Toussaint Louverture

1744 - 1803

Best-known leader for the Haitian Revolution. His military strategies saved the gains of the first black insurrection. He first fought for the Spanish against France, then against Spanish and Britain. He helped transform the insurgency into a revolutionary movement.

Steam Engine


One of the most significant industrial changes throughout the United States history. Impacted modern-day innovations for operation of steamed based pumps. Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) developed the first successful steam engine.

Reign of King Louis XVI

1774 - 1793

Last king of France heir to the throne of France. Louis brought the French Revolution crashing upon him leading to his execution.

American Revolution

1775 - 1781

War for independence between the 13 colonies and British troops. Influences political ideas and revolutions around the globe. French troops aided the 13 colonies with whom defeated the British in Yorktown.

Spinning Mule developed


Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule in 1779. Significant impact during the industrial revolution resulting of the mule, which took the moving carriage of the jenny and combined it with the rollers of Arkwrights's water frame. It gave greater control over the weaving process, spinners made different types of yarns and fine yards could be spun.

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

Venezuelan military and political leader known as "El Libertador". Leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Columbia, etc. independent of Spanish rule. Born in an aristocracy family and enlightened by Europe's Enlightment philosphers' leaders that led him to rebel against the Spanish.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Revolutionary movement that shook France's government. The revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon's charge

Cotton Gin Developed


Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. A machine that revolutionized the production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber. This invention offered Southern planters a justification to maintain and expand slavery.

Haitian Revolution

1797 - 1804

Described as the largest and the most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Ended not only slavery but French control over the colony. Revolts and outbreaks of slaves fought against the French inspired by the French Revolution.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the 19th century. He seized political power and became emperor of France in 1804. He was exiled twice but managed to return and recover power and lost power again.

Wars of Latin American Independence

1810 - 1825

Revolts in Latin America which resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries. Followed by the American and French revolutions, many were influenced to gain their own independence from monarchies.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesmen Klemens von Metternich. Their objective was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

War of Greek Independence

1821 - 1827

Known as the "Greek Independence" was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman empire. Rebellion originated from a patriotic conspiracy founded in Odessa.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

Two armed conflicts in China between the forces of the Western countries and of the Qing dynasty. 1st war between China and Britain. 2nd war known as the Arrow War or the Anglo-French War was Britain and France vs. China. The conflicts marked a state of the era of unequal treaties and other inroads on Qing sovereignty.

Berlin West Africa Conference

1845 - 1885

Series of negotiations at Berlin, in which the major European nations met to decide all questions connected to the Congo river basin in Central America.

Communist Manifesto


Political pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Presents an analytical approach to the class struggle and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future reforms.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Massive rebellion in China that lasted from 1850 to 1864. Conflict between the led-Qing dynasty and the millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. Rebellion began under the leadership of Hong Xiuguan believed himself as son of God.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Military conflict between the Russian Empire losing alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia agreed to the Treaty of Paris in 1856 which reshaped Europe's power structure.

Bessemer Processed Developed


The Bessemer Process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace. Sir Henry Bessemer inventor and engineer led to the development of the Bessemer converter.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

Indian mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India. Begun with Meerut Indian troops in the service of the British. Then it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow.

Suez Canal

1859 - 1869

The Suez Canal is a man-made sea-level waterway in Egypt. The canal connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

Political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. Attempt to create an Italy united by Democracy.

The Origin of Species


On the Origin of Species, by means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life. Work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

Emancipation of the Russian serfs


Issued by the Russian emperor Alexander II that accompanied 17 legislative acts that freed the serfs of the Russian Empire. Defeat in the Crimean War, change in the public opinion, has shown Alexander that only a reform would put equal footing with the Western powers.

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

Otto von Bismarck pushed German unification through "blood and iron" and skillful understanding of realpolitik. From Denmark to Switzerland, lay small provinces that Bismarck needed to incorporate under the Prussian crown to create a viable German Empire.

Indian National Congress


One of the two major political parties in India. The congress dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain. Mahatma Gandhi asked the leaders to dissolve Indian National Congress and form a new organization to govern the nation.

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1901

An anti-imperialist movement that took place in China towards the end of Qing dynasty. The rebels, referred by Westerners as boxers because they performed physical exercises they believed would make them able to withstand bullets. At the end, China agreed to pay 330 million in reparations.

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Great Britain defeated two African countries, Republic of Transvaal and the Orange free state. The British were weak against Boer well-armed soldiers. Boers referred to the Guerilla warfare and continued fighting and hiding till the were victorious. British surrendered at the Treaty of Vereeniging.

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

Man-made waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. This canal was key for international maritime trade.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. Russia sought for a Port on the Pacific Ocean for their navy and maritime trade. Russia's threat through empire expansion

Henry Ford and the Assembly line


First moving assembly for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation made production more effective and efficient.