The Civil War

Events

Prigg Vs Pennsylvania

1842

Margaret Morgan lived in virtual freedom and wasn't officially emancipated
Maryland
Men who were kidnapping them to sell them were caught in Pennsylvania and they plead guilty

James k. Polk Presidency

1844 - 1847

Did everything he promised, first dark horse candidate (like Lincoln)
"54 degrees 40 or fight", Conquer British Columbia and Vancouver

Texas becomes a state

1845

Manifest Destiny

1845

Idea that Westward expansion was okay and inevitable

Mexico Breaks Relations with Washington DC

1845

Texas claims Rio Grande as Border but Mexico doesn't acknowledge Texas independence. Lincoln was against the war.

Mexican War

4/25/1846 - 2/2/1848

War against Mexico declared

May 13, 1846

Plan: Zachary Taylor invades Mexico, captures Monterrey, and marches onto Mexico City, John C Fremont ordered to take California (Bear Flag Revolt)
Kearney attacks New Mexico

Wilmot Proviso

August 1846

Polk asked Congress for $2million to purchase peace with Mexico (Prior to treaty of Guadalupe/Hidalgo)
Rep. David Wilmot, PA, introduced an amendment to the bill prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
Passed in the House but failed in the Senate

California in American hands

November 1846

General Winfield Scott seizes Mexico City

September 1847

Zachary Taylor Presidency

1848 - 1850

died 1850 and Fillmore becomes President

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2, 1848

New Mexico (including Arizona) and California ceded to the United States
Rio Grande becomes Texan border
US paid Mexico $15million and assumes financial claims
Effects include the rise of the Penny Press, Zachary Taylor becomes military hero, First War Correspondence

San Francisco Gold Rush

1849

California Statehood

Millard Fillmore Presidency

1850 - 1852

Came in after Taylor's death

Fugitive Slave Law

1850

Toughened the act of 1793
Required $1000/jail if you aided fugitives in escaping
Pushed more people into abolitionist camps in the north

Compromise of 1850

1850

California = free state
New Mexico and Utah = popular sovereignty
New Mexico and Texas border dispute favors New Mexico
Texas public debt assumed by federal government
Washington DC = slave trade abolished

Personal Liberty Laws

1850

No negro or mulatto slave shall be removed from this state
Violating constitution
Not going to honor the law to return slaves

Uncle Tom's Cabin

1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Franklin Pierce Presidency

1852 - 1856

Gadsen Purchase

1853 - January 1, 1853

The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,670-square-mile region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time

Birth of Republican Party

1854

Northern whigs, northern democrats, free soilers, know nothings, other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas Nebraska act

Anthony Burns Case

1854

Boston, Slave from virginia living in Boston after escaping tracked down by the Fugitive Slave law

Kansas Nebraska Act

May 30, 1854

Steven Douglas, Illinois
Suggested keeping popular sovereignty
Railroad

Ostend Manifesto

October 18, 1854

Proposal to acquire Cuba from Spain for $120 million or if necessary by force,
Written by US diplomats in Europe. Stirred fear and anger because it was seen as a plot to extend slavery

Bleeding Kansas

1855 - 1861

Border RUffians (Pro slavery Missourians)
Lecompton, Kansas (proslavery) vs Topeka Kansas (free slavery)

Sumner/Brooks Affair

May 22 1856

Brooks attacks Sumner

Dred Scott v. Sanford

1857

Because Scott was black, he had no rights as a citizen whether he was free or slave... had no rights to sue the Supreme Court. The Constitution protects slave owners as property and the Missouri Compromise was null and void.... People could take their property anywhere

James Buchanan's Presidency

March 4 1857 - March 4 1861

Democrat

Lincoln/Douglas Debates

1858

A house divided against itself cannot stand
Douglas' seat was up for reelection
Douglas' goal was to establish Lincoln as a radical
Stephen Douglas and the Freeport Doctrine -- Popular sovereignty

John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry

October 16, 1859 - October 18, 1859

The armory Fire Engine House, John Brown's fort

Republican Party Platform

1860

Non extension of slavery for the free soilers
Protective tariff for the no. industrialists
Government aid to build a Pacific railroad for the northwest
Internal Improvements for the west at federal expense
Free homesteads for the public domain (for farmers)
No abridgement of rights for immigrants

Crittenden Compromise

December 18, 1860 - December 18 1860

Senator John J Crittenden (Know nothing from Kentucky) proposed the institution of slavery through constitutional amendments favoring the south.... Did not pass

South Carolina Seceded from the Union

December 20, 1860

Mississippi secedes

January 9, 1861

Florida Secedes

January 10, 1861

Confederate States of America

February 4, 1861 - May 5, 1865

Meeting in Montgomery, Alabama

Morrill Tariff Act

March 2 1861

Increased import tariff

Abraham Lincoln's Presidency

March 4, 1861 - April 15, 1865

Republican

Fort Sumter

April 12, 1861 - April 14, 1861

South fires the first shots since they were low on supplies. The confederacy officially starts the war with 34 hours of bombardment

Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus

May 25, 1861

Court order requiring the detainer of a prisoner bring the person in custody to court and show just cause for his detention. Protected by the constitution. WHen someone is arrested, they can't be thrown in jail and forgotten.

