Basic HOA Timeline

Very helpful but not completely into depth, refer to other timelines for specificity


French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

British Government left in large debt
Taxing of colonists

Articles of Confederation

1776 - 1786

Very weak central government

Declaration of Independence


Declared independence from English colonies- resulted in American Rev
Explained that citizens could overthrow oppressive government
Had list of grievances
Theory of gov from John Locke w/ unalienable rights
Signed by members of Second Continental Congress: John Hancock, Benjamin Rush, Charles Carroll, John Witherspoon

U.S. Constitution


Established Republic
Limited government
Separation of Powers
Popular Sovereignty
Checks and Balances

The Federalist Papers

1787 - 1788

Written in strong support of The Constitution
by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton
Led to it's ratification

Bill of Rights

December 15, 1791

1.) freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition
2.) right to bear arms
3.) no quartering without consent
4, 5, 6.) protects rights of the accused
7.) right to a trial by jury
8.) protects against excessive bail
9.) citizens have rights that aren't specifically mentioned in Constitution
10.) federal gov ONLY has rights listed in constitution

Great Migration

1816 - 1870

African Americans seeking work opportunities up north
Formed Culture centers like Harlem
Harlem Renaissance aimed to recognize black communities through art
Marcus Garvey was for black pride and organized Back to Africa Movement

Indian Policy

1830 - 1890

US Government pushed Native Americans onto reservations away from their natural homes and territories
Near extinct buffalo as food supply prevented any possibility of fighting back
Some reformers urged natives to undergo "Americanization"

Alexis de Tocqueville sent to America


Led him to write "Democracy in America"
outlined the five values of:

The California Gold Rush

Approx. 1848 - Approx. 1855

mining towns springing up, helped for westward movement

Corporations and population increase

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1900

Population fueled by high birthrate and immigration- rise in good demand
Laws passed to male corporations classified as separate persons
Capitalism system in place and operated on:
1.) Individuals produce and sell whatever they want
2.) Prices and Wages determined by Demand
3.) Profits distributed among owners of company- businesses are privately owned- creates competition

Civil War

1861 - 1865

Resulted from continuing expansion of America and differences in moral values of the North and the South
Resulted in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendment being passed guaranteeing citizenship, equal law protection, and voting rights

Homestead Act

May 20, 1862

Gave 160 acres of land to anyone that lived on that plot for 5 years and made improvements to it

Morrill Land Grant Act

July 2 1862

Created land grant colleges
Envisioned by Justin Smith Morrill
Established institutions in each state that would educate about agriculture

"E Plurus Unum" "In God We Trust"


2 mottos of America and Second one is printed on US currency

Boss Tweed runs Tammany Hall

1868 - 1873

Cities are run by political machines and bosses
Provided services to immigrants and the poor in exchange for votes

Completion of Transcontinental Railroad

May 10 1869

Tied the nation together
Shipping raw materials became less expensive
New selling methods became popular

Knights of labor

december 1869 - 1886

joined all skilled and unskilled workers to demand worker's rights
Organized by Terrance Powderly
Fell apart after Haymarket Affair

Cattle Industry Became Big Business

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1880

Cattle driven from southern states all the way to Chicago
Severe summers and winters killed off cattle
Barbed wire also saw to decline in herding

Entrepreneurs have dominant influence on economy

1870 - 1879

Andrew Carnegie- Scottish Immigrant- one of America's most richest and powerful men- Founded Carnegie Steel Corporation
Carnegie eventually wrote "The Gospel of Wealth"
John D. Rockefeller formed Standard Oil and controlled 90% of Nations oil supply- created a virtual monopoly

Grange Movement Starts


Farmer organization formed to overcome challenges like:
High shipping costs
Growing debt
Periodic Natural Disasters
They worked for economic and political reforms

Thomas Edison invents the Lightbulb


Part of American industrialization with advancements including
The Bessemer process
The invention of the telephone
The sewing machine, typewriter, and airplane- contributed to economic process

