of Gary, Indiana, peaks in 1960, already somewhat integrated,

Arlington Heights gains 1% black, 9% asian/pacific/foreign born immigration doubles pop

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1990

NW of Loop, working to middle class, Stays mostly white, population doubles in 60's 27000 to 73000 in 1990s, 76000 2000

East Chicago (IN) integration and deindustrialization

Approx. 1961 - Approx. 1990

Integration, Deindustrilatization, 56000 to 33000, 1/3 white, 1/3 hispanic, 1/3 black, 10% other, poor area

Wilmette Population Peak

1970

N of Loop, 32000, always at least 90% white large asian minority (10%) by 1990, Highest income in Chicago area, 41000 in 1980 (4th in country) 110000 in 2000 (top 10)

Skokie Council rejects handgun Ban

October 3, 1983

Arlington Heights Referendum fails

April 2, 1985

holds referendum asking if residents want to ban handgun sales or possession, defeated by Coalition for Citizens Rights $20000and NRA, Coalition to Ban Handguns $3000

Wilmette bans hand guns

1989

stop enforcing in 2004

Highland Park Gun Control

1989

Primary Sources

"Senate Heads Urge Caution on Gun Laws"

June 11, 1968

Phillip Dodd, Mansfield (R, Mont) and Kirksen (R. IL) urge caustion, support gun registry not gun owner registry, says it is "states responsibility", urges caution in "emotinal response" to Robert Kennedy murder

"State Gun Law called Model by Arrington"

June 14, 1968

Senator W. Russel Arrington R., Evanston touts FOID gun laws syste, "dovetails w/ federal legislation," supports 1967 gun legislation and stop and frisk, says 1967 legislation delayed until 1968 to set up registry

"Dodd Predicts Stong Gun Control Laws"

June 24, 1968

Senator Thomas J. Dodd, D, Conn, NRA opposes, Crime biggest issue, NRA says "mass hysteria", keep guns out of criminals, registry vs. gun offense penalties

"Stop and Frisk Veto Upheld"

July 16, 1968

fails to garner enough votes to override veto, Shapiro predecessor Otto Kerner vetoed previous bill, stop and frisk = essential to "war on violence", Shapiro's watered-down bill up for review in Senate, stop and frisk key to gun control, split on party lines, stop and frisk supported by Arrington, Shapiro wants new gun laws to register guns not owners, will wait till senate passes federal gun laws

"40 Governors Back Lyndon Gun Law Plea" and "State House Committee Ok's Gun Bill"

July 23, 1968

Phillip Dodd, Governors respond to Johnson's request to examine gun control in wake of Robert Kennedy assassination, 40 respond, 4 non committal, 5 dont respond, George opposes, Governor's Conference in Cincinatti,

State house committee backs registry for guns and gun owners 19-4, July 22, amends bill to only apply to cities with gun ordinances, sponsor Paul F. Elward (D., Chicago), gives state sanction to municipal ordinances, proposed by Gov, Shapiro as crime control bill, adds to Arrington's 1967 bill

"Sweden Gun Control Laws are Tightened" and "Detective Mistaken for Burglar, Shot"

July 29, 1968

Discusses Swedish Gun Control laws, very tight, increasing regulation
two shootings involving police detectives, mistaken identities

Seeks Gun Control for East Chicago

August 18, 1968

East Chicago considers gun control, handguns = 75% of violence, Senator Birch Bay (D, IN) and mayor John NIcosia, Concerned Citizens for Gun Control Legislation, want state laws and enforcement mechanisms

"Stokes assails Gun Control Plank"

August 27, 1968

Cleveland mayor wants Gun Control on Democratic Party Platform, Mayor Conference supports Humphrey (Daley not among them), McCarthy and other haven't formed platform to deal with "Urban Crisis", Humphrey nomination

"NRA back Gun Ban Foes" and "Gun Law Testimony heard"

March 11, 1982

NRA-ILA endorses anit gun control candidates for Illinois GA election, NRA sponsors primary candiates for first time
Evanston considers law April 14, testimony from wife of slain psychatrist killed by patient
adjacent article talks about "gang task force"

