AP European History Timeline


The Italian Renaissance

1300 - 1527

Humanism (revival in interest in the classical ideals of Greece and Rome)
Secularism (nonreligious subject matter, NOT anti-religious)
Use of Vernacular
Desire to go back to the classics
Civic Humanism (humanist ideals should be applied to everyday life! education should prepare leaders who will be active in civic affairs)
Patronage (Florence's Medici Family, the Church)
Ends with Sack of Rome
Virtu (idea of excelling in all of one's pursuits)

Selected Examples:
- Leonardo Da Vinci (Renaissance Man, Mona Lisa uses sfumato)
- Lorenzo Valla (On the False Donation of Constantine -- textual criticism)
- Brunelleschi (Il Duomo)
- Petrarch (wrote in vernacular, the "father of humanism")
- Leonardo Bruni (civic humanist)
- Castiglione (Book of the Courtier, describes "Renaissance Man")
- Pico della Mirandola (Oration on the Dignity of Man, free will)
- Machiavelli (individualist)
- Raphael (School of Athens -- humanism, individualism, secularism)
- Michelangelo (David, Pieta)

The Northern Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Same as Italian Renaissance, but more Christian
Went back to the classics (humanism) but more so the Bible
More socially oriented

Selected Examples:
- Erasmus (in Praise of Folly -- criticizes Church hypocrisy and calls for reform. Erasmus laid the eggs that Luther hatched)
- Thomas More (civic humanist, Utopia -- social reforms, religious ideals, didn't like accumulation of private property)

New Monarchs

1460 - 1550

Consolidated power and created the foundation for Europe’s first modern nation-states in France, England, and Spain.
New Monarchs began to make use of Roman Law and declared themselves “sovereign” (supreme ruler/monarch) while incorporating the will and welfare of their people into the position of monarch.
Never achieved absolute power
Not nation-states b/c people didn’t feel like they necessarily belonged to a “nation” (Local/Regional identity, not national)
Reduced the power of the nobility through taxation, confiscation of lands (from uncooperative nobles) and hiring of mercenary armies or the creation of standing armies

Reduced the political power of the clergy
Medieval notion of the Church being supreme to the state was replaced
increasingly gained the right to determine the religion of their subjects (Peace of Augsburg 1555)
Create bureaucracies to govern (hire people loyal to the monarch)
Find new sources of money outside nobles
Increased political influence of the bourgeoisie
Increased public (national debt)
This is NOT as successful as you move East (Ex: HRE)

SPAIN - Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
Hermandades (control nobles)
Inquisition (control religion, Cardinal Ximenes)
conversos (Jews) targeted (antisemitism)

FRANCE - Valois dynasty (Louis XI Spider King, Francis I)
taille, creation of a larger army (control of the nobles)
Concordat of Bologna (control the papacy)
French Church = Gallican Church

ENGLAND - War of the Roses gave rise to the Tudor dynasty (rule until 1603). Henry VII and Henry VIII
Star Chamber (secret trials of nobles, often tortured), and Nobles not allowed to have private armies with their own insignias (control the nobles!)
Law/Tax procedures developed (which disallowed England from having such power over taxation as France did)
Breaking away from Catholic Church and establishment of Church of England with King as its head (control the papacy)

The Age of Exploration and Conquest

1470 - 1650

Rise of New Monarchs led to competition for empire/trade
Renaissance: Search for knowledge!
Improvements in technology (magnetic compass, astrolabe, caravel, astronomy advances)
Religious desire to convert natives

Portugal the first
Bartholomew Dias (sounded the southern tip of Africa 1488)
Vasco da Gama (went to India, created demand for Indian goods in Europe, blow to previous Italian monopoly with Indian trade)
Amerigo Vespucci explored Brazil (America named after him)
Brazil was Portugal's major colony in the New World (slaves from Africa imported for production of mostly sugar)

Spain followed
Christopher Columbus (went to the Bahamas -- ushered in era of European exploration and domination of New World)
Bartholomew de las Casas (priest, criticized ruthlessness of explorers)
Treaty of Tordesillas (New World divided between Spain and Portugal)
Fedinand Magellan (first to circumnavigate the globe)
CONQUISTADORES (Hernando Cortès - Aztecs, Francisco Pizarro - Incas)
Spanish Empire in the New World resembled more the "New Imperialism" of the late 19th century and early 20th century by outright conquering entire regions and subjugating their populations)
Encomienda System
Mestizos (mixed white and Native American), Creoles (Spaniards born in the New World to Spanish parents)

"OLD IMPERIALISM" in Africa/Asia
Characterized by the establishment of POSTS and FORTS on costal regions but NOT penetration inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations (this is unlike what Spain was doing in the new world)

Dutch Republic (Dutch East India Company founded 1602). Dutch began challenging Spain in New World and controlled much of the American/African trade.

France (Jacques Cartier establishes Quebec, France eventually lay claim to over one half of North America before being expelled in 1763)

England (came into exploration relatively late, Jamestown in 1607, far more Englishmen came to the New World than French, Spanish, Portuguese combined)

Slave trade (Portugal started it in Brazil for sugar, Middle Passage)

Triangular Trade
Columbian Exchange (from NW->E potato, maize, syphilis -- E->NW cattle, pigs, horses, smallpox, sugar)
Disease (Native Americans not immune to Old World diseases, so their populations got decimated by smallpox and other diseases)

The Protestant Reformation

1483 - 1648

Corruption in the RCC: simony (sale of church offices), pluralism, absenteeism, sale of indulgences, nepotism, moral decline of the papacy (Pope Alexander VI had numerous affairs/children out of wedlock), clerical ignorance (many priests illiterate)
Christian Humanism criticized the church (ex: Erasmus) and questioned the validity of the Latin Vulgate (Catholic Bible) b/c they went back to the classic Bible (definition of humanism). They undermined Catholic authority. Another example would be Valla's textual criticism of the Latin Vulgate.

John Wyclif (English): Stated Bible is the sole authority, personal communion with God, translated Bible to English (followers: Lollards)
William Tyndale (humanist) translates the Bible to English in 1526. Is executed.
John Hus: Ideas similar to Wyclif (Followers: Hussites)
Thomas Kempis: The Imitation of Christ (encouraged Christians to live simply and make religion a PERSONAL experience)
Erasmus: In Praise of Folly

Anabaptists formed in 1525: rejected secular agreements, refused to take civil oaths, pay taxes, hold public office, serve in the military. Opposed childhood baptism. Rejected the Trinity.
Radical group of Anabaptists formed led by John Leyden: polygamy, all books but the Bible burned.
Tragedy at Münster: execution of Anabaptist leaders
Long term impact of Anabaptists: Quakers, Mennonites (pacifism), Unitarians

Impact on Women:
Lutheran believed women should stay home and take care of family
Calvin believed in subjugation of women to preserve moral order

Catholic Women:
Angela Merici (Ursuline Order of Nuns)
Teresa de Avila

Unity of western Christianity shattered
Religious enthusiasm rekindled
Abuses in RCC rekindled
Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over a century

Lutheran Reformation

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther - reform minded Augustinian monk
Johann Tetzel (authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences) "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings , the soul from purgatory springs"
Pope was looking for additional revenue to pay for the construction of Michelangelo's dome atop St. Peter's Basilia in Rome

95 Thesis (1517): Luther criticized the selling of indulgences but went further than others before him by questioning the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences. (printing press facilitated spread of the work)
Luther defied the pope. He was protected by Elector Frederick III of Saxony
Luther got into a debate with Johann Eck (a Catholic theologian), where Luther denied the infallibility of the pope. He claimed the church had erred when executing John Hus for heresy. (point of no return)

Luther's ideas:
Salvation could be achieved through faith alone (not good works)
The Bible was the sole authority
Only TWO sacraments (baptism and communion) were valid (he rejected transubstantiation in favor of consubstantiation)
church was a "priesthood of all believers", not a hierarchical structure
No indulgences. No simony.

Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520
Diet of Worms: Church demanded that Luther recant his writing. Luther refused.
Luther taken to Frederick III's castle and protected.

Luther translates Bible into the vernacular, profoundly influencing the development of the modern German language (culture developed in Germany)

Confessions of Augsburg (1530): attempt by Luther's friend to compromise and unite Lutheran and Catholic priests of the HRE (rejected by Catholics). Thus it became the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church)

Lutheranism spread to many northern German states, nobles (who could now escape the authority of RCC), Denmark, Sweden
** Calvinism spread throughout western Europe and parts of the New World.

The Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

Population recovered to pre-Plague level (more consumers existed)
"Price Revolution": long slow upward trend in prices, resulting from increased food prices/volume of money and accumulation of capital, inflation
The Low Countries (now the Netherlands/Belguim - Dutch) particularly flourished
Rise in capitalism
Middle class (bourgeoisie)
Banking (Antwerp and Amsterdam became financial centers)
Hanseatic League
Chartered Companies
Joint-Stock Companies
Mercantilism Develops 17th century (favorable trade balance)
Bullionism: A country should acquire as much gold and silver as possible

Slow transition from rural/isolated Europe to a more developed one with towns
Bourgeoisie grew in political and economic significance
Age of exploration emerges

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

Medieval universities provided the framework
Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics
Navigational problems on sea voyages in the age of overseas expansion created a need for scientific advances
Scientific Methodology (Bacon and Descartes)

** The Scientific Revolution became the major cause of the new world view of the 17th and 18th centuries (secularism, open hostility toward religion for some well educated, revolution of learning)

Nicolaus Copernicus (On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres -- Heliocentric View)
Tycho Brahe (His data later proved Copernicus' theory -- ironically, he was trying to disprove it)
Johannes Kepler (Three laws of planetary motion -- elliptical orbit of planets, planets do not move at uniform speed, and the time it takes for a planet to orbit the sun is based on its distance from the sun. Closer planets are faster)
Galileo Galilei (developed laws of motion, experimental method with controlled experiements, all falling objects descend with equal velocity regardless of weight, law of inertia, validated Copernicus with telescope, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)

Galileo became controversial: RCC said heretical. Pope Urban VII forced Galileo to retract his support of the Copernican Theory

Isaac Newton (Principal of universal gravitation, Principia, Deism, invented Calculus)

Scientific Method:
Francis Bacon (empiricism, Inductive Method)
Rene Descartes (Discourse on Method, deductive reasoning, I think; therefor, I am, Cartesian Dualism)
Scientific Method combined Bacon and Descartes

Alchemy the forerunner to chemistry

Anatomy, Physiology, Biology:
Paracelsus (used various chemicals and drugs to deal with medical issues that he saw as chemical imbalances)
Vesalius (The Structure of the Human Body, anatomy, assembled human skeletons)
William Harvey (On the Movement of the Heart and Blood, explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body via veins/arteries)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek ("Father of microscopy", first to see and write about bacteria, yeast plants, living organisms)

Governments/monarchs encouraged scientific inquiry as a means to further the prestige of the state and remain at the cutting edge of technology
Scientific Societies (Ex: Royal Society in England) created an international means for scientists to communicate.

Impact of Sci Rev:
Led to Enlightenment
Improvements in exploration
Spirit of experimentation helped accelerate the agricultural revolution near the turn of the 18th century
Improvements in medical knowledge
Reduced support for witch hunts
After the Counter Reformation, the Church became more hostile to science and science declined in Italy (Protestant countries became the leaders of the sci rev)

The Catholic Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

Pope Paul III sought to improve church discipline through existing doctrine
Catholic Reformation both a response to the gains of Protestantism and the response to critics within the church that abuses needed to be reformed

Council of Trent: established Catholic dogma for the next 4 centuries
1) Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions, and writings of church fathers
2) Salvation by both "good works" and faith
3) All 7 sacraments valid, transubstantiation reaffirmed
4) Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory all reaffirmed.

Abuses in sale of indulgences was curtailed, sale of Church offices curtailed, bishops given greater control over clergy, seminaries established to train priests.

Index of Forbidden Books approved by Council of Trent (Books that supported Protestantism of that were overly critical of the Church, like Erasmus, were banned from Catholic countries)

New Religious Orders:
Jesuits: Ignatius Loyola
Reform the church through education, spread the Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism
Oversaw both Spanish and Roman Inquisitions (antisemitism)
Jesuit schools became the finest in Europe.

Catholic Reformation succeeded in bringing back southern Germany and eastern Europe back to Catholicism.

The Wars of Religion

1560 - 1648

Spain sought to squash Protestantism in Western Europe and the spread of Islam in the Mediterranean
French Catholic sought to squash the Huguenots
The Holy Roman Empire sought to re-impose Catholicism in Germany
The Calvinist Netherlands sought to break away from Spanish rule
A civil war occurred in England between Puritans and Anglicans.

Absolutism in Western Europe

1589 - 1715

Sovereignty of a country was embodied in the person of the ruler
Absolute monarchs not subordinate to the national assemblies
Nobles brought under control (Eastern absolutism, the nobles still remain powerful)
Bureaucracies were often composed of career officials appointed by and solely accountable to the king
"nobles of the robe" purchased titles from the monarchy
Secret police
large standing armies

Jean Bodin believed that only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey the government
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan (Pessimistic View of human beings "brutish, nasty", absolute monarchy but not divine right of kings)
Bishop Bacques-Benigne Bossuet: advocated "divine right of kings"

Absolutism in Eastern Europe

1600 - 1740

Eastern absolutism differed from French absolutism as eastern absolutism was based on a powerful nobility, weak middle class, and an oppressed peasantry composed of serfs

  • in France, nobility's power limited, middle class relatively strong, and peasants generally free of serfdom. The threat of war with European/Asian invaders were important motivations for eastern European monarchs' drive to consolidate power.

Serfdom very strong (increased during 1500-1650)

Austria: Ruler of Austria traditionally selected as HRE.
Ineffective Hapsburg rule forced monarchs to turn their attention to consolidate
Reorganization of Bohemia was a major step toward absolutism.
Old hereditary provinces of Austria proper centralized by Ferdinand III
Hungary part of its dominion (Magyars cultural group)
Austria not a nationalist state
No single constitutional system/administration existed
Leopold I repelled the Turks in the Siege of Vienna

Charles VI Pragmatic Sanction: Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided and henceforth would be passed on to a single heir.

