Japanese Art and Military

Events

Rise of the Military class

792

The Shoen's had improved military technology with brand new training methods, more powerful swords, horses, bows and amazing amor. They had begun to be faced with local conditions in the ninth century, military service became part of Shoen life.

Heian Period

794 - 1185

The Last division of classical Japanese history that runs from 794 - 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted that its art in poetry and literature.

Heian Period

794 - 1185

Heian period

794 - 1185

Heian Period Begins

794

The Heian period began in 794 after movement of the capital of Japanese civilization to Heiankyō (presently Kyoto) by the 50th emperor Kammu

Heian Period

794 - 1185

Emperors usually had the power, in this case noble families had all teh power to protect their interest.

High point in Japanese Culture

794 - 1185

Rise of the samurai class, samurai class eventually takes power and starts the feudal period in Japan.

Japan 800

01/24/800

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japan 900

01/02/900

Taira no Masakado threatens central government

939

Masakado threatened the authority of the central government leading to an uprising in the eastern providence of Hitachi and Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west.

Fujiwara no Sumitomo aids Taira clans revolts

939 - 941

Japanese Heian court noble and warrior, aided the Taira clan in a series of revolts

Use of Local Militias

953

The Japanese military was established from local drafts and later implemented the use of samurai. The samurai's started off as servants for the emperor and changed to private aristocratic militant groups.

Samurai Social Class

980

The use of martial arts became a norm throughout the region. Samurai warriors were able to establish their own social class because of their strength in numbers along with influence.

japan samurai social

980

Warrior Bands

1100

The samurai created their own social class called warrior bands that worked closely to the emperor.

japan 1100

01/02/1100

Minamoto Yoritomo

1147 - 1199

He was the founder of Bakufu, the system where Feudal lords ruled for 700 years. He undermined the central government’s local administrative power.

Taira Kiyomori revived Fujiwra practices

1156 - 1185

Taira Kiyomori revived Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by power.

Clan overthrow refusal

1156

Clan would not be overthrown until after Genpel War, start of shogunates.

Shogun

1156

A title given by the emperor to the country's top military commander.

Hōgen disturbance

1156 - 1185

Conflic in the Hōgen era between the Taira & Minamoto clan that marked the end of the Fujiwara family dominance of the monarchy and the start of a prolonged period of feudal warfare.

Kamakura Period

1185

The Kamakura Period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors, and established a bakufu, the kamakura, shogunate, in Kamakura.

Bakufu and the Hojo Regency

1185 - 1333

It marks the transition to the Japanese "medieval" era, the period in which the emperor, the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions. Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the Bushi class.

Kamakura Period

1185 - 1333

Is a period in Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.

Kamakura Period

1185 - 1333

Bakufu

1192 - 1868

The Bakufu was the military government of Japan between 1192 and 1868.

Governance of the Kamakura Shogunate

1192

Which was established by the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo.

Mongol Invasion

1274

After further unsuccessful entreaties, the first Mongol invasion took place.

Mongol Invasion

Approx. 1274

Mongol Invasion pt. 2

1274

More than 600 ships carried a combined Mongol, Chinese, and Korean force of 23,000 troops armed with catapults, combustible missiles, and bows and arrows. In fighting, these soldiers grouped in close cavalry formations against samurai, who were accustomed to one-on-one combat.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

Kyōto raised the diplomatic counter of Japan's divine origin, rejected the Mongol demands, dismissed the Korean messengers, and started defensive preparations.

Second Mongol invasion

Approx. January 1, 1281

A second invasion was launched. Seven weeks of fighting took place in northwestern Kyushu before another typhoon struck, again destroying the Mongol fleet.

End of Mongol Invasion

January 31, 1281

The Mongol war had been a drain on the economy, and new taxes had to be levied to maintain defensive preparations for the future. The invasions also caused disaffection among those who expected recompense for their help in defeating the Mongols. There were no lands or other rewards to be given, however, and such disaffection, combined with overextension and the increasing defense costs, led to a decline of the Kamakura bakufu.

Go-Daigo

1318 - 1339

In 1335, Emperor Go-Daigo sent a large army to Kamakura to fight and end Ashikaga’s power for good. The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu Restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Emperor Kogon

1331 - 1333

Go-Daigo Uprising

1331

Go-Daigo attempted an uprising against the Hojos, but he was taken prisoner by the Hojos. He was exiled but managed to escape, most likely with the help of followers in the Hojo camp. Within a year, in 1332, Go-Daigo was ready to make another attempt.

Hemmu Restoration

1333 - February 25, 1336

Muromachi Period

1336 - 1573

Nambokucho War

1336 - 1392

The period that ensued was known as the Nambokucho War (and it lasted for 60 years, and is the longest single war in Japanese history)

Ashikaga Takauji

1336

Most samurai and peasants were convinced that they were better off with a shogun, not an emperor. Ashikaga won. In 1336 Ashikaga Takauji entered Kyoto and established his own shogunate. Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336.

Emperor Komyo

1336 - 1348

Sengoku Period

1467 - 1568

Azuchi-Momoyama

1573 - 1603

Tokugawa (Edo Period)

1603 - 1868

Final era of Japanese traditional government, culture, and society before the Meji Restoration of 1868.

Edo Period

1603 - 1868

Establishment of Military Dictatorship

1603

During the Tokugawa shogunate period, the emperor established a feudal military dictatorship.

Act of Seclusion In Japan

1635

Japan was effectively cut off from Western nations for the next 200 years (with the exception of a small Dutch outpost in Nagasaki Harbor)

Discrimination Against Christians

1637 - 1638

There was estimate of 300,00 Christians in Japan at the beginning of this period. After the Shogunate’s brutal repression of a Christian rebellion on the Shimabara Peninsula in 1637-38, Christianity was forced underground. (fun fact: The new dominate faith was Confucianism, a relatively conservative religion with a strong emphasis on loyalty and duty.)

End of Japanese Isolationism

1854

After two centuries, Japanese isolationism comes to an end.

Meiji Period

1868 - 1912

Establishment of a New Meji Government

1868

Power was given back to the emperor after the decrease in military power.

Meiji Period

1868 - 1912

1868 - 1912 japan art

1868 - 1912

imperial japanese army

1882

Rise of Military Conscription

1882

Prime Minister Yamagata Aritomo allowed for the military to draft soldiers into the military from different social backgrounds but all having strong alliances to the emperor.

Taisho Period

1912 - 1926

Showa Period

1926 - 1989

Japan 13

01/02/13