Nubian kingdom of Kush rules Egypt and metal technology expands economic influence in sub-Saharan Africa
Nok culture thrives in Nigeria, famous for their terracotta sculptures.
The Aksumite Empire, a trading nation in modern-day Ethiopia, left a Christian legacy after Aksum adopted Christianity.
Located in the Limpopo River valley of present-day Zimbabwe; an economy based on livestock and trade.
A group of churches are carved directly from the rock of the Lasta Mountains under the auspices of the Zagwe dynasty in Ethiopia (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/07/afa.html)
The Zagwe dynasty ruled present-day northern Ethiopia until the last Zagwe King was killed in battle by the forces of the Abyssinian King
"The monument of Great Zimbabwe is the most famous stone building in southern Africa. Located over 150 miles from Harare, it stands 1,100 km above sea level on the Harare Plateau in the Shashe-Limpopo basin."(bbc.co.uk)
The first stages of the Great Mosque of Kilwa and palace complex of Husuni Kubwa are built in what is now Tanzania
Forefathers of Mutota people who originated on the Congo-Zambezi watershed crossed the Zambezi river. Then “established their hegemony in Guruhuswa on the southern part of the plateau, and were the new generation of builders at Great Zimbabwe” (p. 22 An Introduction to the History of Central Africa)
the Rozwi clan had expanded their empire into provinces which were governed by members of the ruling family among the Shona, Mutota, and Rozwi people. The conflicting interests of these tribes, however, “led to the breakup of the state.”(p.22)
height and prosperity of town of Kilwa, which was integral in the gold trade just north of Mozambique border on Tanzanian coast
Mambo Mutota was a confederation of the Larger Shona tribe in southern Africa. During this time they subjugated a different tribe called the Tavare.
Mambo Mutota (leader of Mutota people) lead expedition to find salt supplies, or probably for imperialistic purposes
Capital was Khami, state located in Guruhuswa (modern day Zimbabwe)
Changa, the leader of Guruhuswa, possibly with the help of Arab traders, attacked the Karanga people, and gained control of the area. A few years later he was overthrown in the northern area, and the rest stayed under his control for awhile.
They monopolized trade in the Indian Ocean, driving out Arab merchants and capturing all the major trading cities along the east African coast.
Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, sailed along the east coast of Africa before striking out to India.
Decline of Kilwa, East African Coast, and Great Zimbabwe trade and economy.
Bartholomew Dias dies in a storm off the Cape of Good Hope.
The Portuguese placed monopolistic restrictions on the trade rivers in modern day Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. The Maravi tribes eracted strongly and sent multiple military expeditions east to combat them. The Lundu practiced cannibalism on their conquered enemies in Angola (Portuguese colony)
Portuguese authority over Sofala a province in present day Mozambique. They established trade routes, but eventually trade’s importance faded there and was replaced by headquarters with hospitals and forts.
Portuguese forts are established at river heads north of Zambezi river along the coast.
Khoikhoi (herdsman within the San people) killed Francisco de Almeida, the viceroy of Portuguese India, and fifty eight of his men at on their return voyage to Portugal at Table Bay.
A Portuguese explorer ,Antonio Fernandez, travelled inland from Sofala to retrieve info about tribes (Kiteve) made it to the Mazoe river. Brought back info about stone forts (zimbabwes), gold, and “suitability of country for European settlements”(p.32)
Don Gonçola da Silveira, a Portuguese Jesuit, begins the first Christian mission to southern Africa
They were defeated by Portuguese outside Malindi (modern day Kenya)
The Imbangala was a carnivorous tribe who paved the way for Andrew Battell, among others, to explore, colonize, and gather slaves in the area of Angola.
A powerful leader, she aligned herself with the Portuguese by being baptized in Luanda (capitol of Angola). A year later she appeals for their help against the imbangala only to be betrayed by the Portuguese in the name of slave raiding. Her people now in chaos, she moved them north. Here she built up a strong middle-man and slave raiding state. She remained a notable power until the Dutch threatened her, after which she realigned herself with the Portuguese
A Muslim sharif was granted a small territory by the Mutapa in the Zimbabwe area
Dutch Commander Jan van Riebeeck landed at the Cape to establish a victualing, or refreshment, station.