Constitutionalism in Western Europe

1600 - 1725

The Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Failure of the Peace of Augsburg

Four Phases
1) Bohemian Phase
Defenestration of Prague (HRE officials thrown out a window)
Protestant forces were defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia
2) Danish Phase (height of Catholic power during the war)
Albrecht von Wallenstein (mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE)
Edict of Restitution (1629): The Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to the Catholic Church
3) Swedish Phase: Protestants liberated territory lost in the Danish phase
Gustavus Adolphus: King of Sweden, led an army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia
HRE reluctantly annulled the Edict of Restitution
Swedish army defeated in 1634, France now feared a resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE
4) French Phase "International Phase"
Cardinal Richelieu of France allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE
Richelieu's policies reflected Catholic France's paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus he can be seen as a politique. (he was Catholic, but sided with the French for French interest. This was important because up to this point, religion was the dividing issue)

Germany physically devastated (1/3 population)
Germany furthered divided
Ended Wars of Religion
Marked the beginning of the rise of France as the dominant European Power
Accelerated continued rise of England, Netherlands, Prussia
Balance of power diplomacy emerged in Europe.

Treaty of Westphalia


Renewed the Peace of Augsburg but added Calvinism as a potentially accepted faith.
Ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany
Guaranteed that Germany would remain divided politically and religiously for centuries.
Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire now confirmed.
300+ German states became sovereign
France, Sweden, Brandenburg (future Prussia) received territories.

The Enlightenment

1685 - 1815

A secular world view emerged for the first time in human history
Natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life
Faith in human reason rather than faith in revelation
Deism: the religious arm of the Enlightenment (God created the universe, but then is letting it go like a clock)
Universe governed by natural law
Many Enlightened were elitists - didn't trust the masses
Religion is more private, not public
Classical Liberalism = political outgrowth of the Enlightment (not democracy, liberty of the individual/equality > law, natural rights, laissez faire, progress through education and reason, etc...)

Select Examples:
John Locke - Two Treatises on Civil Government (Defense of Glorious Revolution, natural rights,consent of the governed, life, liberty, property, right to rebellion) and Essay Concerning Human Understanding (tabula rasa, education is important)
The Philosophes (French philosophers commited to fundamental reform in society)
Voltaire (religious toleration, Crush the infamous thing "Ecrasez l'infame", Enlightened despotism)
Baron de Montesquieu - Spirit of the Laws (Checks and balances, seperation of powers)
Rosseau - Social Contract (general will - consensus of the majority, man a "noble savage", not a fan of women)
Denis Diderot - Encyclopedia (demonstrates learning)
Beccaria - On Crimes and Punishment (humanize criminal law, no torture -- influenced Enlightened Despots)
Quesnay - laissez faire instead of mercantilism
Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations (the "Bible" of capitalism)
Marquis de Condorcet, Mary Wollstoncraft, Olympe de Gouges all wanted female rights
Baron Paul d'Holbach - atheist
Immanuel Kant - science cannot be used as a guide for morality. They are different.
Salon movement (women) - new venues in civic society disseminated information to society

Secular world view emerges
Enlightened despotism
American/French Revs
Education reform in various countries
Growth of laissez faire capitalism
New public/print media emerges

Enlightened Monarchs - Tried to apply the principles of Enlightenment to the administration of their kingdom
Toleration of Religious Minorities
Reform of Institutions (exception: Catherine the Great)
Patronage of the Philosophes

The Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Machines began to replace significantly human and animal power in the production and manufacturing of goods (Use of steam engine for producing textiles in the 1780s was the turning point)

Commercial Revolution (spurred great economic growth and brought about the Age of Exploration, "Price Revolution" stimulated production, rise of Capitalism, Scientific Rev produced first wave of new technologies)
Proto-industrialization/The Cottage Industry (rural industry, the "putting-out system", family enterprise)

England the first to industrialize
Agricultural Revolution was vital (cheap/abundant labor, Ag Rev made it possible for fewer farmers to feed larger numbers of people)
England had a stable government
"Protestant Work Ethic"
Bank of England established

Growing demand for textiles led to the creation of the world's first large factories

Use of coal to power steam engines!
Steam Engine (James Watt)

Transportation Revolution
Made possible by steam power
George Stephenson

British supremacy
Continental Europe industrializes after 1815
Napoleonic wars hindered industrial growth on the continent

Crédit Mobilier helped build railroads all over France and Europe
Zollverein = a German tariff on non-German imports to encourage capital investment in German industry

Social Implications:
19th century = the golden age of the middle class
Proletariat grew (poor conditions for workers, poorhouses, Engels lashed out at the middle class -- buds with Marx)
Luddites - a violent group of workers blamed industrialism for threatening their jobs
Union Movement (Combination Acts - Parliament prohibition of labor unions, Robert Owens, Chartists)
Child Labor
Saddler Commission, Factory Act of 1833, Mines Act of 1842, Ten Hours Act of 1847 all helped child labor

Social effects:
Family unit decreases
Gender roles (male wage earner, woman at home)
Irish Potato Famine

The French Revolution

1789 - 1815

See France

The Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

See France


1800 - 1850

Emotion over reason
Glorification of nature
Rejected Enlightenment view

Sturm und Drang
William Wordsworth
Lord Byron
Johann Wolfgang von Geothe

Victor Hugo
Grimm's Fairy Tales

JMW Turner


Romantics believed in revolutionary movements that would give people more freedom and control over their lives
Supported nationalistic movements

The Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850


Major force in France during the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Classical Liberalism (Reformist and political, natural rights, rights guaranteed by written constitution
Adam Smith/Capitalism/Laissez-faire/"invisible hand"
Thomas Malthus (believed human population would outstrip food supply resulting in massive famines)
Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham, "the greatest happiness of the greatest number")
Inspired various revolutionary movements
Influenced Reform measures

Conservatism (dominant 1815-1849)
Reaction of those scared of the violence of the French Rev
Congress of Vienna
Metternich of Austria
Concert of Europe (enforce Congress of Vienna -- crusade against liberalism/nationalism, Quadruple Alliance, Congress System, Holy Alliance)
Edmund Burke (divine right, etc)
Joseph de Maistre (divine right, Pope ultimate authority, etc)

Italy revolts against Austrian ruler
Rev in Prussia
Greece gains independence
Unification of Germany/Italy
Common language, history, and traditions -- bringing about unity and common loyalties
Johann Gottfried Herder ("father" of modern nationalism, Volksgeist)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (German nationalism)

Romanticism - challenged rationalism of the Enlightenment

Socialism - challenged the Industrial Rev (esp maltreatment of workers)
Count Henri de Saint-Simon
Louis Blanc
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Robert Owen (unionization)
Engels (The Condition of the Working Class in England)
Karl Marx (Communist Manifesto, class struggle, etc)

Revolutions of 1848 were the watershed political event of the 19th century
Influenced by nationalism, liberalism, and nationalism as well as economic dislocation and instability.
Resulted in the end of serfdom in Austria/Germany, universal male suffrage in France, etc

Congress of Vienna


Major powers of Europe met to redraw the territorial lines and try to restore the social and political order of the ancien regime (conservatism)
The "Big Four": Austria, England, Prussia, Russia
Klemens Von Metternich represented Austria (conservatism)

Legitimacy (Return power to the ruling families. Ex: Bourbons in France)
Compensation (Territoriality rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon. Ex: Sweden receives Norway, Britain receives naval bases)
Balance of Power (Arranged map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order. Ex: End of HRE, encirclement of France)

Hundred Days (Napoleon marches into Paris and seizes power from Louis XVIII and marches against Prussian armies)
Battle of Waterloo (Last battle for Napoleon)
The "second" Treaty of Paris: The Quadruple alliance now dealt harshly with France in negotiations.

