The Cold War: Domestic and Foriegn Policies of Eisenhower and JFK


African American Shift/Migration within the U.S.

Approx. 1940 - Approx. 1960
  • African American population shifts as Rural south>>>> migrated to new locations and their political views changed to democratic

Genders Fight against Gender Roles

Approx. 1946 - Approx. 1953

-Modern conveniences still confines women to household chores
-"Separate spheres" arose in suburbs as men dealt with work and politics and women dealt with housework and childcare
-local parents and teachers associations (PTA's) + La Leche League provided platform for women to connect with life outside of the house
- women's role was confined to house as outlined by society, and as seen as "social stability" if a woman was ONLY in the house.
- YMCA' Young Men's Christian Association- is formed
- Men fought against Family values as 'Playboy' magazine debuts and father figures were portrayed as 'suckers'
(1960) Birth control is released as more mothers branched out despite society.

General Steady Economic Growth for U.S.

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1970

-Corporations turned out vast quantities of consumer goods and enjoyed rising profits
-Label 'Made in America,' began to symbolize both quality of products and economic power of America
-National Security Policies continued economic growth with its influence in the third world

Corporate Leaders begin to co-exist with Labor Unions!


-Due to the congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the United Auto Workers:
-Labor dropped the demand for greater Union involvement in 'management provocatives'
-Union leaders in return began to turn away from agressive tendencies in exchange for diplomatic bargaining concerning workers needs
-New Labor Detente enforced by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and Federal Government

The Great Comic Book/Literature Scare

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1957

-(1950) "The Lonely Crowd" by David Riesman wrote of shift of people looking for a sense of identity and self-worth in family, (inner-directed society) to peer groups and mediated models in the 'other-directed' society; individual 'autonomy' compared to 'adjustment' to expectations of others
-(1954) Comic books are blamed for 'mass-conditioning' children and stimulating juvenile unrest
-criminologists blame sales of comic books to rise in juvenile delinquency
-(1956)- "The Organization of Man" by William H. Whyte Jr. blamed corporate business to the problem of affluence being conformity and loss of individuality
-(1957) " The Hidden Persuaders" argued advertising appealed to insecurities of consumers and further causing conformity

Operation Wetback is Put in Place

Approx. 1950

-Despite the 'Bracero/ Farmhand' program sponsored by the U.S. for migrating Mexicans northward on an agricultural contract:
--FBI Labeled Mexicans want for equality in the workforce as communist
-Eisenhower Administration, during a 5-year period, deported over 4 Million Mexicans
-the operation described the 'mexican' heritage to americans and justified discriminatory treatment by the government and employers

The USIA is Formed


-The USIA, United States Information Agency, is formed to coordinate anti-communist informational and propaganda campaigns
-an example of the elevating psychological warfare
-it coordinated anti-communist informational+propoganda campaigns overseas

CIA Plays Leading Role in U.S. Policy

Approx. 1953 - Approx. 1954

U.S. Battle Against Communist began to focus on the 3rd World as organizations such as the CIA emerged as a more effective way to spread containment then military confrontation -Influences election of strong anti-communist as president of Phillippines
-overthrew republican-leaning government in Iran
-Thanks to the United Fruit Company, and justified by communist-like decisions concerning land, CIA overthrew the Guatemalan government
-National Security Council funded CIA more and expanded agency to reach all corners of the word
-Thanks to Mutual Security Program+Military Assistance Program; U.S. began trading with the Third World to fight communism as well as opening new opportunities for American enterprises overseas

Joseph Foster Dules is Secretary of State

1953 - 1959

-Eisenhower's secretary of state, 1953-1959; moralistic in his belief that Communism was evil and must be confronted with "brinkmanship" (the readiness and willingness to go to war) and "massive retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons).

Dwight ("Ike") Eisenhower Presidency

January 30 1953 - January 30 1961

President Eisenhower:
-lowered the pitch of anticommunist rhetoric
-tried to continue programs initiated during the Roosevelt and Truman Eras
-backed secret programs to develop new aerial surveillance capabilities
-"hidden hand presidency"

Joseph Stalin Dies!