Industrialization leads to Urbanization

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1900

New farm Machinery- McCormick's Mechanical Reaper
Cultural opportunities drew population to big cities
Rise in immigration
Cities grew TOO quickly- led to inadequate public services, transportation services, overcrowding, social tensions

Immigrants to America increased

1880 - 1920

they escaped poverty, religion, ethnic persecution
New Immigrants came from southern and Eastern Europe
Led to increased "Nativism"
Immigrants preserved some of their culture and customs

President Garfield is Assassinated

September 19 1881

The killing was linked to the Spoils System
Led to the passing of the Pendleton Act- created a Civil Service Commission

Chinese exclusion Act


based Chinese workers from immigrating and placed new Chinese residency requirements

American Federation of Labor Founded

December 8 1886

Only included skilled workers
Organized by Samuel Gompers
limited goals to only economic

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887


prohibited unfair practices by railroads specifically- first instance of Commerce stepping in to regulate business

The Dawes Act


Greatly encouraged assimilation
Led to near destruction of Native culture

Sherman Anti-Trust Act


Stopping Monopolies
Sometimes used against labor unions (?)

Populist Party is formed


Received help from Granger Farmers
Believed in: Unlimited silver coinage, direct senator election, graduated income tax, government ownership of railroads, telegraphs and telephones, term limits for the president, immigration restrictions, a shorter work day

Presidential Election of 1896


McKinley beat William Jennings Bryan

Anti-Imperialist League Formed


Opposed US acquisition of colonies
Believed it violated self-government
Congress annexed the Philippines
Sanford B. Dole Worked to annex Hawaiian islands
Control of pacific islands gave greater naval and pacific influence

Progressive Movement

Approx. 1898 - Approx. 1917

Urban, Middle-class Americans wanting to correct industrialization difficulties
Social Gospel Movement
"Muckrakers": examined rise of abusive business practices- Upton Sinclair described unsanitary practices in meat industry
Early Progressives focused on reforming at municipal level
Governors like Robert LaFollette tried to free states from big businesses
introduced things like the secret ballot, initiative, referendum, recall, direct party primaries, and direct Senator elections- made national law by 17th Amendment.
Focused on improving social problems by state- through working to improve housing and abolish child labor
All attempts to eliminate corruption weren't completely successful

Spanish American War

April 1898

Emergence of US as a World Power
Sparked debate about Imperialism
Caused by Spanish harsh Cuban Treatment
Yellow Journalism
publication of the De Tome Letter
the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine
Turning point because ended Spain's colonial empire
Emergence of US as world power
America occupied Cuba, the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico
Imperialists wanted to keep these for acquiring raw materials and promoting naval strength: Most used Social Darwinism as reasoning (Alfred Thayer Mahan)

Open Door Policy announced


Giving equal trading rights to all foreign nations in China

Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft and Woodrow Wilson's Progressive Presidencies

Sept 14 1901 - March 1921

Roosevelt promised a "Square Deal" to protect public interests
Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act
Increased Power to Interstate Commerce Commission
conserved and protected the nation's resources
William Taft continued Roosevelt's policies: and did "trust-busting"
Woodrow Wilson called his program the "New Freedom"
Passed Underwood Tariff, Sixteenth Amendment, Federal reserve act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and put into place the Federal Trade Commission

Panama Canal Construction Begins


Expansion meant ships needed to pass from the pacific to the carribean for cuban interests

Big Stick Policy


Roosevelt Corollary also used to justify American intervention

Dollar diplomacy


President Taft's encouraging of US investors to do so in Latin America

NAACP was founded

feb 12 1909

W. E. B. DuBois was the founder
Argued that African Americans should fight for immediate equality
Brooker T. Washington disagreed

Federal Reserve Act

December 23, 1913

example of reliance on Monetary policy
lessens money in orosperity to reduce inflation and increases money in a depression

World War I


US assumed world power role by participating in Global War
New military technology
US emerged as most powerful and successful nation
Wilson attempted neutrality- failed eventually because of American ties to Europe, the Zimmerman Telegram, and unrestricted submarine warfare
War bonds sold to pay for war cost

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand


Done by a Serbian Nationalist
WWI Had new military tech- Germans used U-boats

KKK Revival


Now they disliked just about anybody that wasn't a white protestant

Selective Service Act


Drafted soldiers into the armed forces

Russian Revolution


Showed the birth of the USSR: first Communist state
Ruled under Joseph Stalin

Espionage Act

June 15, 1917

Made it a crime to criticize the war.
Resulted in schneck v. US when espionage act was chosen over freedom of speech

American Expeditionary Force sent to Europe


Their arrival helped to break deadlock and allow Allied victory
Alvin York became Hero in Battle of Argonne forest- medal of honor

Fourteen Points

January 8, 1918

Made for Wilson's war goals and focused on the creation of the League of Nations

Palmer Raids

1919 - 1920

Resulted in the arresting of 4000 and the deportation of 600 of them to prevent radical takeover
Two Italian immigrants were found guilty for murder and robbery despite lack of good evidence and were put to death

18th Amendment

January 16, 1919

Enforced complete Prohibition but was eventually repealed
was result of increased woman influence in government
21st Amendment repealed it

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Included some of 14 points
Very harsh on Germany
Henry Cabot Lodge was main opposition to joining League of Nations as it would involve us too much in foreign affairs
US never joined the LON

Roaring 20's

1920 - 1929

Economic Prosperity and changing American values
Saw a "Red Scare"- led to a rise in nativism
Harding, Coolidge and Hoover were presidents supporting laissez-fair and supported big businesses
Teapot Dome Scandal under Harding
Coolidge had "the business of American is Business"
Herbert Hoover believed in "rugged individualism"
Economic Prosperity
Rise of automobile- Henry Ford
Rise of other industrialization and greater efficiency
Mass consumption
Stock and real estate interests
Uneven Prosperity

Adolf Hitler Takes control of Germany w/ Nazi Party

Feb 24 1920

Nazi aggression to control all of Europe was main reason for start of WWII

Nineteenth Amendment Passed

August 18 1920

Women allowed to vote
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were reformers of whom pklayed large part in this

Immigration Acts

1921 - 1929

Designed to keep out immigrants by setting quotas

Facist Party formed

nov 7 1921

Led by Benito Mussolini in Italy

American Indian Citizenship Act


granted immediate US citizenship to all Native American Indians
No longer required the giving up of their land or culture

Scopes Monkey Trial

July 21, 1925

Clash between traditionalists and modernists

Great Depression begins


Most severe economic depression in history
Led to Roosevelt's New Deal
Caused by overproduction, stock speculation, unregulated banks, and high tariffs
Dust Bowl also resulted as a natural disaster

Mexican Repatriation Act

Approx. 1930 - Approx. 1945

Faced White prejudice and were not looked favorably upon due to job competition

Sandra Day O'Connor is first women justice

March 26 1930

beluiever in peace through strength
Strong swing vote

Creation of Reconstruction Finance Corporation


Hoover created it last minute to try and fix the beginning of the Great Depression but was far too late and it was incredibly ineffective

Removal of Gold Standard


country was on gold standard until 1933 when for switched to paper money

FDR's Presidency

1933 - 1945

FDR promised a New Deal to help the recovery come along
addressed the nation in "fireside chats"
His wife was a political activist and traveled the country
New Deal dealt with relief, recovery and reform
Relief dealt with short term solutions to help the unemployed
Recovery put money into the economy to get it going
and Reform was to prevent a future depression in a certain area of the economy
Dealt with the securities and exchange commission and the social security act

21st Amendment


ended prohibition

Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1937

Acts passed by US Congress with the hopes of staying ut of any existing tensions or future wars.
Cash and Carry

Japan invades China


US strongly opposed to this because of economic ties w china
"Flying Tigers" formed in order to help China protect itself

Quarantine Speech Delivered

October 5, 1937

FDR encourages the working together of peaceful nations to isolate aggressives

Hitler Annexes Austria


Britain and France tried to follow appeasement but Hitler continued to take more and more lands like Czechoslovakia and he demanded Poland.