Age of Realpolitik

1848 - 1871

Failures of Revs of 1848:
Germany (Frankfurt Parliament failure, "Humiliation of Olmutz")
Italy (Giuseppe Mazzini, Austria/France forcefully take control back of Italy)

Realpolitik: Failure of 1848 Revs showed idealism really doesn't work in accomplishing goals. Realpolitik was the idea of accomplishing goals through practical means.

Crimean War:
Failure of Concert of Europe
Cause - disputes over land in Palestine
Russia gets involved, loses
Russia shocked it had fallen so far behind other powers, Russia begins to try to industrialize and modernize

The Age of Mass Politics

1871 - 1914

Political parties come to dominate mass politics
Increased suffrage and literacy resulted in higher expectations and demands among the people for government to be responsive to their needs

New Imperialism

1880 - 1914

World War 1

1914 - 1918

Causes -
Rival Alliances (Triple Alliance vs Triple Entente -- secret treaties orchestrated by Bismarck)
Arms Race (Militarism)
Imperialism led to increased tensions over Africa (Kruger Telegram, Fashoda Incident)
Nationalism created a power keg in the Balkans (Eastern Question, "sick man of Europe", etc)
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by a Serbian national (Kaiser Wilhelm II blank check)

Trench Warfare, horrific ("Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front details the horrors)
Machine Gun, Poison Gas, U-boats
Total War
Women replaced male factory workers

Wilson's Fourteen Points: Abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, "self-determination"

Interwar Period

1918 - 1939

End of World War 1


World War II

1939 - 1945

The Cold War

1946 - 1991

Post 1991

1991 - Present

Art Movements

Renaissance Art

1300 - 1600


Italian Renaissance: Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael (School of Athens), Titian, Bellini, Brunelleschi (Il Duomo)

Northern Renaissance Artists: Jan Van Eyck (naturalism-depicting people's natural place and the natural world), Albrecht Dürer (Germany)

Geometric Perspective
Chiaroscuro (dark/light colors to create illusion of depth)
Faces of subjects unique and expressive (individualism)
not always religious subject matter (secular - often patrons such as the Medicis would hire artists for self portraits)
contrapposto stance (more weight on one leg than the other)
Sculptures glorified human body/the individual, free standing, influenced by Greek/Rome, often much larger than reality
Architecture utilized ancient Greek/Rome form

Selected Examples:
- Michelangelo's David is individualist (glorify body, contrapposto stance),
- Raphael's School of Athens is secular/humanist (classics, no religious subject matter)
- Michelangelo's painting of the Sistine Chapel patronized by church (Pope Julius II)


1520 - 1600

Reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color.
Instability in the composition and stylization that exaggerates or fantasizes the human form.
Awkward, unnatural, acidic colors while shapes were elongated/exaggerated.

Time of Reformation and Counter-reformation, end of the Renaissance.

El Greco (Burial of Count Orgaz and Toledo)

Baroque Art

1545 - 1715

Began in the Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the power of the Catholic Church
Sought to overwhelm the viewer (grandeur, emotion, movement, etc)
Reflected the image and power of the absolute monarchs and the Catholic Church
Bold, dramatization, mystery
Stressed broad areas of light ad shadow
Color was an important element
Not concerned with clarity of detail as with overall dynamic effect
Also was the art of the absolute monarches (Napolean)

Spain, Rome, Middle-class Dutch, France, Austria
Ex: Versailles palace

Gianlorenzo Bernini (Colonnade, St. Peter's Baldachin, etc)
Peter Paul Rubens
Diego Velázquez

Music: Bach and Handel


1700 - 1789

Extravagance and Wealth
Evolved from Baroque, but lighter and less formal.
On a smaller scale, features nobles, portrays artificial "never-never world".
Time of Enlightenment, philosophes.
Appeal to royals and nobles
light, and ornnate
France and Austria, Versailla
Self indulgence

Artists: Fragonard, Boucher, Watteau


1770 - 1820

Inspired by Greek and Roman art, stepping stone to Romanticism.
During Enlightenment, nationalism, and French Revolution.
Return to classical antiquity
Formal, imperial style and imitation of Greek/Roman art
Mainly France



1780 - 1848

Emotion > Reason
Dark Color
France, England, Spain



Henry VII

1489 - 1509

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Broke away from the Catholic Church in 1534 and established the Church of England with the king as its head. Though, he originally opposed Protestant Reforms. Why did he do this?

He wanted to divorce his wife because she couldn't bear a son (only daughters out of 5 births) and he wanted a son to preserve the Tudor dynasty. But, Pope Clement VII could not grant the annulment. He also was in love with his mistress, Anne Boleyn.

Act of Supremacy (1534) made the king officially the head of the Church
Act of Succession (1534): All the king's subjects had to take an oath of loyalty to the king as head of the Anglican Church (Thomas More refused to take the oath, so he was executed!)
Statute of the Six Articles: The Anglican Church maintained most of the Catholic doctrines (e.g. 7 sacraments, celibacy for clergy, transubstantiation)

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

England moved towards Protestantism in his reign by adopting Calvinism.

Clergy could marry
Iconic images removed from churches
Communion by the laity was expanded
Salvation by faith alone
Denial of transubstantiation
Two sacraments (Baptism and Communion)

Religious struggle amount Protestants and Catholics

Mary Tudor

1553 - 1558

Tried unsuccessfully to reimpose Catholicism
Protestants fled England fearing her persecution.
"Bloody Mary"

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Oversaw the development of Protestantism in England
Politique: she was a practical politician who carefully navigated a middle ground between Anglicanism and Protestantism
"Elizabethan Settlement": Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately.
1563: The Thirty-Nine Articles defined the creed of the Anglican Church (Followed Protestant doctrine, but vague enough to accommodate most)

English Constitutionalism

1600 - 1725

Capitalism played a role in high degree of social mobility
Gentry: Wealthy non-noble landowners in the countryside dominated politics in the House of Commons (England's lower house in Parliament). They relied heavily on legal precedent to limit the power of the king on economic/political matters.
Calvinists prevalent

Can the king govern without the consent of Parliament or go against the wishes of Parliament?