March 5, 1953

-Nikita Khrushchev becomes the new leader of Moscow
-Stalin's past ideas were essentially thrown away as Khrushchev talked of, 'peaceful coexistence,' for capitalism and soviet countries

Korean War Ends!

July 27 1953
  • Truce ended U.S. Military involvement in Korea -over North Korean and Chinese Prisoners of war who wanted to stay in South Korea~~America's threat of diplomatic peace or nuclear weapons caused the treaty -established a commission of neutral nations to handle the POW issue-and the POW's were given the right to choose whether to stay or return to their home country. -38th Parallel between North and South Korea was unresolved in the truce

"New Outlook" and "Massive Retaliation" Ideas emerge

Approx. December 1953

-U.S. reduction of Military Budget
-a new approach to defense strategy; less money to ground forces and more to airpower and nuclear capabilities
-reflected Eisenhower's belief that unchecked military spending impeded U.S. Economic growth
-Ideas based on faith that threat of Nuclear power will keep Soviet Expansion at base
-Military Expenditures only accounted for 10% of GNP; Demonstrating that National Security had gone onto a more Big Business approach
-Gov't spending on National Security pumped money into the general economy
-new suburban shopping malls became tangible symbols of economic growth
-improved economy and put U.S. on world stage again

Geneva Peace Accords


a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
-US refused to sign accords, despite daunting 'Domino Theory" was possible if Vietnam was lost to communism

Communist Control Act of 1954 is Passed


-prevented Communists from running for a government position
-extended the registration requirements established by the McCarran Act of 1950

U.S. Forms new Anti-Commuist Alliances

Approx. 1954 - Approx. 1955

-(1945) SEATO- Southeast Asia Treaty Organization- is formed; linking the U.S. to Australia, France, Great Britain, Pakistan, Phillippines, Thailand, and New Zealand together in the fight against communism.
-(1959) CENTO is formed- the Central Treaty Organization is frmed; Linked the U.S. with Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Iraq, and Britain
-(1955) NATO is widened to include West Germany and two other anti-communist countries in Central and Southeast Asia

Rock N' Roll Sends Fear


-spoke to concerns of young fans
-Elvis Presley releases Sun Record Label
-Rock N' Roll emerged; becoming powerful teen anthems
- seen as a threat to adults as...
>Religious groups called it the ' sound of the devil'
>Red-Hunters detected Communist plan to corrupt youth in rising genre
>segregationists saw it as a plot from integrationists

The Brown Cases

Approx. 1954 - Approx. 1955
  • a series of Supreme Court cases on the constitutionality of segregated schools -Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka -declared that state-mandated segregation of public schools violated the constitutional right of African American students to equal protection of the law -(1955) Brown II decreed that school desegregation would not go into effect immediately -blacks mounted a new attack on segregation and racial discrimination in the south

Termination and Relocation Programs were implemented

Approx. 1954 - Approx. 1962

-termination and Relocation programs were implemented by the Eisenhower administration
-goals of termination abolish reservations, screw assets of tribes, and stop services offered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
-legal status of native American land was at stake
-assimilation is encouraged on Native Americans
-Relocated Native Americans couldn't advance economically as lands, titles, and security benefits were lost

Eisenhower Administration Advances with Water

Approx. 1955 - Approx. 1960

-water-division projects put America above rest of the world
-allowed western states to gain access to water and cause economic growth in Texas, California, and Arizona
-Local communities lost power to government agencies, Big-Business farmers overran small-business ones, as Indian lands were increasingly being flooded or taken over for large water reservoirs
-ecological problems arose

The American Federation of Labor merges


-The American Federation of Labor merges with the CIO
-this was a sign of declining militancy within the labor movement
-essentially ended fierce labor-capital conflicts
-wages steadily rose, jobs were plentiful, and job security was generally high

Eisenhower's 'Open Skies' Initiative


-Eisenhower's 'Open Skies' initiative of 1955 proposed:
-U.S. and USSR fly over each other's territory to verify disarmament efforts
-USSR didn't disarm, but progress was made in limiting atomic tests as a result for both countries as health hazards of atomic fallout emerged

Satellite Countries of the Soviets Revolt!

Approx. 1955 - Approx. 1956

-Post-Stalinist atmosphere caused Poland and Hungary to revolt against communism,managed economies and police-state control.
-Poland rebelled and achieved in putting another head of state, Wladyslaw Gomulka, an old enemy of Stalin, as head of state (SUCCESS).
-Hungarians rallied to have Imre Nagy in power, another anti-stalinist, who pledged to create a multi-party democracy. USSR tried to maintain Moscow power and crushed Hungarian uprsisings-killing thousands of Hungarians and Nagy.
-Satellite countries reached out for american assistance-but because of their proximity to the USSR, US wasn't able to help without putting own country's security at risk
HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE- The US policy makers recognized that advocating freedom from communist rule is a positive move for at home, but could lead to tragedy abroad as countries would expect U.S. assistance/to liberate them from communist rule.

"Protestant-Catholic-Jew" is Released


-Part of Crusade against 'atheistic communism'
-'In God, We Trust' was emblazoned on U.S. currency and becomes national motto
-symbolized lessoned division between people despite religious beliefs
-surge of religious faith remained closely identified with culture of affluence

Rise of Mass Culture

Approx. 1955 - Approx. 1959

-fear of 'hidden persuaders' could use the cultural marketplace to change the way society thinks. Causing conformity and newfound youth culture that was often criticised
-magazines/TV killed individualism
-critics said TV transformed fabric of everyday life/took over peoples lives as it became a symbol of postwar affluence

Civil Rights Crusade in Montgomery

Approx. 1955 - Approx. 1956

-(Montgomery Bus Boycott) Baton Rouge, Louisiana- brief boycott of the local bus system; ended after White officials agreed to grant Blacks more seats on Bus
-Rosa Parks defy the local segregation in Montgomery and Supreme Court rules the Montegomery Transit System unconstitutiona
-SCLC is Formed (Southern Christian Leadership Conference); called for the registration of black voters in the south and passive Civil Disobediance

First "Summit" Meeting

May 1955

-U.S. and U.S.S.R. attempt to improve relations
-the agreement reached to end a post-war occupation of Austria and grant its neutrality
-meetings inaugurated cultural changes

New Technology allows Soviet Surveillance

Approx. 1956

-New technology, funded by president Eisenhower, allows the U.S. to directly see soviet territory.
-symbolized the new development of aerial surveillance and U.S. fear of communist expansion

Highway Act of 1956


-Supported by president Eisenhower
- justified by National Security
-in a military emergency, supplies and personnel could speed on a superhighway/other roads
-Act funded construction of a national system of limited-access expressways
- Largest public works project resulted; providing steady work for construction firms and boosted the interstate trucking business
-confirmed the victory of automotive travel over competing modes of transit

Southern Manifesto is Signed

March 12 1956

-100 Members of the U.S. house+Senate signed this document that denounced the Courts anti-segregationist rulings as abuse of power and promised support to any state against Brown Cases
-KKK+White Citizens council reappeared

Suez Crisis

October 1956

-(1954)- Nasser took control of Egypt; promised to bring other countries to 'positive neutralism' by accepting aid from both the US AND the USSR
-Nassar purchased advanced weapons from communist Czechoslovakia and extended diplomatic recognition to communist China-> CAUSED US TO FLIP/ canceled loans and the financial assistance to Egypt.(AKA the Suez Canal)
-The Suez Canal was of economic and symbolic importance to Britain and their allies and France/Britain attacked Egypt in October and seized control of the waterway~~U.S. didn't approve of allies actions.
-RESULT: The United states and UN allowed Egypt to regain the Suez Canal, but America lost prestige and power in the area as the Soviet Union took over financing of the Aswan Dam and strengthened its ties with Nazzar.

McCarthyism officially dies!


