AP World History Unit IV timeline

Events

Ottoman Dynasty

1299 - 1923

During the period of 1450-1900 the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman empire experienced both great expansion and the majority of its decline. The Ottoman Empire had Sultans such as Mehmet I and Suleiman the Magnificent that expanded Ottoman territory greatly and encouraged cultural and economic growth throughout the Empire. One of the Gunpowder Empires. Later on, the nationalistic views of conquered people under Ottoman rule would eventually lead to the empire's downfall.

Songhai Empire

1340 - 1591

It was one of the greatest empires in West Africa. Resources and wealth were gathered through Sub-Saharan trade. In fact it was the center of all trade and had great influence., The fall of the Songhai empire led to a decrease in trade and less resources.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Henry is thought to have started the age of discovery. In which he sponsored many expeditions and voyages. He also,is credited with furthering knowledge of geography, mapmaking and navigation.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

1441

They built the first slave fort in 1481, on the coast of modern Ghana. This was also the location of Elmina Castle, which was the headquarters of the Portuguese slave traders.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was a priest that came to reject many of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church in Europe. He also attempted to dispute the teachings, he wrote the Ninety-Five Theses and was a impactful figure in starting the Protestant Reformation in Europe.

Columbus’ First Voyage

1492 - 1493

On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail from Spain to find an all-water route to Asia. On October 12, more than two months later, Columbus landed on an island in the Bahamas that he called San Salvador; the natives called it Guanahani.

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722

One of the three Gunpowder Empires, were primarily Shia Muslim and were known for conflict with the Sunni Muslim Ottomans. Had no tolerance for other religions, forced everyone to convert. Was founded by Ismail, the leader Shah Abba made the city of Isfahan a symbol of beauty and gained new territory. A series of weak leaders led to a weak navy and economy, the Ottomans and Russians seized Safavid territories.

John calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was Martin Luthers successor Calvin was known for an intellectual, unemotional approach to faith that provided Protestantism's theological underpinnings.

Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

August 13,1521 after a difficult battle, Cortes once again conquered Tenochtitlan and captured the new king Cuauhtémoc.

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1857

The Mughal Dynasty was a muslim dynasty that ruled a majority of the primarily Hindu India. One of the Gunpowder Empires. Founded by Babur, used zamindars for taxation, had a caste system, and had flourishing overseas trade. Akbar was very tolerant of other religions, Shah Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal, and Aurangzeb was very intolerant to Hinduism.

Foundation of Society of Jesus

1540

Even though he found it in 1534, In 1539 Ignatius drafted the first outline of the order’s organization, which Pope Paul III approved on September 27, 1540.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council of trent was held in three parts by the Roman Catholic Church. There were three periods in which negotiations continued till 1563.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1805

Akbar the Great, was a Muslim emperor of India, who established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests, but he is mostly known for his policy of religious tolerance.

Galileo galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo was the first scientist to use the telescope, he wrote several scientific works, he also developed his Theory of Inertia, and was considered the first modern science because he developed the scientific method.

spanish armada

1588

The Spanish Armada consisted of 130 ships carrying 2,500 guns, 8,000 seamen, and almost 20,000 soldiers. It was almost invisible till it was later defeated.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

After a century of constant warfare, establishing what was lost would take great effort.
The Regime focused on rebuilding social, economical, and international affairs.
In addition, Ieyasu banned Christianity in all of Japan.
Before his death in 1616, Ieyasu was able to establish the base of the Regime.

thirty years war

1618 - 1648

In central Europe, the thirty years’ war was a long series of wars that resulted in one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war reached around 8 million casualties and maybe even more.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Two Treatises of Government. John Locke believed in Natural Rights (life, liberty, and property), believed in the consent of the governed

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

The last Dynasty of china was ruled by the Manchus, who gained the respect of the Chinese by upholding Chinese traditions and Confucian values.The Qing would become very weakened and no longer be able to contain foreign influence.America will finally establish the open-door policy so that all countries can trade with China, however Ming China has been weakened beyond repair.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years’ War essentially made of two important problems. One was on the maritime and colonial conflict between Britain and its Bourbon enemies, France and Spain. The second, on the conflict between Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia and his opponents. Such as Austria, France, Russia, and Sweden.

James Watts Perfects the Steam Engine

1769

In 1764, James Watts thought of how he could perfect the Newcomen steam engine. There were many issues with the first steam engine. First, the engine wasn't efficient enough. Mostly all that was produced was soon lost. A separate chamber was added to fix this problem. Now, The separate chamber could be able to keep the energy in order to propel the object.