Political Parties develop:
Whigs (anti-Catholic and anti James II. Liberal)
Tories (supported James II. Conservative)

James I

1603 - 1625

First of the Stuart kings (Elizabeth left no heir)
"Divine right"
Firm believer in absolutism
Twice dissolved Parliament over issues of taxation and demands for free speech
Elizabeth left behind a lot of debt, and the 30s year war didn't help.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Son of James I
"divine right", sought to rule without Parliament (like James I)
Sought to control Church of England
Tax issues pitted him against Parliament (needed money for wars)

** Petition of RIght (1628): Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases
Parliament has right to levy taxes, loans, etc...
Due Process
Habeas Corpus (right to trial)
No forced quartering of soldiers
No martial law in peacetime

Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629. Ruled with Parliament for 1629-1640. Called the "Thorough" (absolute monarch for 11 yrs). Religious persecution

1640: The "Short Parliament". Scottish military revolt over English "Common Book on Prayer", so Charles I re-convened Parliament to raise taxes for it. It was disbanded, however, after a month

"Long Parliament" (1640-1648): Charles was desperate for money so Charles had to agree to some concessions:
Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent
Parliament had to meet a minimum of once every three years
The Star Chamber was abolished
Puritans came to represent the majority in Parliament against the king's Anglican supporters

The English Civil War

1642 - 1651

English Civil War:
Charles tried to arrest several Puritan members of Parliament, but a crowd came to Parliament's defense. Charles declared war against his opponents in Parliament. Civil War ensued.

Cavaliers supported the king -- clergy, Anglican Church supports, old gentry (nobility)
Roundheads (Calvinists) opposed the king -- Puritans, Scotland, majority of businessmen, etc.

Oliver Cromwell, Puritan Roundhead, leads his New Model Army to victory.
Pride's Purge lead to "Rump Parliament"

Charles beheaded 1649, ended the civil war.

The Interregnum

1649 - 1660

Rule without a king.

The Commonwealth (1649-1653): a republic

The Protectorate (1653-1659): Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector (basically, a Puritan dictatorship)
Dissolved the "Rump Parliament"
No religious freedom to Anglicans/Catholics
Allowed Jews to return to England in 1655
Invaded Ireland
Conquered Scotland
Sought to regulate the moral life of England (press censored, sports prohibited, theaters closed -- military enforced)
Cromwell dies 1658, his son was ineffective. Stuarts under Charles II restored to the throne.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Parliament stronger in relation to the king than ever before in England. King's power not absolute.
Charles seemed to support Catholicism
Freedom of worship to Catholics
Clarendon Code (Instituted in 1661 by monarchists/Anglicans who sought to drive out all Puritans). Test Act of 1673
Habeas Corpus Act (Whig Parliament sought to limit Charles II power)
Took control of Scotland.

James II

1685 - 1688

Brother of Charles II
Wanted to return England to Catholicism

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

Final act in the struggle for political sovereignty in England
Parliament not willing to sacrifice constitutional gains of the Civil War for a return to absolute monarchy

James II forced to abdicate

William III and Mary II joint sovereigns by Parliament

Bill of Rights (1689):
England becomes a constitutional monarchy
Laws can only be made with the consent of Parliament. **
Trial by jury, due process, no excessive bail/cruel punishments, no standing army in times of peace

Glorious Rev not a democratic Rev (power in hands of nobility still)
Notable defense of glorious revolution: John Locke in his "Second Treatise on Civil Government" -- natural rights

Toleration Act 1689: Right to worship for Protestant non-conformists (Quakers, Puritans)
Act of Union: United England/Scotland into Great Britain

William and Mary

1689 - 1702

Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Conservative Tories (who had defeated Napoleon) controlled the govt
Corn Laws: Halt importation of cheaper foreign grains (benefited wealthy landowners at expense of everyone else, liberals outraged)
Peterloo Massacre (1819): Pro-liberal crowd listening to anti-Corn Law rhetoric were attacked by police -- press was brought under more firm control and mass meetings abolished

Britain abandoned the Congress system in 1822, reformed prisons and the criminal code, allowed membership of labor unions, and established an efficient metropolitan police force ("Bobbies")

Earl Grey (Whigs' leader)
Reform Bill of 1832 increased number of voters
Factory Act/ Poor Act, Mines Act, 10 Hour Act = labor reform
Chartists (radicals) demanded universal male suffrage and full citizenship without regard to wealth and property ownership
Corn Laws repealed in 1846

GB in the Age of Mass Politics

1850 - 1915

Tory Party --> Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli
Whig Party --> Liberal Party under William Gladstone

Disraeli - Aggressive foreign policy, expansion of the Empire
Sybil (1845): Disraeli's novel surprised many by expressing sympathy for the working class
Reform Bill of 1867: Disraeli's "leap in the dark" to repeal to the working people (Expanded Reform Bill of 1832, doubled the number of men who could vote)

William Gladstone - Irish Home rule, fiscal policy, free trade, opposed imperialism
Australian Ballot Act provided for the secret ballot (early Chartist demand)
Reform Act of 1884: Brought Britain close to universal suffrage

New groups emerge: Fabian Society (wanted a form of revisionist Marxism, socialism) and Independent Labor Party (led by Keir Hardie, popular w/ trade unionists, socialists, those who thought liberal/conservative parties don't care about public)

Liberal Party advances:
Parliament Act: most significant political reform during Liberal party rule (eliminated powers of House of Lords)
Foundation for social welfare state (unemployment, old-age pensions, tax increased on wealthy, etc)
Representation of the People Act (Women age 30+ get suffrage after WWI)

The Irish Question:
Irish independence (northern Ireland still a part of British Empire


Isabella of Castile

1474 - 1504

conceived the Spanish Inquisition

Ferdinand of Aragon

1478 - 1516

Wanted to expel the last of the Moors and Jews

Golden Age of Spain

1500 - 1600

Philip II

1556 - 1598

Involved in Spanish Wars of Religion/Netherlands Wars of Religion

Built Escorial to demonstrate his power

Wars of Religion in Spain

1560 - 1648

Philip II (1556-1598): A Habsburg ruler like his father (Charles V) he frantically sought to re-impose Catholicism in Europe
Under Philip, Spain became the dominant country in Europe: the "Golden Age" of Spain
Escorial: A new royal palace was built in Madrid (symbolized the power of Philip as well as his commitment to his Catholic crusade)

Spain waged war against the Turks in the Mediterranean to secure the region for Christian merchants
Battle of Lepanto (1571): Spain defeats the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece

Also fought Protestant England in the Spanish Armada, where Spain was defeated.

