Constitutionalism in England

layer 1

1629

1629

Charles I dissolves Parliament

William Laud

1637

William Laud: archbishop of Canterbury; tried to impose elaborate ceremonies on all churches and enforced church service-uniformity through "Court of High Commission"
1637: tries to impose new prayer book and bishoprics on church organizations in Scotland
Puritans: wanted to purify Anglican church of Roman Catholic elements

1640

1640

Charles I complelled to summon Parliament

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

Long Parliament proceeded to enact legislation that limited the power of the monarch and made arbitrary government impossible

Triennial Act

1641

House of Commons passed the Triennial Act (compelled king to summon Parliament every 3 years)

1642-1649

1642 - 1649

English Civil War

started- tested whether sovereignty in England was to reside in king or in Parliament

ended- Charles I was executed on the charge of high treason

commonwealth

1649

Charles I beheaded, commonwealth (republican government proclaimed)

1649

1649

Cromwell crush rebellion in Drogheda in Ireland w/ merciless savagery, leaving legacy of Irish hatred for England

Interregnum

1649 - 1660

period between 1649 and 1660 that separated two monarchial periods (from Charles I to Charles II); England experienced military dictatorship

Navigation Act

1651

require that English goods be transported on English ships, Cromwell enforce

Protectorate

1653 - 1658

rule of Cromwell, constitute military government

Instrument of Government

1653

constitution made by army that invested executive power in lord protector (Cromwell) and a council of state Provide for triennial parliaments and gave Parliament sole power to raise taxes

1658

1658

Cromwell died, military government collapsed

Restoration

1660

-re-established monarchy in Charles II
-Cabal: council of five men who were advisers and members of Parliament; CABAL=(Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper, Lauderdale)

1670

1670

Charles enter secret agreement w/ Louis XIV (Fr king would give Charles 200,000 pounds annually and Charles would relax laws against Catholics and gradually re-Catholicize England, support Fr policy, and convert to Catholicism himself

Test Act

1673

anyone refusing to recieve Eucharist of the Church of England could not vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities, or even assemble for meetings

1685

1685

James II succeeds Charles II
Louis XIV's Revocation of Edict of Nantes

1688

1688

James second wife produced a male heir

1688

1688

James II, his queen, and their infant son fled to France and became pensioners of Louis XIV

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

-replaced one king w/ another w/ min amount of bloodshed, destruction of idea of divine right monarchy, establish priniciple that sovereignty (ultimate power in state) divided btw king and Parliament and king ruled w/ consent of governed
-Bill of Rights: cornerstone of constitution, direct response to absolutism, men framed intentions of revolution
-established constitutional monarchy, or limitation of government by law

1689

1689

William and Mary crowned king and queen of England

layer 2

Elizabeth I Reign

1588 - 1603

political shrewdness, careful management of finances, wise selection of ministers, clever manipulation of Parliament, sense of royal dignity and devotion to hard work

James I Reign

1603 - 1625

politically shrewd, lacked common touch with the people, believed in divine right, didn't live up to Elizabeth's legacy

Charles I Reign w/out Parliament

1629 - 1640

finance government through extraordinary stopgap levies considered illegal by most English people, for example: law required coastal districts to help pay cost of ships for defense, but levied "ship money" tax on inland and coastal counties

Charles II Reign

1660 - 1685

indifferent about doctrinal issues, determined "not to set out in his travels again" which means he intended to get along w/ Parliament

James II Reign

1685 - 1688

appoint Roman Catholics to positions in armies, universities, and local government, issue declaration of indulgence granting religious freedom to all