The fall of Rome contributes to the establishment/start of the Middle Ages
This marked the beginning of the recovery after Rome's fall. The order that the Roman Empire had brought to western Europe for 1000 years was finally coming back
The Middle Ages saw a growth and development in the assumption of Mary, becoming widespread across the Christian world from 6th century onward. The majority of Western Marian writers during this period belonged to the monastic tradition, the Benedictines.
At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe.
Charlemagne establishes an empire in France/Germany that helps restore church-based education and increase level of intellectual activity in the west.
The empire did no survive long without Charlemagne and eventually increased in violence and political problems.
Viking, Mongols, Muslim, and other tribal groups start the increase of violence, wars and many other problems.
After Charlemagne's son dies, the kingdom is split into 3 parts. With an increase of raids and violence, kingships were created in order to protect kingdoms.
Emperors followed the split of Charlemagne's empire in northern Italy/Germany and failed to develop a centralized monarchy in Germany
This was a system of agricultural cultivation. One-third of land was left unplanted each year to regain fertility which increased productivity, because there were different land areas for different seasons.
The Vikings raid came out of total surprise because although the west had been invaded, they were expert navigators and were able to attack with the planning in advance .
As trade revives, the west becomes a common commercial zone. Causing a spread in ideas and products.
Germanic kings revive the Roman empire. Kings were glad to accept Roman titles from the Byzantine emperor, who sought to maintain the formal unity of the Roman empire in the west.
The Peace and Truce movement was formed by the Catholic Church. It was the first of it's kind of movement in Medieval Europe for the control of society using non-violent means.
Rome, France, Venice and other Italian towns became city-states. The feudal system also begins, kings giving sections of land to lords in exchange for help in war. Peasants worked the land in exchange for food and protection.
The High Middle ages were characterized by a series of creative tensions, fed by the growing western European population, agriculture and cities.
The East-West Schism divides the church into the East Orthodox and Western Catholicism.
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic.
The First Crusade exposed in the west to view cultural and economic influences from the Middle East that promoted trade. This appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Three great armies with tens of thousands of crusades from various parts of the west, assembled in Constantinople, moving towards Jerusalem.
The system of theology and philosophy taught in medieval European universities, based on Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early Church fathers-having a strong emphasis on tradition and dogma.
A military religious order, founded to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land and to gain territorial/political influence.
St. Denis Abbey in Paris is rebuilt in Gothic style, the first church to use this design that will later influence other churches.
For almost a century, knights ruled the king of Jerusalem, losing it to a great Muslim general, Saladin.
Led to the death of the German emperor and the imprisonment of the English king, although it did produce a brief truth with Saladin.
King John of England confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
The same feudal balance (Magna Carta) led to the creation of parliaments as bodies representing groups such as nobles.
Key sources of Western vitality threatened to disappear due to new diseases and overpopulation.
During these two years of famine, a big portion of the population died of hunger and diseases. During those days of famine, crime rate increased to extreme and there were too many incidences of cannibalism, rapes, and infanticides. The Great Famine brought unrest in peasants and the members of nobility also suffered a setback and as a result, they became more bloodthirsty and gave up the oath of chivalry.
Conflict between England and France; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights.
The Black Death begins. This horrible disease would kill around 1/3 of the people in Europe.
He was a wealthy and powerful French merchant, who served as councilor to King Charles VII of France. His career remains a significant example of the spirit of enterprise and the social progress among the merchant classes in the beginning of the period of the rise of France after the Hundred Year's War.
Peasant girl that led France to victory over the English and their French allies, the Burgundians.
Johanness Gutenberg of Germany invents a printing press with moveable type that can copy a page multiple times. There was no need to copy books by hand anymore.
Reduced population of France by half, Bordeaux surrenders and left Calais as last English possession in France.