Decline of the Spanish Empire

1600 - 1700

Economy lost by loss of middle class Moors and Jews
Trade with colonies fell
Treasury Bankrupt
Poor Work Ethic
Inflation from Price Revolution
Loss in Thirty Years' War politically/economically disastrous
Spain officially lost the Netherlands (in the Treaty of Utrecht)

Treaty of Pyrenees (1659): marked end of Spain as a Great Power


Louis XI

1461 - 1483

Francis I

1515 - 1547

The Wars of Religion in France

1562 - 1598

Death of Henry II in 1559 created a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown.
Valois vs. Bourbon vs. Guise
Catherine de Médicis (Valois) wanted to maintain Catholic control in France (had 3 sons)
Between 40-50% nobles had become Calvinists (Huguenots) -- many were Bourbons
Guise family (Catholic) were strongly anti-Bourbon

St. Bartholomew Day Massacre: Catherine de Médicis orderd the massacre of Calvinists in response (20,000 Huguenots killed)
Massacre initiated the War of Three Henrys (civil war between the three factions)

Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) becomes the first Bourbon king

French Absolutism

1589 - 1715

Duke of Sully (1560-1641): Finance minister
Enhanced power of monarchy
Mercantilism: role of state in economy increases to achieve favorable trade balance

Cardinal Richelieu

1589 - 1642

Politique (Political > Religious)
Intendant System to weaken the nobility (indentants report directly to the king)
Further developed mercantilism
Subdued the Huguenots (Peace of Alais: Huguenots lost their fortified cities and Protestant armies)

In the Thirty Years' War, Richelieu and Louis XIII sought to weaken the Hapsburg empire

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

His rise to power ended the French Civil War and placed France on a gradual course toward absolutism

Converted to Catholicism to gain the loyalty of Paris "Paris is worth a mass"

Edict of Nantes 1598: Henry IV granted a degree of religious toleration to the Huguenots and ushered in an era of religious pluralism

Laid the foundation for France becoming the strongest European power in the 17th century.

nobles of the robe (he encouraged) vs nobles of the sword (he weakened)

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"L'etat, c'est moi" -- I am the state! The Sun King
He personified the idea that the sovereignty of the state resides in the ruler!
believer in "divine right"
France became the undisputed major power in Europe during his reign.
French language became the international language (as Latin had been in the Middle Ages)

The Fronde -- (Cardinal Mazarin controlled France when Louis XIV was a child), nobles revolted, Louis (a child) had a strong dislike for nobles early on because of this.

Louis XIV actions:
Recruited his chief ministers for middle class
Intendant system continues (started by Richelieu)
Control of the peasantry (95% of the population) with Corvée and taxes
Versailles Palance (Grandest and most impressive place in Europe, Baroque architecture, awe-inspiring scale reinforced his image as the most powerful absolute ruler in Europe, helped control the nobility by requiring them to live at Versaille for several months a year to keep an eye on them)
Considered himself the head of the French Catholic Church (Pope could not exercise political power)
Edict of Fountainbleau (revoked Edict of Nantes!) -- Huguenots could not practice Calvinism
Bullionism (accumulate gold and silver)
French mercantilism reached its height under Jean Baptiste Colbert, who wanted self sufficiency for France
Colbert developed the merchant marine

Louis XIV was at war for 2/3 of his reign, became economically ruinous for France
Balance of power system emergenced in response to the threat posed by Louis (Dutch William of Orange was the most important figure in thwarting Louis XIV expansion)
War of Devolution, Dutch War (Louis invaded both Netherlands)

Nine Years' War
Invasion against Spanish Netherlands
The League of Augsburg emerged against Louis XIV to thwart him in balance of power
HRE, Spain, Sweden, among others in the LoA

War of Spanish Succession
Fears of a Spanish-France massive power developing, so the Grand Alliance (England, Dutch, HRE, etc...) emerged in response
Treaty of Utrecht (1713) - maintained balance of power in Europe and ended expansionism of Louis XIV

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Nobility gained influence during his reign
"Nobility of the robe" increasing power
Wanted to raise taxes to pay for wars, Parlement refused

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

The French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Three Estates in France did not reflect the realities of wealth and ability in French society:
1st estate (clergy), 2nd estate (nobles), 3rd estate (everyone else, including bourgeoisie)

2nd estate regained influence in reign of Louis XV

Third Estate taxed the heaviest (taille, tithe, income tax, gabelle)
Corvee of third estate
"hunting rights"
lettre de cachet (government could imprison anyone without charges or a trial)

American Rev (bourgeoisie intriuged by ideas of liberty)
Huge debt following American Rev
Enlightenment (Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Adam Smith)
Financial Mismanagement by Louis XVI (he needed to call the Estates General to raise money -- Assembly of Notables refused tax increases)

Estates General:
Cahiers de doléances (grievances/suggestions to present to the king
3rd estate gets furious at Estates General

Abbé Sieyes: What is the Third Estate?

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

Third Estate declares itself the true National Assembly of France (Tennis Court Oath)
National Assembly dominated by the bourgeoisie (called the bourgeoisie phase)
Storming of the Bastille
The "Great Fear" (spirit of rebellion spread to the French countryside, lots of property damage)
Abolition of feudalism
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Enlightenment philosophy of classical liberalism, freedom of religion/expression, separation of powers, citizen = all French people)
Women: Olympe de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft "Vindication of the Rights of Woman", Woman's March to Versailles (bread, Jean-Paul Marat)
Constitution of 1791 (Civil Constitution of the Clergy secularizes religion and requires loyalty oath, France becomes constitutional monarchy w/ Legislative Assembly)
Flight to Varennes (Louis XVI tried to escape France and not approve the Constitution, he gets caught and this makes him seem a traitor)
Edmund Burke: Reflections of the Revolution of France (Burke disagrees with the revolution)
Thomas Paine: Rights of Man (disagrees with Burke by using Enlightenment principles)

Legislative Assembly

1791 - 1792

New group of legislators replaced National Assembly
Jacobins (dominated Legis Assembly) -- Girondins (a sub group)
War was an issue (War of the First Coalition with Austria)
émigrés were French nobles who fled France and influenced Prussia and Austria
Declaration of Pillnitz: Bluff by Austria to get the émigrés off its back
Brunswick Manifesto: Prussia and Austria threatened to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed
September Massacres (mobs slaughtered 1000+ priests, bourgeoisie, and aristocrats who opposed their program; many were in prison)

The National Convention

1792 - 1795

France becomes a Republic
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
The Mountain (radicals, Danton, Robespierre)
Girondins (more moderate)
Sans-culottes (working class, extremely radical -- they were responsible for the Bastille, march to Versailles, driving the king from the Tuileries, and the September Massacres)
National Convention declares war on Britain, Holland, Spain, in addition to war with Austria and Prussia (the first coalition)
Louis XVI killed
Girondins ousted
Enragés - radical working class leaders of Paris
Many Girondins fled Paris

Committee of Public Safety
Became an emergency govt to deal with internal and external challenges to the revolution
Maximilien Robespierre
Committee collabs with sans-culottes
Law of Maximum (early version of socialism)
Lazare Carnot reorganizes French army
Lévee en masse (mass conscription) b/c military victories fueled desire to spread Revolutionary ideals outside France

Reign of Terror
Law of Suspects (Those deemed enemies of Rev brought before Tribunals that were created to hear cases for treason)
Marie Antoinette executed
Eventually, no one felt safe from Robespierre's terror.
Cult of the Supreme Being created deistic religion -- "Temple of Reason" created
New calendar
Robespierre eventually was executed, leading to the end of the terror
Thermidorian Reaction: ended the reign of terror (significant swing to the right)

