Exploration, discovery, and achievement. Occam's Razor, limitless universe, heliocentric theory. Less Church-dominated.
Advocated control and measurement which provided the model for experimentation in physical and psychological realm. Championed freedom of inquiry and empirical science.
Believed in divine appointment and hereditary monarchy.
"I think therefore I am". Sought unified science through power of reason. Proof of existence is ability to think, therefore we should understand how we think. Body is largely self-regulating. Addressed many of the issues between the nativist-empiricist debate. There could be elements of both.
Rejected innate knowledge in favor of experience. First British Empiricist. Children become who they are because of their enviroment. Only innate thing is pain/loss of pleasure.
Opposed mind-body dualism.
Broke things down into their individual components.
Humans have 25% innate knowledge but it is developed and enhanced by experience (the other 75% of knowledge).
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state
Knowledge is only gained through experience. External world depends on perception (matter does not exist without a mind)
Mind and body are related biologically. External objects cause small particles to vibrate nerves of the body.
"Man the Machine". Hedonistic. Only difference between man and animal is complexity of "machinery".
Humans are part of natural world and can therefore be studied scientifically.
Epistemological. A priori and a posterior
Doctrine that all natural phenomena are explicable by material causes and mechanical principles. A usually unconscious mental and emotional pattern that shapes behavior in a given situation or environment. Closely linked with materialism and reductionism, especially that of the atomists.
Universe reducible to completely mechanical principles—that is, the motion and collision of matter. Later mechanists believed the achievements of the scientific revolution had shown that all phenomenon could eventually be explained in terms of 'mechanical' laws, natural laws governing the motion and collision of matter that imply a thorough going determinism.
Man is measurable and predictable.
Neither fully natavist nor fully empiracist, this school of thought (not actually a school, I made it up) believed there were elements of both. Became incredibly common after Descartes's suggestions of dualism and continues through to Wundt. People realized that things didn't have to be "either-or" but that some/many things were "both-and".
The position that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are not identical.
The mind is a nonphysical—and therefore, non-spatial—substance. Descartes clearly identified the mind with consciousness and self-awareness and distinguished this from the brain as the seat of intelligence