The House Un-American activities Committee is formed

May 26 1938

questioned individuals about heir involvement with any communist-related activities
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were found guilty with sharing atomic bomb information with enemies

Good neighbor Policy instated


Followed a form of the US remaining isolationist with their entire Hemisphere in order to prevent the war from spreading from Europe
Washington Naval Conference
Kellog-Brand Peace Pact

World War II


Affirmed US World Power
Led to Cold War
US involvement was the selling of War Bonds to pay for the war
US Peacetime to Wartime production of industry
War Production Board helped w conversion
Rationing was instated in US to help supply troops
Americans planted Victory Gardens to help with more troop food
Office of War Information produced pro-Ally media and propaganda
Throughout the War General George c Marshall helped to raise an army of 8 million men and create the atomic bomb
Technological advancements made like radar, cryptic code, Proximity fuzes, new antibiotics like penicillin, jet and rocket engines
70 million ewnded up dead
Ended with rise of superpowers of US and USSR

Lend- Lease Act

March 11,1941

Allowed US to sell to Britain war materials

Tuskegee Airmen Founded

Mar 22 1941

All black air corps group
Escorted bombers

Atlantic Charter is created

August 14, 1941

FDR and Churchill met to to plan for a postwar idea and the plan for the United Nations

Pearl Harbor is attacked

December 7, 1941

Sneak attack of Japan on Hawaii US Naval base
launched series of attacks on all US- occupied pacific islands
Caused the immediate declaration of war on Japan and then the Axis Powers

Order 9066 instated

Feb 19 1942

FDR basically allows for the relocation and internment of all Japanese individuals
Result of fear mongering in US
Japanese Americans forced to live in cramped and uncomfortable conditions

The Bataan Death March

April 9 1942

Filipino and US POW were forced to march through 60 mies worth of jungle in which most died.

Women's Army Corp was created

15 may 1942

Woman joined this to contribute to the war and got jobs typically more masculine at that time in order to continue the country's economy

Battle of Midway

June 4, 1942

Nimitz defeated Japanese Fleet and marked turning point in war on Japan


June 6, 1944

Operation Overlord in which US, Britain and Canada attacked German-cvontrolled normandy
Resulted in liberation of Paris

GI Bill passed

June 22 1944

Helped for veterans to readjust economically and purchase homes

Battle of the Bulge

December 16, 1944

Black soldier Vernon Baker was first African American to be awarded medal of honor from this fight

Korematsu v. US

dec 18 1944

Supreme Court established the constitutionality of the internment of the Japanese Americans

Yalta Conference

February 1945

All three Ally leaders met to discuss the future of the world
Agreed to form UN
Divided Germany into occupation zones

The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

august 6 1945

Truman acted like this to force unconditional surrender
Resulted in 230,000 dead, with others left with horrible illnesses and defects from radiation

Nuremberg Trials

November 20, 1945 - October 1, 1946

The trials of many Axis officials for war crimes

Truman ordered end to racial segregation within military


The Cold War

1947 - 1991

Containment policy for communism
Truman Doctrine offers US aid
Marshall plan is economic recovery plan for europe
Stalin wanted to see spread of Communism
Caused an arms and space race within the two countries
Nuclear bombs became more and more powerful

GATT is formed

Oct 30 1947

formed to reduce tariff levels but was eventually replaced by the World Trade Organization

The Berlin Airlift

june 24 1948 - may 12 1949

Result of USSR blockade on US occupied west germany
Caused Stalin to lift the blockade