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Republican form of govt. New constitution
Middle class controls govt
No more sans-culottes influence

Conspiracy of Equals led by "Gracchus" Babeuf
Coup d'Etat Brumaire (Napoleon drives legislators from the legislative assembly)
New constitution by Plebiscite (referendum)
Begins Consulate

The Consulate

1799 - 1804

Enlightened Reform
As First Consul, Napoleon behaves more as an absolute ruler than as a revolutionary statesman
Napoleon Code -- Legal unity, civil code, code of criminal procedure, commercial code, etc, equality before law, freedom of religion, property rights
"Careers open to talent"
Concordat of 1801 (Napoleon makes peace with the Catholic Church)
Bank of France (financial unity)
Education available to the masses, public education under state control
Creation of a police state
War of the Second Coalition, ended by Treaty of Luneville
Saint Domingue (Haiti)

The Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

The Empire

1804 - 1814

Napoleon viewed himself as a liberator who freed foreign peoples from the absolute rulers who oppressed them.
Napoleon temporarily achieved the largest empire since Roman times
He created satellite kingdom where he appointed his family to rule (nepotism)

War of the Third Coalition
Balance of power system emerges
Battle of Trafalgar - Supremacy of British navy established (Napoleon loss)
Treaty of Tilsit (Height of Napoleon's success)

Confederation of the Rhine: Napoleon consolidates many of the German states
HRE abolished

Continental System
Attempt to starve Britain out by closing ports
Ultimately a failure b/c Britain could make up for lost trade w/ France by using the New World

Peninsular War (Spanish revolt against Napoleon's power)

Russian Campaign: attempt to invade Russia (fail)

War of the Fourth Coalition (Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia)
Battle of Leipzig: Napoleon finally defeated
Bourbons restored to the throne (Louis XVIII)

The "first" Treaty of Paris: France surrenders all territory gained since the Wars of the Revolution (1792)
Napoleon exiled
Quadruple Alliance agrees to meet in Vienna to work out a general peace settlement


1814 - 1825

Constitutional Monarchy established by Charter of 1814

The Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Began liberal:
Charter 1814 established constitutional monarchy under Louis XVIII

Revolution of 1830
July Revolution
Charles X forced to abdicate
Louis Philippe became new king under a constitutional monarchy "Bourgeoisie King"
France now controlled by upper middle class bourgeoisie bankers
Sparked a wave of revs throughout Europe "When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold"

Revolution of 1848
February Revolution
Second French Republic formed
Louis Blanc (socialist)
National workshops created by the new govt to provide work for the unemployed
Abolished slavery, 10 hr workday, abolished death penalty
June Days Revolution (govt began to close national workshops, marked the beginning of class warfare in France between the bourgeoisie and the working class)
Emperor Napolean III of the Second French Empire emerges 1852

Charles X

1825 - 1830

Forced to abdicate b/c reactionary policies in July Revolution of 1830 in France

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Bourgeoisie King
Forced to abdicate in February Revolution of 1848

Louis Napoleon

1848 - 1852

Second French Republic
Universal male suffrage
Louis Napoleon dedicated to law and order, opposed to socialism and radicalism, favored conservatism
Falloux Laws: Louis Napoleon returns control of education to the Church (in return for its support)

Napoleon III

1852 - 1870

The Second Empire (or Liberal Empire)
Direct, authoritarian, restricting press, but "liberal empire" sought

Crédit Mobilier bank established
Movement toward free trade
Haussmann redevelopment of Paris
Extended power of the Legislative Assembly
Returned control of education to the govt (not the Catholic Church) - Pope Pius IX issued Syllabus of Errors condemning liberalism in response
Permitted trade unions

Third French Republic

1871 - 1914

Paris Commune (Second Empire collapsed when Napoleon III was defeated in Franco-Prussian War)
New National Assembly (1871-1875) created with Adolphe Thiers as executed
Paris Commune (radical communist) lay siege to France
Paris Commune was defeated

3rd French Republic established in 1875 - dominated by bourgeoisie
Chamber of Deputies
Republic system
Trade unions legalized (suppressed by Napoleon III)
Jules Ferry = secular education and reform
Multi-party system
Dreyfus Affair: Most serious threat to the Republic


Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Warm water ports and westernization!!

Modernization/Westernization (imported western technicians/craftmen, went to Europe to learn esp shipbuilding)
Table of Ranks (sought to replace old boyar nobility with new service nobility -- control nobility) Merit based ranks vs. heredity
Service nobility = has duties to the monarch
Western dress code for nobles (and beard tax)
Sr. Petersburg ("Window the West")
Modernized Russia and brought it closer to the European mainstream
Strelski revolt (anti-western rebellion) defeated
The Great Northern War (Russia v. Sweden) led to the Treaty of Nystad, which gave Russie Latvia and Estonia and thus a "Window on the West"
Russian Orthodox Church (did not support Peter) - Peter replaces the Patriarch of the ROC with a synod (a group of bishops) - this decreased power to the church and helped centralize power.
Christian toleration for foreigners.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Patronized philosophes (ex: Denis Diderot, Voltaire)
Loved French culture
Pugachev's Rebellion (Catherine needs support of nobility to put this down, she gave them absolute control of the serfs - nobles doing well, serfs were doing terribly under her reign)
Imported Western culture into Russia
Dependent on the support of the nobility (caused her to employ limited reform) - probably the least "enlightened" of the enlightened despots in terms of reform
Restricted torture
Limited degree of religious toleration
Only the state/nobility benefited from Catherine, the rest benefited minimally (if at all)
Serfdom became more severe
Territorial growth (annexed Polish territory)

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

The Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Decembrist Uprising

Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Decembrist Uprising


Death of Tsar Alexander (Nicholas, brother, was next in line)
Decembrists (junior military officers) supported popular grievances among Russian society
Revolt suppressed

Slavophiles (Russian culture > West)
Westernizers (Wanted to implement aspects of Western Culture)

Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Believed serfdom had retarded Russia's modernization.
Emancipation Act: Abolished serfdom (didn't really change much, as much of Russia lived on Mirs, highly regulated communes)
Zemstvos: assemblies that administered local areas (Step toward popular participation)
Russia was stimulated by railroad construction

Alexander III

1881 - 1894

Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification
Theodore Herzl (Zionism - anti-Semitism)

Nicholas II

1894 - 1917

Russo-Japanese War

Revolution of 1905
"Bloody Sunday"
Forced to make concessions in the October Manifesto, which established the Duma (assembly)

Russian Revolution

1917 - 1923

Vladmir I. Lenin

1917 - 1924

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1920


German Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

Twelve Articles: German peasants demanded an end to serfdom of tithes, and other practices of feudalism that oppressed the peasantry (Ex: hunting rights).

Many were inspired were Lutheranism
Luther actually discouraged the movement. He may have sympathized with some of the complaints of the peasants, but he was disgusted with the violence of the peasant movement. "Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants"
Both Catholic and Lutheran forces took part in squashing the revolt.

Frederick William

1640 - 1688

Strict Calvinist, granted religious toleration to the Catholics and Jews
Militarism (created most efficient army in Europe)
Junkers: nobles/landowners

Prussian Absolutism

1640 - 1740

Religious toleration (for Protestants) -- Weakens state church
Cooperation with the Nobility (Junkers, Service Nobility) -- nobles in return get control of peasants
Good education system (compulsory public education)
Reduced power of representative bodies (bc tax by decree)

Frederick I

1688 - 1713

Wanted to imitate court of Louis XIV
Encouraged education (founded a university,etc)
Two wars against Louis XIV for balance of power

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

The Soldier King
Infused militarism "Sparta of the North"
Doubled the size of the army
80% of govt revenue went to the military
Oversaw the most efficient bureaucracy in Europe
Junkers supported king's absolutism
Compulsory elementary education
Disciplined society (operas banned, ballets banned, seen as "soft" -- contrast to Louis XIV who took pride in these things)

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Frederick the Great - Enlightened Absolutist

War of Austrian Succession (Fredick invaded and annexed a part of the Austrian Hapsburg empire, violating the Pragmatic Sanction)
Seven Years' War
Treaty of Paris (1763) sorted out this conflict
1st servant of the state - concerned with well-being of his people
increased power of the state
codified/streamlined laws
freed serfs
social structure remains stratified
Patronized the philosophes (ex: Voltaire)
Religious Toleration (Protestants still favored)
Civil Service Reform (merit based promotions)
Militarism (this aspect is in contradiction to Enlightenment ideals)

The Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Carlsbad Degrees had effectively restricted freedom throughout Germany
Yet, liberal/nationalistic desires for German unification were easily crushed by Metternich's German Confederation (Bund) and his influence on Prussia.

Frederick William IV

1840 - 1861

Believed in "divine right"
Stated he would not "accept the crown from the gutter" when proposed by Frankfurt Parliament

German Unification

1860 - 1871

Zollverein excluded Austria, so Austria tried to destroy it

Otto von Bismarck: REALPOLITIK
Junker Background
"Gap Theory" gained Bismarck's favor with the king
Blood and iron
He sought to orchestrate wars to gain victories:
Prussian-Danish War
Austro-Prussian War
Reichstag (new parliament)
Franco-Prussian War (Treaty of Frankfurt, France humiliated)


1862 - 1890

The German Empire

1871 - 1914

Kaiser Willhelm I had the ultimate power in Germany
Otto von Bismarck (Protestant) served as chancellor and was the mastermind
Multi-party: Catholic Center Party vs Social Democratic Party

Kulturkampf "struggle for civilization": Bismarck sought to limit the influence of the Catholic Center Party in light of Pope Pius IX's declaration in 1870 of papal infallibility. (he failed) ANTI CATHOLIC

Social Democratic Party (Marxist) - Bismarck wanted to reduce their influence
Modern social security laws established, child labor was regulated, improved working conditions (Bismarck gave into the SDP's demands to get them to stop whining, basically).

Wiliam II (r. 1888-1918) opposed Bismarck and forced him to resign.

Holy Roman Empire/Austria

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Controlled the Holy Roman Empire (300 semi autonomous German states)
Sought to prevent the spread of the Protestant Reformation in Germany
NOT a New Monarchy
His armies sacked Rome in 1527 (ending the Renaissance in Italy)
Emperor did not have centralized control and could not levy taxes/raise armies outside of his own hereditary lands
Numerous German states enjoyed independence.

League of Schmalkalden: Newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes formed this to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany. Charles was finally victorious over this league, but Lutheranism had spread and taken hold in much of central Europe.
By the 1550s, he was forced to give up on restoring Catholicism in all the German states in the empire.
PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555): Temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism. Princes in Germany chose either Protestantism or Catholicism. Resulted in permanent religious division in Germany, and stunted German nationalism (Germany was not a unified state until 1871)

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 allowed her to receive the Hapsburg Empire from her father Charles VI
She sought to improve the condition of her people through absolute rule
War of Austrian succession
Centralized control of the Hapsburg empire
Limited the power of the nobles (nobles taxed)
Did much to help serfs
Brought Catholic Church under state control
Promoted economic development
Not considered an enlightened despot b/c she did not allow religious toleration)

Joseph II

1780 - 1790

Deeply influenced by the Enlightenment
Abolished serfdom and feudal dues
Freedom of religion/civic rights to Protestants and Jews
Freedom of the press to a sig degree
Abolished torture
Establishes hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses and orphanages

Leopold II forced to reverse many of these reforms later to maintain control of the empire.

Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Carlsbad Decrees (1819): Cracked down on liberalism in universities and drove liberalism and nationalism underground
German Confederation (Bund) replaced the HRE - largely ineffective


Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

See Lutheran Reformation

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

Swiss Reformation

Student of humanism
In contrast to Luther, he saw the Eucharist as only symbolic and that Luther's view of the Real Presence (consubstantiation) was too Catholic in its foundation. (First dispute among Protestants dealing with issues of doctrine)
Colloquy of Marburg (1529): Zwingli officially splits with Luther on the issue of the Eucharist.
Augburg Confession excluded non-Lutheran reformers such as Zwingli or Calvin

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Influenced by humanism (Erasmus) as Luther

Institutes of the Christian Religion:
- Calvin's foundational work for Calvinism.
- Predestination: Since God is all-knowing, he already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell (thus, good works are not sufficient for salvation -- however, good works are a sign that someone has been selected for salvation)

Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540 (Geneva became the new center of the Reformation, and a home for Protestant exiles)
Like Zwingli, Calvin believed church and city should combine to enforce Christian behavior (but Luther did not believe this)
Calvinism was the most militant/uncompromising of all Protestant sects.
Consistory: A judiciary made of lay elders (presbyters) had the power to impose harsh penalties for those who did not follow God's law. (drinking, singing secular music, dancing, gambling prohibited)
Protestant Work Ethic (Calvin emphasized the importance of hard work and accompanying financial success as a sign that God was pleased)
Huguenots = French Calvinists (brutally suppressed in France)
Dutch Reformed Church

Wars of Religion in the Netherlands

1568 - 1648

William I (William of Orange) led 17 provinces in the Netherlands and Flanders against the Spanish inquisition
United Provinces of the Netherlands formed in 1581 (The Dutch Republic). Received aid from Elizabeth I (major blow to Philip)
Spanish Netherlands (modern day Belgium): the southern 10 provinces remained under Spain's control

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1650

Govt dominated by bourgeoisie
Innovations in banking and finance
Amsterdam = banking/financial capital of Europe
Dutch East Indian Company
Art was not necessarily baroque in that it sought to overwhelm the viewer (Famous Dutch Artists: Rembrandt, Vermeer, Hals)

Italy in the Age of Metternich

1815 - 1850

Italian nationalists called for unification (Guiseppe Mazzini)
Austrian troops crushed the disorganized revolutionaries

Italian Unifcation

1848 - 1871

Realpolitik as a strategy emerged instead of idealism of romanticism for unification
Garibaldi liberated southern Italy and Sicily
1871: Rome captured