French History

Events

Baptism of Clovis

498

-by Saint Remi at Reims
-Christmas Day
-Clovis consolidated the regions of Gaul
-considered the founder of France

Medieval Period

Approx. 500 - Approx. 1400

-Dark Ages (Decline of the Roman Empire) 400-1000 AD
-High Middle Ages 1100-1200
-Late Middle Ages 1300-1400

Romanesque Cathedrals

Approx. 500 - Approx. 1200

-inspired by Roman architecture
-round arches, sturdy pillars, small windows, dark

Charles Martel - Mayor of the Franks

686 - 741

-halted Muslim advance
-buried at St Denis

Pépin le Bref - 1st King of the Franks

714 - 768

-Protector of the Church

Charles Martel - leader of the Franks

717

Battle of Tours

732

-halted the spread of Muslims into Frankish territory & Western Europe

Battle of River Berre

737

-Martel decisively defeat Muslims

Charlemagne

742 - 814

-king of the Franks & Holy Roman Emperor
-humble, pious, pursued education, dignified, powerful warrior king
-greatest ruler of the Middle Ages
-protector of the Church
-Unified HRE/Europe, promoted education, equalized laws, founded feudal government, built churches, spread/ preserved Christianity

Coronation of Pépin le Bref

754

-1st civil ruler crowned by Pope
-crowned at St. Denis

Donation of Pépin

756

papal states

Charlemagne - King of the Franks

771

-crowned King of the Franks at Reims

Coronation of Charlemagne of Holy Roman Empire

800

Christmas Day
-Pope Leo III

Pope Urban II Preaches

1095

calls for the 1st crusade:
-retake Jerusalem from Muslim control
-protect pilgrims

The Crusades

1099 - 1204

-attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land

1st Crusade

1099

-the People's Crusade
Victorious

Gothic Cathedrals

Approx. 1100 - Approx. 1500

-French invention
-pointed arches, stained glass, tall, ribbed arches, flying buttresses, gargoyles, light

Saint Denis - Royal Basilica & Cathedral

1135 - 1144

-final resting place of Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris in martyred ca. 250 AD, popular place of pilgrimage 4th-6 century, then monastic abbey
-church originally constructed under Pepin le Bref & Charlemagne
-Abbot Suger's vision
-1st example of gothic architecture
-burial place of 43 French kings

2nd Crusade

1149

-Defeat by Saladin
-Jerusalem under Muslim control

Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral

1163 - 1345

3rd Crusade

1192

-peace treaty signed
-Cooperation w/ King Richard of England
-regained several cities, but not Jerusalem

4th Crusade

1204

-does not retake Jerusalem
-sack of Constantinople: christians fighting christians
-control shifts from Eastern Orthodox to Latin (papacy) until 1453: Turk invasion

Reims Cathedral

1211 - 1516

-original cite of church burned
-reconstruction began in 1211
-all phases completed under the same style
-coronation cite of 33 kings: 816-1825

La Renaissance

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1700

-"re-birth"
-humanism

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

-both French & English held legitimate claims to French thrown

Jeanne d'Arc

1412 - 1431

-national French hero / symbol
-saint

Visions & God's call

Approx. 1424

-Liberate France
-Crown le Dauphin Charles VII

Coronation of Charles VII

1429

-Reims region under English control
-once region is liberated, Charles VII is able to be crowned

Martyrdom

1431

-Jeanne is wounded & captured after defeat at Compiegne
-accused by Cauchon as a heretic
-burned at the stake

Jean Calvin

1509 - 1564

The Reformation

1517 - Approx. 1685

Conversion

Approx. 1529 - Approx. 1533

introduced to Martin Luther's ideas at university

Published "Institutes"

1536

Geneva Bible

1560

Huguenot Wars

1562 - 1598

-French civil / religious wars between catholics & protestants

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

-beginning in Paris after the marriage of Henri de Navarre -future king- (protestant) to Margeurite de Valois (catholic) & murder of Huguenot leader: Admiral Coligny
-sparks nation-wide assault against huguenots (aprox. 70,000 deaths)

l'Edit of Nantes

1598

-king Henri IV, though converted to catholicism, grants religious & civil freedoms to huguenots

Roi Louis XIV

1638 - 1715
  • the "Sun King" -Absolutism -"One King, One Law, One Faith" -control of clergy & nobles

l'Edit de Fontainebleau

1685

-revokes l'Edit de Nantes
-causes mass exodus of protestants from France: most moral & industrious

Enlightenment

Approx. 1685 - Approx. 1815