NATO is formed

April 4 1949

done so by western allies collaborating to battle communism

Mao Zedong is elected Chairman of Red China

September 30 1949

Communist revolution

Beat generation

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

group of young writers rebelled against conformity
Rock and Roll created

Korean War

June 25 1950 - June 27 1953

Communist North Korea invaded South
War did not end until Eisenhower arranged armistice

Dwight Eisenhower's Presidency

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

Continued containment
Announced helping middle eastern nations battling communism
Time of prosperity
Production of new consumer goods

Discovery of Polio vaccine

March 26 1953

Advancements in antibiotics

Vietnam is divided into two states


North and South Vietnam
South had democratic support
Vietcong- North launched attack
South Gained US support because of Eisenhower's domino Theory

Brown v. Board of Education

May 17 1954

overturned the decision made by plessy v ferguson in stopping segregation and forcing integration
Orval Faubus sent national guard to . prevent black students from entering a white highschool
George Wallace attempted to prevent two black students from enrolling at the university of alabama

Vietnam War

November 1, 1955 - April 30, 1975

North vietnamese were willing to suffer great losses for victory
American soldiers could not tell who the enemy was
Credibility Gao due to Fed government lying to the people
Not much support from war
Led to 58000 US deaths
The end of Great Society programs to help fund the war

Rosa Parks Arrested

dec 1 1955

She refused to move to the black section of the bus
her arrest led to a 13 month long boycott of Montgomery buses
Led to other acts of civil disobedience by many- lots resulting in violence

Interstate Highway Act

June 29 1956

connected the nation
large move to the suburbs



USSR- launched this spaceware into orbit and started space race
Space Race caused increased federal support in science education

Cuba falls to communism

Jan 1 1959

JFK planned to train rebels but they landed at the bay of pigs and the rebels were defeated

Chicano Movement

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1970

leaders were hector perez and Cesar chavez
Dolores huerta worked to gain farmers rights and women's rights- awarded Medal of Freedom
court cases ended Mexican segregation and improved jury status

JFK's Presidency

jan 20 1961 - nov 22 1963

He promised a man on the moon
Supported civil rights

Kennedy initiates Alliance for Progress

mar 13 1961

provided economic aid to underprivileged Latin American Nations

The Berlin Wall is built

13 of August 1961

Cuban Missile Crisis

Oct 16 1962

soviets aided cuba with nuclear missles
US found out and initiated blockade around the country
Closest the world came to nuclear war
resulted in the removal of missles

Roe v. Wade

jan 22 1963

Women had right to privacy and could abort their children before 3 months

Equal Pay Act passed

June 10, 1963

requiring same pay between genders for the same work

March on Washington

August 28, 1963

Led by MLK and lasted a whole day
King gave his "I have a dream" speech

Lyndon B Johnson's Presidency

nov 22 1963 - Jan 20 1969

Wanted to implement a great society
focused on civil rights, reducing poverty

24th Amendment

January 23, 1964

eliminated poll taxes in federal elections

Civil Rights Act

July 2 1964

prohibited discrimination in hiring

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Aug 10 1964

Gave johnson power to escalate the war after US ship is attacked in national waters
thousands of troops sent overseas

National Organization for Women is formed

June 30 1966

helped form by Betty Friedan

the Black Panthers are formed

oct 15 1966

black power supporters
more militant and believed in self defense

Assassination of MLK


End of civil rights movement
Sparked riots across the nation
Still equality work to be done in America

AIM begins


greater respect for native heritage
protest against anti american indian bias

Tet Offensive

January 30, 1968

Vietcong launched attacks on south vietnam

US lands on Moon


US became first country to land men on the Moon
Led to new inventions that improved the life quality of Americans

Nixon's Presidency

January 20 1969 - August 9 1974

He promised peace with honor but increased bombings
Nixon relied on opinion of silent majority despite growing antiwar movement
After a while, he began practicing Détente to relax tensions with the Soviet Union and Red China

Tinker v. Des Moines

February 24 1969

Student had right to wear armbands at school to protest the war

Environmental Protection Agency created

Dec 2 1970

protect environment by air, water and land pollution

26th amendment

March 23 1971

lowered voting age to 18

Pentagon Papers

June 13 1971

Showed the actions of several presidents being dishonest to the public
Contributed to "credibility gap"
Led Nixon to establish policy of Vietnamization in which they would slowly leave the war
Eventually pulled out by 1973

Equal Rights Amendment

March 22, 1972

Outspoken opponent of this bill was Phyllis Schlafly- her attitude towards woman's rights was almost as ugly as her name
Never ratified by the states

Wisconsin v. Yoder

May 15 1972

Struck down law requiring Amish to attend school by a certain age

Watergate Scandal

June 17 1972

Men working to get Nixon reelected were found breaking into the DNC
Nixon lied about his coverup of the breakin
Caused Nixon to resign

Title IX passed

June 23 1972

Prohibits discrimination in education
helped women pursue higher degrees

War Powers Resolution

nov 7 1973

Limited War powers of the commander in chief

Ford's Presidency

august 9 1974 - January 20 1977

faced stagflation, opec's rising oil prices

The Fall of Saigon

April 30 1975

Marked the end of the Souther opposition in Vietnam as the whole country finally fell to communism

Carter's Presidency

Jan 20 1977 - Jan 20 1981

Was very active in foreign affairs
He continued the policy of Détente until USSR invaded afghanistan
Iran ruler overthrown and hostages held in US embassy for over a year until Carter leaves office

Panama Canal Treaty

sept 7 1977

Carter returned control of the canal zone to Panama

Camp David Accords

sept 17 1978

Negotiated agreement between Egypt and israel

Reagan's Presidency

Jan 20 1981 - Jan 20 1989

Very big conservative
Endorsed by the NRA, the Moral Majority, and the heritage foundation
Used the Reagan doctrine to roll back communism

Iran-Contra Affair

August 20, 1985 - March 4, 1987

Made america seem less trustworthy

George H. W. Bush's Presidency

jan 20 1989 - jan 20 1993

Gulf War

August 2, 1990 - February 28, 1991

George H.W. Bush pushed troops into this conflict

Cold War Ends


USSR dissolved- replaced by Commonwealth of Independent States
US recognized new country

Bill Clinton's Presidency

January 20, 1993 - January 20, 2001

he wanted domestic reforms
better healthcare for all
the computer industry propelled his term into a great time period

NAFTA is created

1 january 1994

a free trade association between the US, Mexico, and Canda

Contract With America created

Sept 27 1994

program of Conservative principles attempting to lessen the power of the government
intended to get republican candidates elected into congress

World Trade Organization formed

January 1 1995

Formed to replace the GATT through global trade efficiency

2000 Presidential election


incredibly close with Al Gore barely losing through incorrectly filled out ballots in Florida and the Supreme court rejecting a recount
Al won the popular vote but lost the electoral college vote to George W. Bush

George W. Bush's Presidency

Jan 20 2001 - Jan 20 2008

Attack on WTC and Pentagon

Sept 11 2001

Led to declaration of "War on Terror" by George W Bush
hijacked American planes were crashed into the twin towers
Osama Bin Laden and the al-Qaeda were responsible and hid in Afghanistan

USA Patriot Act


expanded the Government's powers through allowing law enforcement to conduct searches and surveillance, detain immigrants, and monitor bank accounts

Election of Barack Obama


Election of the first African-American president
Narrowly defeated Hillary Clinton and John McCain

Barack Obama's Presidency

Jan 20 2009 - Jan 20 2017

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

February 17, 2009

Barack Obama's form of helping to re-stimulate the economy from the depressed state that George Bush left it in.

Sonia Sotomayor is appointed

Aug 6 2009

First Hispanic Supreme Court Justice