Reign of Louis XIV

1774 - 1793

King Louis XIV was a careless leader. The ruin of France was the cause of his selfishness and lack of leadership. He was also thought to be the main cause of the French Revolution. He kept spending money on unnecessary extravagant things, while his people were poor and sleeping on the street

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution started off as many protests. Colonists had barely any rights and no say in government. Many rebellions such as the Boston Tea Party helped spur the revolution. Receiving aid from several countries the U.S. were able to come away victorious and secure independence by 1783.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

This all started with King Louis XVI, who was a careless, and very selfish leader. The French economy began to crumble and all foundation was ruined. The people did not like this, I mean who would, so they began to revolt and retaliate. The citizens had to take back their country and this gave rise to Napoleon Bonaparte

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic. The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state. The revolution was one of the two successful attempts, along with the American Revolution, to achieve permanent independence from a European colonial power for an American state before the 19th century.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

During the French Revolution he became Emperor of France for a period of time. He was in a series of wars known as the Napoleonic Wars and conquered large portions of Europe. He was finally defeated and forced out. Or into exile. however he did manage to escape and return to France and ruled France for another 100 days until being defeated and exiled for good.

Wars of independence in Latin America

1808 - 1826

Venezuela & Argentina: 1811-1821: Led by Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin, fought for independence, gained it and helped neighboring regions fight for their independence as well
Mexico: 1810-1821: Led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos, fought for independence from Spain, finally gained it once they got support from the creoles
Brazil: 1821-1824: Led by Dom Pedro I, was a bloodless revolution, the Brazilians got Dom Pedro to agree to rule Brazil as an independent country

End of British slave trade

1811

Even though “Slavery was abolished” in 1807, throughout the British colonies. Much of it was still was in effect. Especially between Islands, trafficking continued.

Congress of Vienna

1815

The congress of Vienna was established to clarify and justify power in Europe. This meant making it as equal as possible. The Nations who were participants included: Russia, Prussia, France , Great Britain, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, and Spain. "The Final Act" Would end the congress in 1815.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

China fought Britain in the first opium war. This was to stop the trading of opium in China. The Chinese were forced to intervene when citizens of Britain killed Chinese officers in china. The British were one of many illegal traders in which caused the war

Communist Manifesto

1848

Karl Marx, the author of the communist manifesto, along with Fredrich Engels, The article showed the struggles of people around the world. It also put into view what was wrong with the ideas of capitalism and how lethal it could be to the world and society.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The rebellion was started by Hong Xiuquan, in who believed that he was chosen by god to do what he was destined to do in a way. He believed that he had to restore china's glory. People were willing to support him for a while against the Qing Dynasty. But soon, the people turned on him and he committed suicide shortly after.

crimean war

1853 - 1856

The Crimean War took place on the Crimean Peninsula and was a battle between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish. Russia and France fought over the Russian Orthodox and spurred the war.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

This was one of many rebellions that ultimately lead to the independence of India. The Sepoy Rebellion was one of the early ones. Troops started it in Meerut and it quickly spread.

origin of the species

1859

Origin of the species was a book written by Charles Darwin. The book explained natural selection and the theory of evolution. It was sold rapidly in the first days of it being published.

Meiji Restoration

1868

Under Emperor Meiji, the Shogunate was brought down and restoration began. Soon feudalism was also taken away and renovation began.

Suez canal

1869

A waterway located between Asia and Africa. Used as route between western Pacific oceans as well as Europe and Islands around India. It was mostly used as a shipping route that extends 120 miles between the North and Suez in the south.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin confrence which was held in Berlin Germany, duh of course served its purpose to establish the independence of Congo in Africa. Ironically no African leader was invited. It was established that Congo, along with the Congo River, were both neutral in Africa with no worry. Congo then would become its own state in Africa.

Indian National Conference. Belgium acquires Congo

1885

The Indian National conference was organized by Gandhi in order to plan and pursue Indian independence against Britain. He preached non-violence and it was effective.

boxer

1899 - 1901

This uprising was to stop Japanese and western China influence from spreading throughout the Nation. They destroyed property that belonged to foreigners, and in the process they killed many people and especially Chinese Christians.

Boer War

1899 - 1902

The Boer war took place in South Africa. The war was between the British Empire and the Boers of the Transvaal and the Orange free state. The British captured some Boer civilians in which the Boer people then retaliated. But, after many scrimishes, the British were too much and ultimately the Boer push fell and ended.

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

The Panama canal was built in order to shorten the distance between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The canal was originally "owned" by the U.S. but then in 1999 Panama was in control.

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

This was a war between Russia and Japan. The Russians were trying to expand into Japan and further gain more and more resources. But, Japan had other ideas, they forced Russia all the way back until they had no choice but to surrender.

All india muslim league founded

1906

The all India Muslim league was a political party established by Aga Khan III with the help of Muhammad Iqbal. The main objective of the establishment was to maintain the rights of all Indian Muslims and to create a separate Muslim India. This way the Muslims can practice Islam in peace and thrive

Henry Ford and the Assembly Line

1913

The assembly line created by Henry was a revolutionary invention. Workers were set at their spot and the car would be moved between them. They then place the parts as needed. This allowed for quicker production and perfectly complimented society at that time. The Model T sold quicker than ever and instant wealth was made.