Battle of Bull Run

July 21, 1861

(1st Manassas)
South won. Reinforcements on the field
Use of napoleonic warfare but it was outdated because there were better guns being used
Lack of uniforms lead to more deaths on both sides.

Union commander: Irvin McDowell
Confederate Commander: PGT Beauregard

Confiscation Act

August 6, 1861

The Confiscation Act of 1861 authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property by Union forces ("property" included slaves).

Conscription Law

1862

Serve for 3 year terms (south)

Fort Henry and Fort Donelson

February 6 1862 - February 16 1862

Grant victories in Tennessee

Legal Tender Act

February 25 1862

Paper money to pay for war

Peninsula Campaign

March 1862 - July 1862

Union tries to capture Richmond, fails.

Battle of the Ironclads

March 9 1862

The Monitor vs the Merrimac, ship battle

Battle of Shiloh

April 6 1862 - April 7 1862

Tennessee
South: Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT Beauregard
Union: Ulysses S Grant
Union won
Important because it will free up Mississippi and because of the shock of the amount of casualties
Largest battle in American history to that date

Union Occupation of New Orleans

April 25 1862

David Farragut captures Fort Hudson and Baton Rouge by Sea

Homestead Act

May 20, 1862

Promises 160 acres to man if he stays and develops the land for at least 5 years

Pacific Railway Act

July 1, 1862

Driven the Golden SPike May 10, 1869, promontory Summit, Utah
Irish, Chinese, Gold Rush

Morrill Land Grant Act

July 2 1862

Grants of land to states to finance the establishment of colleges specializing in agriculture and mechanic arts

2nd Battle of Bull Run

August 30 1862

Confederate vicoty

Battle of Antietam

September 17, 1862 - september 17 1862

Bloodiest single day of the war.
Maryland
Confederate Commander: RE Lee
Union: McClellan
Winner: inconclusive but strategic union victory
Lee had to retreat because of casualties
Key because it leads to emancipation proclamation which technically didn't do anything but it sets the course for slavery

Battle of Fredericksburg

December 11, 1862 - December 15, 1862

Union Assault on the Confederates

Civil War Draft

1863

You could hire a sub for 300 bucks

Battle of Chattanooga

1863

Union controls Tennessee and begins invasion of Georgia

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1, 1863

Executive order and military strategy to injure the confederacy. Freed slaves that were in the states in rebellion against the Union. When the Union army gains control, the slaves would be emancipated. If the confederates came back to the Union, they'd get to keep the slaves. Doesn't remove slavery but started the motion. Changes why the union was fighting.

National Bank Act

February 25, 1863

The National Bank Act of 1863 was designed to create a national banking system, float federal war loans, and establish a national currency. Congress passed the act to help resolve the financial crisis that emerged during the early days of the American Civil War (1861–1865).

Battle of Chancellorsville

May 1 1863 - May 2 1863

Virginia. South: Robert E Lee. Union: Joseph Hooker. Winner: Confederacy
Loss of Stonewall Jackson

Battle of Vicksburg

May 18, 1863 - July 4, 1863

General Grant vs Lee. Terrible campaign and last hold out in Mississippi. Control of Vicksburg would give the Union all of Mississippi. Texas is cut off from the confederacy. Siege warfare. Confederates are forced to surrender and defeat of Lee's army. Fall of Vicksburg is strategically important and psychologically important

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863

Union is forced to retreat to Gettysburg and they find themselves on high ground. Day 3 is Lee's biggest mistake. Commanders: Lee vs Meade

Battle of Brownsville, Texas

November 2 1863 - November 6 1863

Last battle of the Civil War (officially), Union victory

Gettysburg Address

November 19, 1863

Cemetery in honor of battle

Final Virginia Campaign

1864 - 1865

Grant is leader of all armies and outnumbers Lee in Wilderness battle

Battle of Olustee

February 20, 1864

Florida Battle where union hoped to gain control for election

Battle of Petersburg

June 15, 1864 - June 18, 1864

Siege Warfare near Richmond

Battle of Atlanta

September 1864

Captured September 1864, news secures Lincoln's election

Sherman's March to the Sea

November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864

Lincoln puts Grant in charge and Grant puts Sherman in charge. Grant attacks DC and Sherman will drive a wedge in the south in GA and Alabama. Total War. Capture of Chattanooga and Union takes control. COnfederates are forced to retreat to outside of Atlanta. Sherman continues to pursue the confederates as they get closer to Atlanta

13th Amendment

Jan 31 1865

Abolished Slavery

Surrender at Appomattox

April 9, 1865

Lincoln's Assassination

April 14, 1865

John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater