Stalin

Events

Creation of Gosplan

1921

Agency that was responsible for central economic planning

Lenin's Testament

1923

Moves to power

Moves against Trotsky

1922 - 1923

Stalin becomes general party sec

1922

Formation of the Triumvirs

1922

Stalin joins Central Committee

1923

Defeat of the Left Opposition

1924 - 1927

The New Economic Policy;NEP

1925

United Opposition formed

1926

United Opposition defeated

1927

Trotsky expelled from the Politburo

1928

Economic policies

First 5 year plan

1928 - 1932

Goal= To transform the soviet union from an agricultural country to an industrialized country
Soviet workers needed to increase the output from their factories-- were expected to triple their output in steel, oil, coal, iron, and machine making
1929-- Stalin ordered that these tasks must be completed in 4 years, not 5
The first five year plan was a failure, because the outputs were well below the target numbers

Liquidation of the Kulaks

1929

Kulaks were rich peasants. Stalin called for the liquidation of the Kulak’s as a class in order to make sure that industrialization was successful.

Forced Collectivization

1930

Stalin originally tried to persuade the Kulak’s into being liquidated, but once that did not work, he introduced terror. In response to Stalin’s terror, Kulak’s often destroyed their crops and killed their animals to prevent Stalin from taking them. Additionally, in 1932 the USSR faced their worst drought in Russia’s history. Despite the drought, Stalin continued with forced collectivization, and millions died

2nd 5 year plan

1933 - 1937

Purpose= To create an entirely socialist economy
Jan 1934 plan approved by 17th party congress, but only called for higher living standards and higher production
Successful, especially in 1934-1936
Machine-production, Iron, and Steel output were incredible

Third five year plan

1938 - 1941

only lasted 3 years bc then Germany invades USSR

Plan was also a failure before Germany invades

Foreign Policies

Soviet-Polish non aggression pact

1932

Pact was broken in 1939 when the USSR invaded Poland

USSR joins the LON

1934

USSR is thrown out of LON

1939

Non-Aggression Pact with Germany

1939

Extremely surprising, since they hated each other
The pact said that neither Hitler nor Stalin would attack each other for 10 years
Stalin used it to build up army against Hitler
Hitler used it to make it easy for him to invade Poland
Secretly agreed on how E Europe would be divided
The non-aggression pact was over when Hitler invaded the USSR in 1941

Berlin Blockade

June 1948

USSR cut off all railroads, rail, and freight traffic to West Berlin
Deprived citizens of necessities such as electricity, food, and fuel for almost a year
Stalin put the blockade in place because he wanted to force his allies to change their policies--GREED!!!!

Detonation of the atomic bomb

1949

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

North Korea was under Russian control
Got permission from Stalin to invade S Korea, since wanted to reunite, and Stalin believed that the US would not protect S Korea
Escalated, because Stalin became allies with Mao, another communist
US became allies w Jiang Jeshi (originally led the nationalists and then fled to Taiwan--believed to be the “real” China)
US tried to aid the South Korean invasion in N korea, but was pushed back by Mao(ruler of commu china) since Mao believed that the US would invade through NK

Social

League of militant atheists set up

1924

job was to promote people to defy religion, and believe in Stalin
Icons were burned, anti-religious propaganda campaigns were set up
History was distorted, Soviet and russian leaders became the history that was taught in schools, which provided students with the idea that Stalin is a supreme leader--provided them with pride in their leader and in their country

Gulags

1934

By 1934, All prisons, camps, and colonies were under Gulag control
Food was scarce, working conditions were atrocious

Political

The Comintern

1933

Founded by Lenin and Trotsky
Was the formation of a government, and the goal of the new government was to stimulate and aid world communist revolution.
Led to fears of communist expansion, since Stalin adopted this plan
Stalin tried to adapt the comintern, but luckily it failed.

Formation of the NKVD

1934

Secret police

The Great Purge

1936 - 1939

Marked the beginning of the Show Trials
Trial of the 16, August 1936
NKVD claimed to have uncovered a Trotskyist-Zinovievist revolutionary conspiracy
Zinoviev, Kamenev, and 14 others were accused of plotting to try and kill Stalin and other politburo members
The 16 were then executed

Show Trials

1936 - 1938

The Great Terror

1937

Marked the pinnacle of the Great Purge. High-ranking party officials were being expelled due to being “nationalists”
Many of these officials were placed in the Gulag
Spread to the red army
High ranking military officials were accused of plotting w Trotsky, and foreign enemies to assassinate Soviet leaders

Stalin dies

1953