The Congress of Vienna was led by Klemens von Metternicht, the foreign minister of Austria. The settlement dealt with the reorganization of Europe to achieve balance of power, restoration, legitimacy, and compensation after Napoleon's conquests of Europe.
The Carbonari led an uprising in Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia to the march of 'Long live liberty and the constitution', and found support in the army and the bourgeoisie.
King Ferdinand was forced to yield to the demands of a constitution similar to the Spanish one (the uprising was based on that of the Spanish), which limited royal powers, decreased centralization, and reduced the influence of the capital.
The regime was short-lived, however; it had too many enemies.
- The King sought to recover his former powers
- The Sicilian dissidents attempted to reestablish their island's separate status (though their attempts were suppressed by the Neapolitan constitutional govt.)
- Ferdinand earned approval for military intervention from Metternicht. (The Congress of Vienna granted Austria the prerogative of intervening for restoration purposes)
Young Italy was a political movement for Italian youth (under age 40) founded by Mazzini. Its goal was to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection of the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian empire.
All its revolts failed, including ones in Piedmont and Savoy, Sicily, Abruzzi, Lombardy-Venetia, Romagna, and Bologna.
This is perhaps due to the fact that there was no one to unite under, and all liberal ideas were too disparate to achieve a common ideology under which all of Italy would be united.
Pope Pius, at first, was seen as a liberal pope.
He released 2000 political prisoners, ended press censorship, reformed education, the law, and papal administration, gave laymen a greater share in public affairs, allowed Jews out of the ghetto, and granted Rome a constitution to replace the Papacy.
Thus, due to these liberal reforms, many people hoped Italy would be united under the Pope.
In 1847, there were bad corn harvests and an outbreak of potato blight.
Cereal prices increased by ~50% in industrial towns, thus consumers spent less on things other than foodstuffs.
This saw the declining demand of craft and industrial production and increasing unemployment. This led to an acute credit crisis, meaning poor people had to borrow from the rich and subsequently incurred huge debts.
Thus, this economic discontent fostered the environment for revolution.
Restricted the power of the church by forming Concordats (agreements) between the Church and state.
Abolished separate courts for the people and the clerical people.
Removed rights for criminals to seek sanctuary in churches.
Restricted religious groups in their right to buy property
Reduced the number of feast days during which people were forbidden to go to work.
Venetia went to Italy