"Victory For Gun Control Lacks Luster"

October 9, 1982

George Will, Goes over gains and losses of Gun Control since 83 court ruling upholding Morton Grove ban, cites lack of iniative in other communities,

"Morton Grove Upheld on Gun Ban Ordinance

February 10, 1983

Charles Mount, discusses Supreme Court ruling on Morton Grove Ban

"Skokie Board Rejects Gun Ban"

October 4, 1983

Skokie city council rejects ban 4-3, not fazed by SCOTUS upholding of Morton Grove's Ban, "insecure in their homes", history of Morton Grove law "shot heard round the country" and Court ruling, 7th circuit court of appeals, Illinois Constitution "Police Powers" of municipality, relies on U.S. v Miller (militia theory),
Picture "Don't Penalize Guns, Penalize Criminals"

"Oak Parker Slain, Gun Debate Goes On"

April 3, 1984

Ray Gibson and Jean Davidson, burgarly stabbing, Oak Park proposes Handgun Ban, cites courtroom slayings of Pisczur and Gentile, Oak Park Freedom Committee vs Oak Park Citizens Committee for Handgun Control, donation amounts,

"Inadequate Apology for Two Lost Sons"

Jan 1, 1985

"Dont Know how city can apologize," blames living in CHI Housing Authority project, new years eve gunshots kill son, 2nd son lost to crime, gang violence, points to hyporcrisy, Ida B. Wells Project

The "Liberated Woman," Free to be anything but Safe"

February 3, 1985

Mary T. Smich, women's lib, Rape/Fear, no protection, women's self-defense, Domestic violence reaction to women's lib, women buying guns, living alone, women's self-defense with guns

"If you Must Do it, then Do it Right"

February 3, 1985

Mike Royko, letter to columnists, instersection of gun control and communism, age gap, liberal association with gun control and communism

"Bearing Arms, The Rewards the Risks, Society Takes a hard look at Self-Defense"

February 24, 1985

Paul Galloway, Boerhnard Goetz controversy in NYC subway, 4 gang members killed, Self-Defense, Studies and Popular Opinion of Self Defense, "criminals preying", Case of Self-Defense vs. Gun Law, Home Owners and Small BusinessOwners in hig Crime Areas

Medium-Size Cities Feeling Gang Terror

March 3, 1985

Gangs not just urban problem, smaller cities, E. St. Louis, Rockford, Peoria, not as big as CHicago or as organized but still a problem

"Foes of Oak Park Gun Ban File Vote Proposal Wrong Court"

March 7, 1985

Ray Gibson and Charles Mount Oak Park referendum stalled by misfiling at court. "techinicality" says group, "liberty bell has not yet rung in Oak Park, the war is not over

"Suburban Voters Get Direct Shot at Gun Ban"

March 15 1985

Andrew Fegelman Referendum in Arlington Heights, National Lobby's on both sides, funding, Oak Park and integration

"Gun Control Proponents Gloomy after Loss at Polls"

April 4, 1985

Andrew Fegelman, Arlington Heights referendum fails, 7000-4000, National Coalition to Ban Handguns, Arlington Heights Coalition to Ban Handguns, Federal vs. Local debate

"Shot Heard Round the World, U.S. Arlington Heights Rejects Handgun Bans"

April 4, 1985

Andrew Fegelman, Defeat in Arlington Heights "Overwhelming" 7000-3000, lobbying differences 20000-3000 in favor of guns, no "grassroots" gun control anymore, implications for Oak Park election and referendum, Gun Control advocates see it as setback for national movement

"... No on Gun Control"

April 5, 1985

Arlington Heights Referendum defeat, singles out muncipalities as "unarmed," Targets for media and crime, need National legislation

"National gun control fights zeroes in on Oak Park"

November 1, 1985

Ray Gibson, referendum to repeal ban, Chicago Mayoral Candidate Bernard Epton considering similar Chicago ban, efforts in Oak Park like "religious zeal" w/ $$, Piscszor shooting, 34000 voters villiage board actually controls though, gun contol fervor like "1970's grassroots," gun rights uses usually strategy dismissal of crime deterrence and arguments for home protection