-Congress, with a Republican in the white house, begins to reject the McCarthyite-style of anti-communism after claims against the U.S. Army
-anti-communist radicals like McCarthy strengthened the support of making National Security matters classified under the constitution

Eisenhower Doctrine


-Caused by fear of "Nasserism" spreading throughout Middle East
-Presidental pledge to defend Middle Eastern countries 'against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism'
-Middle East countries, as a result, went to the US and Britain for assistance after several coups to those countries

The Civil Rights Act of 1957


-established New procedures for expediting lawsuits by African-Americans who claimed their right to vote had been illegally abridged
-created permanent Commission on Civil Rights
-additional federal support for blacks in the south
-became law against fierce opposition from Southern Democrats
-Dramatized the difficulty of getting limited anti-discrimination measures through congress

Sputnik 1

Oct 4, 1957

-USSR launched world's first artificial Satellite, Sputnik
-heightened U.S. Spending on education
-(1958)- Schools were funded by government over 'national security,' marking a milestone of overcoming congressional opposition
-USSR responded by feeling a research and development (R & D ) effort overseen by NASA

Gaither Report, 'missile gap'

November 7, 1957

-prepared by foriegn policy analyists with close ties to defend industries
- claimed that the USSR's GNP was rising faster then the U.S. because of its fast built of its military
-urged a military build up by 25%
-blamed Eisenhower's New Look and how it wieghed too heavily on massive nuclear retaliation

Cooper vs. Aaron Case


-unanimously invalidated an Arkansas law to block integrationist efforts
-proved to rest of the world that the U.S. stood true to their beliefs of liberty and equality
-represented Ikes slipping grasp of domestic issues during his 2nd term (w/indecision)

Severe Economic Downturn

Approx. 1958 - Approx. 1959

-unemployment skyrocketed
-New Conservatives blamed on Eisenhower's lack of action on the issue

U.S. Boycotts Cuba


-Fidel Castro Overthrows Batista (U.S. Loved Dictator/Anti-communist leader) and U.S. imposed an economic boycott in result
-Castro turned to the Soviet Union, declared communist beliefs, and basically pledged to spread his beliefs throughout South America

Political Pluralism Era

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1970
  • affluence= enriching nation's political structure -believed corporate leaders were a part of 'power elite' and that that group dominated foreign/domestic American policy making post-WWII -insisted that affluence was moderating political passions -postwar pluralists praised post-war leaders for finding realistic solutions to difficult problems

New Conservative Movement


-" The Conscience of a Conservative" bu anti-Eisenhower Goldwater, head of 'new conservatives' critiqued Ike's postwar policies
- attacked anti-religious 'Higher Society' and defended capitalism and Christianity
-Angered by Eisenhower's centrist position. liberals who had "moved to the right", victory over communism rather than containment

Civil Rights Movement

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1963
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) -Student Nonviolent coordinating Committee (SNCC) -emerged from sit-in movement -(1962)- Kennedy releases Executive order banning racial discrimination in federally financed housing

The National Liberation Front is Formed

December 1960

-The National Liberation Front (NFL) is formed
- the NFL included groups that resented Diem's(anti-communist leader of Vietnam but not South Vietnam Leader-more support of US then he had of Vietnamese people) dependence on the United States, communists who demanded more extensive land reform, and politicians who thhought Diem was corruption.
-HAHA AKA. an organization BASICALLY against this one dude, Diem

John F. Kennedy Presidency

1961 - 1963

John F. Kennedy:
-conducted a global anti-communist foreign policy
-"New Frontier" Agenda
-supported critics of Eisenhower's administration and the end of racial discrimination

Bay of Pigs

April 17, 1961 - April 19 1961

-U.S. Epic Fail to coup FIdel Castro
-USSR+ Cuba tightened relationship and Cuba went on the offense against America

Berlin Wall is Built


-After JFK's refusal of giving berlin to the United States:
>became symbol of communist repression

Cuban Missle Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962

-Tension between U.S. and U.S.S.R. rise to all time high
-JFK asked U.S. Navy to 'quarantine' Cuba island after USSR was spotted sending nuclear weapons to Cuba
-USSR disabled the Soviet missiles in Cuba in exchange for the U.S. promise to not invade Cuba and withdrawal of atomic weapons in Turkey
-made U.S. and U.S.S.R. overall more cautious

"The Feminine Mystique"


-Created concept of 'Feminism'
-Kennedy supported Equal Pay act of 1963

JFK was Assassinated

November 22, 1963