They were brought mainly from the Indian subcontinent, the Indonesian Archipelago, Madagascar, the Mascarene island groups in Indian Ocean, and the east coast of Africa.
Jan van Riebeeck, representing the Dutch East India Company, founds the Cape Colony at Table Bay.
Doman, a Goring-haiqua Khoikhoi, goes to Batavia, near the Cape of good Hope, to become an interpreter. "But having witnessed first hand the capacity of the Dutch to reduce indigenous people to positions of servitude, he became a staunch opponent of European colonization"(sahistory.org)
First recorded arrival of Muslims in southern Africa. Islam's presence was felt in northern Africa, and in southern Africa before this, but never in such an intense way. The Mardyckers were from Amboya (an Indonesian island). They were brought to the Cape by the Dutch to defend the colonies from the indigenous peoples, and weren't allowed to practice their religion openly.
Spurred on by Doman, who was sent to to the Cape be an interpreter for the Dutch.
"died in the arms of the church"(Medieval Africa 1250-1800 p. 177) aged 81
The Makasserese were brought from Indonesia. After this the DEIC began to isolate the Muslims on the Cape to outstations, often separating families.
British forces seize Cape Colony from the Netherlands. Territory is returned to the Dutch in 1803; ceded to the British in 1806.
Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force.
Boers leave Cape Colony in the 'Great Trek' and found the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
British grant limited self-government to the Transvaal.
Gold is discovered in the Transvaal, triggering the gold rush.
British troops gather on the Transvaal border and ignore an ultimatum to disperse. The second Anglo-Boer War begins.
Treaty of Vereeniging ends the second Anglo-Boer War. The Transvaal and Orange Free State are made self-governing colonies of the British Empire.
Formation of Union of South Africa by former British colonies of the Cape and Natal, and the Boer republics of Transvaal, and Orange Free State.
Native National Congress founded, later renamed the African National Congress (ANC).
Land Act introduced to prevent blacks, except those living in Cape Province, from buying land outside reserves.
Secret Broederbond (brotherhood) established to advance the Afrikaner cause.
The Union of South Africa parliament enacts the Status of the Union Act, which declares the country to be "a sovereign independent state". The move followed on from Britain's passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which removed the last vestiges of British legal authority over South Africa.
Each minority group had their land expropriated by the government and were forced into areas based on assigned ethnicity
Population classified by race. Group Areas Act passed to segregate blacks and whites. Communist Party banned. ANC responds with campaign of civil disobedience, led by Nelson Mandela.
was formed as a result of being frustrated with ANC's politics. Believed blacks must be a self-sustaining group to instill courage and pride in their race
Non violent protests happening everywhere, violence occurring only from the police
Seventy black demonstrators killed at Sharpeville. ANC banned.
International pressure against government begins, South Africa excluded from Olympic Games.
South Africa declared a republic, leaves the Commonwealth. Mandela heads ANC's new military wing, which launches sabotage campaign.
ANC leader Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment.
September - Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd assassinated.
More than 3 million people forcibly resettled in black 'homelands'.
More than 600 killed in clashes between black protesters and security forces during uprising which starts in Soweto.
National party realized apartheid wasn't working and amended the constitution
De Klerk took office and shifted the strategy to dealing with anti-apartheid organizations
ANC unbanned, Mandela released after 27 years in prison. Namibia becomes independent.
Start of multi-party talks. De Klerk repeals remaining apartheid laws, international sanctions lifted. Major fighting between ANC and Zulu Inkatha movement.
April - ANC wins first non-racial elections. Mandela becomes president, Government of National Unity formed, Commonwealth membership restored, remaining sanctions lifted. South Africa takes seat in UN General Assembly after 20-year absence.
Parliament adopts new constitution. National Party withdraws from coalition, saying it is being ignored.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission report brands apartheid a crime against humanity and finds the ANC accountable for human rights abuses.