SMEI Final Timeline

Events

Yalta Summit

1945

Conference to shape a post-war peace -> East/West

Civil War in Greece

1946

Restarted by communist insurgents
Greece under British influence
US sent economic and military aid to Greece (and Turkey)

European Union of Federalists (EUF)

1946

Non-governmental organisation, campaign for federal Europe

Marshall Plan

1947

European Recovery Programme: US administration proposed to offer financial aid to Europe

OEEC - Organisation for European Economic Co-Operation

1948

States that accepted Marshall Plan held a conference and set it up to facilitate the unified response
15 members + Federal Republic of Germany
Body controlling policy and administration: Council of Ministers (One representative of each member state)

The Hague Congress / European Congress

May 1948

Congress organised by the EUF to create a federal constitution for Europe but it was too late: all the government had already been restored everywhere (after war)

Council of Europe

1949

Intergovernmental organisation (delivered the European Convention on Human Rights)

North Atlantic Treaty -> NATO

April 4, 1949

Mutual defence pact
Gave rise to NATO
Signed in Washington between US, Canada, Britain, France, Benelux, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal

Federal Republic of Germany

April 10 1949

Treaty of Dunkirk (Britain and France)
Treaty of Brussels (Britain, France, Benelux)
Alliances directed at protecting each other with military alliance against Germany

European Convention on Human Rights

1950

Korean War

1950

Pleven Plan (EDC)

1950

Designed by Monnet, proposed in 1950
Pleven = French Prime Minister - ECSC had to be signed first
Proposal for a European Defence Community
Instead of German Army, pool France and Germany together as European Army -> problem because no common foreign policy
Similar structure as ECSC

Schuman Plan

9 May 1950

By French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman -> proposed a plan to pool the coal and steal supplies of France and Germany -> containing Germany and ensuring supplies of coal to French industry
Devised by Jean Monnet
-> how to avert treat between Germany and France in the future + ensure coal supply
+ Benelux + Italy

ECSC - European Coal and Steel Community

1952

France + Germany + Benelux + Italy
Ensure supplies of coal for steel industries
France: Monnet wanted development of supranational institutions and common economic community
Germany: wanted Federal Germany to gain international acceptance and avoid communist influence
Benelux: could not afford to stay out of any agreement between Fr and DE
Italy: needed to rebuild its international reputation and avoid communist influence

Britain DID NOT join: had its own supplies of coal + saw itself as a global power with strong economy

High Authority (Monnet and Mayer, presidents) + Council of Ministers + European Parliamentary Assembly

EDC Signed

1952

Signed but not ratified

EPC - European Political Community

1952

Linked with EDC to give a democratic dimension
Would have controlled EDC and ECSC

Fail of EDC and EPC

1954

Government changes in France prevented the ratification of the Treaty
Presented to the National Assembly but was not ratified so both collapsed

WEU - Western European Union

1955

Proposed by Britain (Following collapse) - alternative security structure for Western Europe
Council of Foreign and Defence Ministers
Secretariat
Assembly
Coordinate the alliance of the Brussels Treaty of 1948
Germany + Italy + Benelux + France + Britain
German army formed

Committee for the United States of Europe

1955

Formed by Monnet when he left ECSC
leading political and trade union figures
Proposal for Euratom general common market

Messina

1955

Proposal for a common market -> further integration
Setting up of a committee under Spaak to study the ideas of the Benelux memorandum

ECSC crisis

1959

Too much coal -> Council of Ministers refused the High authority emergency powers to deal with it -> collapse of morale in High Authority

OECD - Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development

1961

Superseded the OEEC